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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920652

ABSTRACT

@#An HPLC pre-column derivatization detection method was established to detect and analyze the formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 20 from different manufacturers.The effects of aldehyde and acetaldehyde on the aggregation of adalimumab under different conditions were monitored.Based on the control of genotoxic impurities and the influence on the stability of monoclonal antibody preparations, the control limits of the two chemicals were preliminarily obtained.2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2, 4-DNPH) was applied as the derivatization reagent in HPLC pre-column derivatization; acetonitrile and water were used as mobile phase to perform a gradient elution on a C8 (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) chromatographic column.The detection wavelength was 360 nm, and the external standard method was used for quantification.Verification results showed that the method was suitable for the quantitative analysis of trace formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 20 . The detection and analysis of formaldehyde or acetaldehyde in different batches of polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 20 from different manufacturers showed that the content of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were quite different. The content of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in polysorbate 80 were significantly higher than those of polysorbate 20. After monitoring the changes of adalimumab aggregates treated by formaldehyde and acetaldehyde by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), it was found that the effect of formaldehyde on adalimumab aggregation was significantly higher than that of acetaldehyde.According to the requirements of ICH M7 (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, M7: Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential Carcinogenic Risk), the impurity limits of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in polysorbate 80 and polysorbate 20 for monoclonal antibody preparations were calculated from the perspective of risk assessment.Combined with the influence on the aggregation stability of monoclonal antibodies, the preliminary limis for acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde were recommended to be ≤ 7 μg/g and ≤ 765 μg/g, respectively.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genotypes and prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia in couples of childbearing age in Quanzhou, Fujian Province.@*METHODS@#Blood routine and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed for initial thalassemia screening in 76 328 couples in Quanzhou region from July 2017 to July 2020. The couples with positive initial screening results further underwent thalassemia gene test. Couples carrying homotypic thalassemia genes underwent prenatal diagnosis in the second trimester.@*RESULTS@#Among 76 328 couples of childbearing age, 1 809 couples of positive initial thalassemia screening were identified, with the positive rate about 2.37%. Further results of genetic detection of the 1 809 couples showed that 985 cases were diagnosed as α- thalassemia, of which --sea/αα was the most frequency, followed by -α3.7/αα and ααQS/αα; 296 cases were diagnosed as β-thalassemia, the most frequency mutations were 654M/N and 41-42M/N; 26 cases of compound α and β-thalassemia were detected. In addition, 3 rare cases of thalassemia were detected, including --THAI/αα, SEA-HPFH, and -α6.9/--sea. Among them, 108 couples were confirmed as homologous thalassemia, with the detection rate about 5.97%, including 96 couples of homologous α-thalassemia, 9 couples of homologous β-thalassemia, and 3 couples with one had compound α- and β-thalassemia. Among them, 17 couples with homologous α-thalassemia underwent prenatal diagnosis in the second trimester, of which 1 case of Hb Bart's Hydrops Syndrome, 3 cases of HbH disease, 9 cases of silent thalassemia or α-thalassemia minor, and 4 cases of healthy fetuses were detected. Fetal chromosome karyotype analysis showed that 16 cases were normal and 1 case diagnosed as Down syndrome.@*CONCLUSION@#Thalassemia screening in pre-marital and pre-pregnancy, and prenatal diagnosis can effectively reduce the birth of children with thalassemia intermediate and thalassemia major. It is necessary to perform chromosome karyotype analysis at the same time as prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia gene in order to avoid fetus with abnormal chromosome.


Subject(s)
Child , China , Female , Genetic Testing , Genotype , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the efficacy of children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) without prognostic fusion genes treated by CCLG-ALL 2008, and investigate the related factors affecting the recurrence of the patients.@*METHODS@#B-ALL patients without prognostic fusion genes treated by the protocol of CCLG-ALL 2008 in our hospital from March 2008 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-up time was ended in August 31, 2019. The median follow-up time was 92 months (range 0-136 months). Kaplan-Meier was used to detect the RFS, and COX multivariate regression analysis was employed to identify the independent factors affecting the recurrence of the patients.@*RESULTS@#There were 140 males and 99 females enrolled in this study. The ratio of male to female was 1.41∶1. The median age was 4.4 years old and the median number of WBC at initial stage was 4.98×109/L. There were 77 cases relapsed during the observation while 162 without relapsed, 16 cases lost to follow-up and 72 cases died. The recurrence and mortality rate was 32.22% and 30.1%, respectively, in which 45 cases died of recurrence (62.5% of the total deaths). Univariate analysis showed that the age≥6 years old, WBC >100×109/L, the bone marrow blasts on day 15≥25%, the bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) at week 12 >10-4, and the higher risk were the main factors affecting the recurrence of the patients (P<0.05). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that age≥6 years old, WBC >100×109/L, bone marrow MRD >10-4 at the 12th week were the independent risk factors affecting recurrence of the patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Age, initial WBC, and bone marrow MRD at the 12th week were correlated with recurrence in children with B-ALL without prognostic fusion genes, which can be used as prognostic indices of recurrence risk in clinical.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927916

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the effect of co-amorphous technology in improving the dissolution rate and stability of silybin based on the puerarin-silybin co-amorphous system prepared by the spray-drying method. Solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD), polarizing microscopy(PLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC), etc. Saturated powder dissolution, intrinsic dissolution rate, moisture absorption, and stability were further investigated. The results showed that puerarin and silybin formed a co-amorphous system at a single glass transition temperature which was higher than that of any crude drug. The intrinsic dissolution rate and supersaturated powder dissolution of silybin in the co-amorphous system were higher than those of the crude drug and amorphous system. The co-amorphous system kept stable for as long as three months under the condition of 40 ℃, 75% relative humidity, which was longer than that of the single amorphous silybin. Therefore, the co-amorphous technology could significantly improve the dissolution and stability of silybin.


Subject(s)
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Desiccation , Drug Compounding/methods , Drug Stability , Silymarin , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Technology , X-Ray Diffraction
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923357

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the epidemiological characteristics of the dynamic changes of serum FT3, FT4, and TSH levels in patients with hemorrhagic stroke under the age of 45, and to discuss the prognostic evaluation effects and influencing factors of these indicators. Methods From January 2017 to January 2020, 227 patients with multicenter hemorrhagic stroke in our hospital were selected for analysis. Collect and analyze prognosis (death, rebleeding, no adverse prognosis) at baseline and 12 months of follow-up; monitor serum FT3, FT4, and TSH levels during treatment at the same time during follow-up, 7 days after treatment, and 14 days after treatment. Observe the trend characteristics of dynamic changes. The assay method is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the end of the follow-up, the subjects were divided into three groups: death, rebleeding, and no adverse prognosis according to the prognostic outcome of the 12-month short-term follow-up. The epidemiological characteristics of patients with different prognosis and the dynamic change trend of FT3, FT4 and TSH in the same serum were compared. The interconnectedness. Results There were no statistically significant differences in gender and age between the three groups (P>0.05), but the differences in hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia were statistically significant (P0.05). The FT4 level of the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group at all times (P0.05). The TSH level of the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group at all times (P0.05). With the decrease of the patient's age, the serum FT3 level has a gradually increasing trend, and the serum FT4, TSH level, mortality and rebleeding rate have a gradually decreasing trend (P<0.05). Conclusion The continuous decrease of FT3 level and the continuous increase of FT4 and TSH levels are potentially associated with the poor prognosis of patients with hemorrhagic stroke, which is worthy of clinical attention.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1100-1107, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To study clinical situation and influential factors for prognosis of drug-i nduced acute kidney injury (DIAKI)in Chinese population ,and to provide reference for early detection ,early intervention and prognosis improvement of DIAKI. METHODS :Retrieved from PubMed ,Embase,Cochrane Library ,CNKI,Wanfang database and VIP ,clinical studies related to DIAKI were collected during the inception to Apr. 16th,2020. After the data extraction and quality evaluation of included studies,the results were analyzed descriptively ,and Meta-analysis was carried out by Rev Man 5.3 software. RESULTS :A total of 29 studies were included ,including 1 870 patients. The results showed that DIAKI accounted for 32.2%(877/2 721)of the patients developed AKI in the same period. Antibacterial drugs were the main cause of DIAKI ,accounting for 47.5%(773/1 629). The top five drugs by case number were classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics ,diuretics or dehydrating agents ,cephalosporin antibiotics,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and traditional Chinese medicine. The pathological type of DIAKI was mainly acute interstitial nephritis ,accounting for 51.9%(70/135). The mortality of DIAKI patients was 14.4%(240/1 677). A total of 70.4%(1 176/1 670)of patients had renal recovery. Compared with conservative treatment ,the mortality of patients receiving dialysis treatment was significantly lower [OR =0.30,95%CI(0.10,0.91),P=0.003]. Compared with patients without anemia , patients with anemia had a significantly delayed renal recovery [OR =0.25,95%CI(0.09,0.65),P=0.004]. Lower levels of retinol binding protein was significantly related to rapid renal recovery [MD =-15.84,95%CI(-22.34,-9.34),P<0.01]. CONCLUSIONS:Clinicians need to continuously strengthen antibiotic management and use drugs that induce AKI with caution. For patients with DIAKI ,receiving dialysis treatment as soon as possible may help reduce mortality. Timely correction of the basic anemia status of patients with DIAKI will help patients withrapid renal recovery ,and lower retinol binding protein levels may be a potential biomarker for predicting patients ’rapidrenal recovery.

7.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 385-388, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875703

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors of the first batch of college students returning to school during COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide scientific basis for taking corresponding measures.@*Methods@#An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among the first batch of college students returning from a certain university by cluster sampling, which included general demographic characteristics, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI).@*Results@#The detection rate of sleep disorders was 19.33%(522/2 701). The mother s education level was high school or technical secondary school or below(OR=2.24, 95%CI=1.47-3.41), never eat breakfast(OR=3.25, 95%CI=1.86-5.68), families were damaged during the outbreak (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.17-1.87) and negative coping (OR=1.15, 95%CI=1.12-1.17) were risk factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05). Compared to having a very poor relationship with parents, the relationship between parents was average(OR=0.23, 95%CI=0.06-0.89), better(OR=0.23, 95%CI=0.06-0.87), very good (OR=0.19, 95%CI=0.05-0.74) were protective factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05). Exercise once or twice a week during the epidemic(OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.58-1.00), positive coping (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.91-0.96) were protective factors for sleep disorders(P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#In this COVID-19 epidemic, the sleep quality of returning college students was affected to different extent, and the relationship between parents, sports, mother s education, breakfast habits, and family damage during the COVID-19 were factors affecting their sleep quality. Targeted psychological intervention measures should be given to returning college students in the early stage.

8.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1781-1784, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906804

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze delay in student pulmonary tuberculosis(PTB) case finding and associated factors in Suzhou, and to provide a reference for tuberculosis outbreak prevention and control in schools.@*Methods@#A total of 1 148 students with PTB who registered and were treated in Suzhou from 2011 to 2020 were included. Kruskal Wallis H test, 2 test and Cochran Armitage trend test were used to analyze the time trend of case finding delay. Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between admission characteristics and case finding delay.@*Results@#Among the students with PTB, a total of 569 cases were found to be delayed. The rate of delay was 49.6%, and the median delay time was 26(11-49) days. From 2011 to 2020, the difference in case finding interval of students with PTB was statistically significant( Hc=54.62, P <0.05), and the difference in case finding rate was also statistically significant( χ 2=53.69, P <0.05). The rate of delay fluctuated, with an overall upward trend over time( Z=-3.67, P < 0.05). Clinical consultation( OR=5.57, 95%CI =1.91-16.27), positive etiology ( OR=1.46, 95%CI =1.14-1.86) were positively correlated with case finding delay(all P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#There are significant delays in case finding among students with PTB in Suzhou. Clinical consultation and positive etiology are associated with case finding delay. In response to the growing problems in daily school tuberculosis prevention and control, multiple departments should cooperate to implement relevant measures and to reduce the occurrence of case finding delay.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905280

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the structural differences in series scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) in Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety. Methods:From January, 2016 to December, 2017, 180 inpatients with Parkinson's disease in Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Beijing Tiantan Hospital were reviewed. Their age, gender, course of disease were recorded, and were assessed with HAMA, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPDRSIII),Hoehn-Yahr stage and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). They were divided into non-anxiety group, possible anxiety group, anxiety group and very anxiety group according to the scores of HAMA. The demographics, clinical data and series scores of HAMA were compared among these groups. The correlation between HAMA and HAMD were anlyzed. Results:The course of disease, UPDRSIII scores and the most improvement ratio by drug increased with the severities of anxiety (F > 4.951, P < 0.001), as well as the series scores of HAMA (F > 188.241, P < 0.001); however, the proportion of psychogenic anxiety score increased with the severities of anxiety. The scores of HAMA correlated with the scores of HAMD (r = 0.665, P < 0.05). Conclusion:The more serious the anxiety is, the more psychogenic are in Parkinson's disease patients.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905213

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the structural differences and the trend in series scores of Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods:From June, 2017 to March, 2018, 168 PD patients from Beijing Tiantan Hospital were reviewed. Their genders, ages, courses of disease, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores, unified Parkinson's disease rating scale III (UPDRS III) scores,Hoehn-Yahr stage and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, the most improvement ratios by PD drug and other clinical data were collected. The patients were divided into non-depression group (n = 61), mild depression group (n = 68) and moderate depression group (n = 39) according to the HAMD scores. The series scores of HAMD among the groups were compared. Results:The factor scores all increased with depression exacerbating (F > 10.546, P < 0.001), except day and night change in the mild depression group, while the proportion of anxiety/somatization score decreased, and the proportion of cognitive disorder and retardant scores increased. Conclusion:The depression structure changes in PD patients with depression exacerbating, which means decrease of anxiety/somatization and increase of cognitive disorder and retardant.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905077

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between phase behavior of curcumin (CUR) from self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system (SNEDDS) and stability of the formed nanoemulsion in artificial gastrointestinal fluid. Method:The growth rate of precipitation after dispersion of CUR-SNEDDS was expressed by the change tendency of CUR supersaturation-time curve. The effect of drug loading on crystal nucleation and growth was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry and polarized light microscope, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to analyze the precipitation forms of CUR-SNEDDS with different drug loading in artificial gastrointestinal fluid. At the same time, the effect of drug loading on the quality stability of nanoemulsion formed by CUR-SNEDDS in artificial gastrointestinal fluid was investigated. Result:In the artificial gastrointestinal fluid, with the increase of drug loading, the area under the supersaturation-time curve of CUR was increased (100% drug loading≈90% drug loading>75% drug loading), the crystallization nucleation and growth rate were accelerated (100% drug loading>90% drug loading>75% drug loading), the amorphous proportion in the precipitation composition decreased, the nanoemulsion droplets adhered and distributed unevenly, the particle size and dispersivity were increased. Conclusion:High drug loading promotes the nucleation and growth of crystals, and increases the proportion of crystal forms in the precipitation composition, which leads to the decrease in the stability of the formed nanoemulsion. Therefore, it is suggested that the drug loading of CUR-SNEDDS needs to be controlled below 90%.

12.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 1198-1202, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911857

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis is a common fungal meningitis that may present with an abnormal immune response during effective antifungal therapy and is called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Similar phenomenon can also be seen in non-HIV patients with normal immune function in the past. Paradoxical clinical and/or imaging deterioration occurs due to strong immune response during treatment, which is called post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome. At present, it has not attracted attention. This complication is an important cause of poor prognosis in non-HIV patients. Early identification and treatment of post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome is of great significance. This article will review its possible pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, risk prediction, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1063-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886991

ABSTRACT

Abnormal aggregation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in brain plays a vital role in the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, inhibiting Aβ aggregation is one major tactic for therapy of AD. Previous studies have found that tolcapone can inhibit Aβ42 aggregation and reduce the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregates, but clinical studies have found that tolcapone has strong liver toxicity. To reduce the liver toxicity of tolcapone, its side chain structure was modified to obtain its derivative phenethyl (E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4 dihydroxy-5-nitrobenzene)-acrylate (PCDNA). Thioflavin T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assays were used to explore the inhibitory effect of PCDNA on Aβ42 fibrillogenesis. The cytotoxicity assays were used to explore the inhibitory effect of PCDNA against the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregates. In addition, the depolymerization effect of PCDNA on mature Aβ42 fibrils was also explored. Finally, molecular docking was used to explore the interaction between PCDNA and Aβ42 pentamer. These results lay the foundation for the study of the structural analogues of tolcapone as Aβ inhibitors.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the efficacy of CCLG-ALL-2008 protocol and the related factors of treatment failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 400 children newly-diagnosed ALL in Children's Hospital of Soochow University from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was retrospectively analyzed. All the children accepted CCLG-ALL-2008 protocol, and were followed-up until October 2019. The dates of relapse, death and causes of death were recorded. Treatment failure was defined as relapse, non-relapse death, and secondary tumor.@*RESULTS@#Following-up for 10 years, there were 152 cases relapse or non-relapse death, the treatment failure rate was 38%, including 122 relapse (80.3%), 30 non-relapse deaths (19.7%) which included 7 cases (4 cases died of infection and 3 cases died of bleeding) died of treatment (23.3% of non-relapse deaths), 8 cases died of minimal residual disease (MRD) continuous positive (26.7% of non-relapse deaths) and 15 cases died of financial burden (50% of non-relapse deaths). According to the relapse stage, 37 cases (30%) in very early stage, 38 cases (31%) in early stage, and 47 cases (39%) in late stage, while according to the relapse site, 107 cases relapsed in bone marrow, 3 cases in testis, 3 cases in central nervous system (CNS), 5 cases in bone marrow plus testis and 4 cases in bone marrow plus CNS. Bone marrow relapse was the main cause of death in 89 cases, followed by nervous system. Initially diagnosed WBC count (≥50×10@*CONCLUSION@#Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure in children with ALL. The initially diagnosed WBC count, immunophenotype and MRD at week 12 were the independent prognostic factors for relapse of the patients. Financial burden accounts for a large proportion of non-relapse death.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Male , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure , Treatment Outcome
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879012

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effects of Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate(HPMCAS MF) on absorption of silybin(SLB) from supersaturable self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system which was pre-prepared at the early stage experiment. The cell toxicity of self-emulsifying preparation was evaluated by the MTT method, and the in vitro membrane permeability and absorption promoting effect of the self-emulsifying preparation were evaluated by establishing a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The in vivo and in vitro supersaturation correlation was evaluated via the blood concentration of SLB. The results of MTT showed that the concentration of the preparation below 2 mg·mL~(-1)(C_(SLB) 100 μg·mL~(-1)) was not toxic to Caco-2 cells, and the addition of polymer had no significant effect on Caco-2 cells viability. As compared with the solution group, the transport results showed that the P_(app)(AP→BL) of the self-emulsifying preparation had a very significant increase; the transport rate of silybin can be reduced by polymer in 0-30 min; however, there was no difference in supersaturated transport between supersaturated SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SSNEDDS) and SLB self-nanoemulsion drug delivery system(SLB-SNEDDS) within 2 hours. As compared with SLB suspension, pharmacokinetic parameters showed that the blood concentration of both SLB-SNEDDS and SLB-SSNEDDS groups were significantly increased, and C_(max) was 5.25 times and 9.69 times respectively of that in SLB suspension group, with a relative bioavailability of 578.45% and 1 139.44% respectively. C_(max) and relative bioavailability of SLB-SSNEDDS were 1.85 times and 197% of those of SLB-SNEDDS, respectively. Therefore, on the one hand, SSNEDDS can increase the solubility of SLB in gastrointestinal tract by maintaining stability of SLB supersaturation state; on the other hand, the osmotic transport process of SLB was regulated through the composition of its preparations, and both of them could jointly promote the transport and absorption of SLB to improve the oral bioavailability of SLB.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Drug Delivery Systems , Emulsions , Humans , Methylcellulose/analogs & derivatives , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Silymarin , Solubility
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878946

ABSTRACT

To verify the appropriate preparation process of extracts for the solid substance benchmark of Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The extracts were prepared by different preparation processes, namely the traditional process(process 1), the extract combined with volatile oil separated from traditional process extract liquid(process 2), the modern secondary reflux extraction process(process 3) and the process that volatile oil was extracted first, then prepared according to the traditional process, and combined with extract(process 4); based on the characteristic spectrum, index components of cinnamaldehyde, glycyrrhizin, ammonium glycyrrhizinate, cinnamic acid, and the dry extract rate of process 1, the differences and similarities of four extracts were compared. The results showed that the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 2, process 4 and process 1 were all greater than 0.97, while there was no significant difference for the content of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate; the similarity of the characteristic spectrum of process 3 and process 1 was 0.91, the absolute peak area of 13 out of 21 peaks and the relative peak area of 7 peaks increased significantly, and the content of 3 out of 4 quality control components and dry extract rate also significantly increased. In conclusion, the material standards of extracts by the process 2 and 4 are consistent with that of the traditional process, so the two processes are suitable.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Oils, Volatile , Quality Control , Reference Standards
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876298

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the general situation, smoking status, smoking cessation status and one-month follow-up examination in Shanghai, providing scientific basis for further effective development of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai. Methods A total of 841 smokers who visited the smoking cessation clinic from 2016 to 2018 were investigated and 725 patients were followed up one month later.The data thus obtained were analyzed by SPSS software. Results In general, of the visiting patients in 2018, 91.3% were male, 50.6% were 35-55 years old, 57.1% had educational background in primary school or below, and 60.2% were employees of enterprises, businesses and service industries.In terms of smoking, 44.1% of the patients smoked 10-20 cigarettes a day, 34.6% smoked for 10-20 years, and 38.6% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes after getting up.With regards to the situation of smoking cessation, 72.1% of the patients tried to quit smoking before going to the clinic; 14.8% of the patients used electronic cigarettes to help quit smoking; 33.9% learned about the smoking cessation clinic through the doctors; 61.4% decided to quit smoking because they were concerned about their health and the health of their family members.According to the follow-up, the rate of quitting smoking in one month in 2018 was 48.8%;44.0% of the patients believed that their own determination was the key to quit smoking; 46.2% of the patients who failed to quit smoking believed that if they tried to quit smoking again, the biggest obstacle was the onset of smoking addiction. Conclusion The establishment of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai can help patients quit smoking.However, there are still some problems in this regard.In view of the characteristics of the patients going to the smoking cessation clinic, we should find out the weaknesses in the propaganda of the smoking cessation clinic in time.For example, it is found that there are fewer smoking women, less educated and less farmers visiting the clinic; according to the smoking situation of the patients, we should clearly focus on updating the service quality of the smoking cessation clinic; proceeding from the follow-up situation, we should find out the the approach to the construction and perfection of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876297

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the 1-year follow-up effect of smoking cessation contest among government functionaries in Shanghai in 2015, providing evidence and basis for the effective intervention of smoking cessation. Methods A case-control study design was used for those who had quit smoking periodically, and their 1-year smoking cessation situation was investigated. Results At the 1-year follow-up after the contest, the relapse rate was 19.70%, of which 79.49% occurred within 2 months after quitting smoking.The main causes of relapse were the peer pressure and attack of smoking addiction. Conclusion After the smoking cessation contest, the 1-year follow-up relapse rate is at a low level, which indicates the contest among government functionaries in Shanghai in 2015 is effective.Education level is found to be a risk factor for relapse.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876280

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the general situation, smoking status, smoking cessation status and one-month follow-up examination in Shanghai, providing scientific basis for further effective development of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai. Methods A total of 841 smokers who visited the smoking cessation clinic from 2016 to 2018 were investigated and 725 patients were followed up one month later.The data thus obtained were analyzed by SPSS software. Results In general, of the visiting patients in 2018, 91.3% were male, 50.6% were 35-55 years old, 57.1% had educational background in primary school or below, and 60.2% were employees of enterprises, businesses and service industries.In terms of smoking, 44.1% of the patients smoked 10-20 cigarettes a day, 34.6% smoked for 10-20 years, and 38.6% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes after getting up.With regards to the situation of smoking cessation, 72.1% of the patients tried to quit smoking before going to the clinic; 14.8% of the patients used electronic cigarettes to help quit smoking; 33.9% learned about the smoking cessation clinic through the doctors; 61.4% decided to quit smoking because they were concerned about their health and the health of their family members.According to the follow-up, the rate of quitting smoking in one month in 2018 was 48.8%;44.0% of the patients believed that their own determination was the key to quit smoking; 46.2% of the patients who failed to quit smoking believed that if they tried to quit smoking again, the biggest obstacle was the onset of smoking addiction. Conclusion The establishment of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai can help patients quit smoking.However, there are still some problems in this regard.In view of the characteristics of the patients going to the smoking cessation clinic, we should find out the weaknesses in the propaganda of the smoking cessation clinic in time.For example, it is found that there are fewer smoking women, less educated and less farmers visiting the clinic; according to the smoking situation of the patients, we should clearly focus on updating the service quality of the smoking cessation clinic; proceeding from the follow-up situation, we should find out the the approach to the construction and perfection of smoking cessation clinics in Shanghai.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876279

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the 1-year follow-up effect of smoking cessation contest among government functionaries in Shanghai in 2015, providing evidence and basis for the effective intervention of smoking cessation. Methods A case-control study design was used for those who had quit smoking periodically, and their 1-year smoking cessation situation was investigated. Results At the 1-year follow-up after the contest, the relapse rate was 19.70%, of which 79.49% occurred within 2 months after quitting smoking.The main causes of relapse were the peer pressure and attack of smoking addiction. Conclusion After the smoking cessation contest, the 1-year follow-up relapse rate is at a low level, which indicates the contest among government functionaries in Shanghai in 2015 is effective.Education level is found to be a risk factor for relapse.

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