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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876708


Objective To assess the burden of clonorchiasis and identify its temporal and spatial changes in China, thus to provide insights into the control and prevention of the diseases. Methods The disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was employed as the primary indicator for the disease burden. The prevalence data of Clonorchis sinensis infection were obtainted from the three national surveys on important human parasitic diseases in China, conducting during the period from 1988 to 1922, from 2001 to 2004 and from 2014 to 2016, respectively, and the demographic data from National Bureau of Statistics of China. DALYs of clonorchiasis were calculated and the temporal changes were analyzed at both national and provincial levels, using the disability weight (DW) obtained from a community study in China. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to compare the resulted DALYs of China calculated under the method adopted in this study and that calculated with other commonly used methods. Results The national burden of clonorchiasis was 489174.04 [95% confidence interval (CI): (391648.87, 597509.87)] DALYs in China in 2016, indicating 0.36 [95% CI: (0.28, 0.43)] DALYs per 1 000 populations. The regions with a high burden of clonorchiasis were concentrated in southern China and northeastern China, and the provinces with the three highest burdens of clonorchiasis included Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong Province and Heilongjiang Province, which accounted for 91.18% of total burdens of clonorchiasis in China. During the periods of the three national surveys on important human parasitic diseases in China, the national burden of clonorchiasis was found to show a tendency of first rise and then decrease in China; however, the burden of clonorchiasis has recently shown a tendency towards a rise in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province and Jiangxi Province. Sensitivity analysis showed that the calculation of diseases burden with age-stratified prevalence of clonorchiasis was similar to that of our method without age stratification; however, the burden estimates calculated only based on the DW of the severe symptoms were much lower than our estimates. Conclusions The burden of clonorchiasis is high in China, with a large regional difference. Recently, the overall burden of clonorchiasis has shown a tendency of decline in China; however, there is a tendency towards a rise in some provinces. Therefore, the control of clonorchiasis requires more adaptations to local circumstances.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873742


Objective To investigate the spatial-temporal characteristics of reported schistosomiasis cases in China from 2004 to 2017, so as to provide insights into the development of different schistosomiasis control strategies at various stages. Methods The monthly data of reported schistosomiasis cases at a provincial level of China from 2004 to 2017 were collected from the Public Health Science Data Center, and the spatial-temporal distribution of reported schistosomiasis cases was preliminarily identified using a descriptive statistical method. According to the goals at different stages proposed by the National Mid- and Long-term Program for Schistosomiasis Prevention and Control in China (2004—2015), a Bayesian interrupted time-series model was established to analyze the provincial reported incidence, time trend and seasonal variations of schistosomiasis in China at different stages. Results The reported schistosomiasis cases were mainly concentrated in 5 provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hubei and Hunan and 2 provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan in China from 2004 to 2017, and the number of reported cases in endemic areas decreased gradually. The incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases predominantly peaked during the period from May to September in the marshland and lake regions, while no regular seasonality was seen in hilly regions. Bayesian interrupted time-series analysis showed the peak incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases in 4 provinces of Anhui, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi between May and September and in Jiangsu Province from July to November; however, no regular seasonal cycle was identified in hilly regions. The number of reported schistosomiasis cases showed a tendency towards an increase in 2 provinces of Hubei and Hunan from 2008 to 2014, with a minor peak during the period between March and April, and since 2015, the seasonality was not remarkable any longer in 3 provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu and Jiangxi with a decline in the incidence of reported schistosomiasis cases, while the seasonality remained in Hubei Province. Conclusions The spatial-temporal characteristics of schistosomiasis in China, notably seasonality, vary at different control stages. Bayesian interrupted time-series model is effective to identify the spatial-temporal changes of schistosomiasis, and the schistosomiasis control strategy may be adjusted according to the spatial-temporal changes to improve the schistosomiasis control efficiency.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793314


Objective To describe the current situation of diarrhea in children under five years old in Nepal and to explore its influencing factors. Methods Data were collected from the open-access database, Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys in 2006, 2011 and 2016. Chi-square ( 2) and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare difference of potential risk factors between groups with and without diarrhea. Multiple Logistic regression model was adopted to identify significant influencing factors on diarrhea in children under five years old in Nepal. Results In 2006, 2011 and 2016, the incidence of diarrhea children under five in Nepal was 12.3%, 13.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Univariate analysis of the potential influencing factors showed that there were significant differences in the gender, water source, toilet facilities and fuel type, age of children, age of mother when she gave birth to the child and education years of mother and children with and without diarrhea (all P<0.05). Multiple analysis revealed that improved toilet facilities (OR=0.874, 95% CI: 0.769-0.994, P=0.041) and the age of children(OR=0.613, 95% CI: 0.580-0.645, P<0.001) were protective factors of childhood diarrhea, and the risk of boys was higher than that of girls(OR=1.277, 95% CI: 1.147-1.423, P<0.001). Conclusions From 2006 to 2016, the incidence of diarrhea in children under five years old in Nepal was decreasing. Toilet facilities, age of children and gender of children were identified as the influencing factors of childhood diarrhea.