Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Immune Network ; : e44-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898554

ABSTRACT

The human body is continuously threatened by pathogens, and the immune system must maintain a balance between fighting infection and becoming over-activated. Mucosal surfaces cover several anatomically diverse organs throughout the body, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and are directly exposed to the external environment.Various pathogens invade the body through mucosal surfaces, making the mucosa the frontline of immune defense. The immune systems of various mucosal tissues display distinctive features that reflect the tissues' anatomical and functional characteristics. This review discusses the cellular components that constitute the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; in particular, it highlights the complex interactions between epithelial and immune cells to induce Ag-specific immune responses in the lung and gut. This information on mucosal immunity may facilitate understanding of the defense mechanisms against infectious agents that invade mucosal surfaces, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and provide insight into effective vaccine development.

2.
Immune Network ; : e44-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890850

ABSTRACT

The human body is continuously threatened by pathogens, and the immune system must maintain a balance between fighting infection and becoming over-activated. Mucosal surfaces cover several anatomically diverse organs throughout the body, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and are directly exposed to the external environment.Various pathogens invade the body through mucosal surfaces, making the mucosa the frontline of immune defense. The immune systems of various mucosal tissues display distinctive features that reflect the tissues' anatomical and functional characteristics. This review discusses the cellular components that constitute the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; in particular, it highlights the complex interactions between epithelial and immune cells to induce Ag-specific immune responses in the lung and gut. This information on mucosal immunity may facilitate understanding of the defense mechanisms against infectious agents that invade mucosal surfaces, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and provide insight into effective vaccine development.

3.
Immune Network ; : e37-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717671

ABSTRACT

Silk peptide, the hydrolysate of silk protein derived from cocoons, has been employed as a biomedical material and is believed to be safe for human use. Silk peptide display various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial. Although earlier investigations demonstrated that silk peptide stimulates macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its effect on natural killer (NK) cell function has not yet been explored. In this study, we initially confirmed that silk peptide enhances NK cell activity in vitro and ex vivo. To assess the modulatory activity of silk peptide on NK cells, mice were fed various amounts of a silk peptide-supplemented diet for 2 months and the effects on immune stimulation, including NK cell activation, were evaluated. Oral administration of silk peptide significantly enhanced the proliferation of mitogen- or IL-2-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, oral silk peptide treatment enhanced the frequency and degree of maturation of NK cells in splenocytes. The same treatment also significantly enhanced the target cell cytolytic activity of NK cells, which was determined by cell surface CD107a expression and intracellular interferon-γ expression. Finally, oral administration of silk peptide stimulated T helper 1-type cytokine expression from splenic lymphocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that silk peptide potentiates NK cell activity in vivo and could be used as a compound for immune-modulating anti-tumor treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Administration, Oral , Cytokines , Diet , In Vitro Techniques , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Silk
4.
Immune Network ; : e21-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715080

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a contagious coronavirus infecting pigs that leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Given that PEDV infection occurs in gut epithelial cells mainly via the fecal-oral route, induction of PEDV-specific immune responses in the mucosal compartment is required for protective immunity against viral infection. However, an effective mucosal vaccine against the currently prevalent PEDV strain is not available. In this study, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike (S) protein of PEDV represents a new vaccine candidate molecule to be applied via the mucosal route. We first established an Escherichia coli expression system producing the partial NTD (NTD231–501) of the PEDV S protein. Orally administered NTD231–501 protein specifically interacted with the apical area of M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patch. Additionally, the NTD protein induced antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal immune compartments when administered orally. Collectively, we propose the NTD of the PEDV S protein to be a candidate mucosal vaccine molecule.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Escherichia coli , Immunity, Mucosal , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812124

ABSTRACT

Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice. Initial analysis of intestinal damage indicated that the administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng significantly decreased the severity of colitis, compared with the control and the activity was higher than that induced by oral administration of ginseng powder or probiotics only. Subsequent analysis of the levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α, inflammatory biomarkers that are increased at the initiation stage of colitis, were significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups in comparison to the control group. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and mRNAs for inflammatory factors in colorectal tissues were also significantly decreased in probiotic-fermented red ginseng-treated groups. Collectively, oral administration of probiotic-fermented red ginseng reduced the severity of colitis in a mouse model, suggesting that it can be used as a uniformly effective red ginseng product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Administration, Oral , Colitis , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Colon , Allergy and Immunology , Dextran Sulfate , Disease Models, Animal , Fermentation , Interleukin-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Lactobacillus plantarum , Metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Panax , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microbiology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Powders , Metabolism , Probiotics , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allergy and Immunology
6.
Immune Network ; : 437-450, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-10874

ABSTRACT

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which are recognized for their primary function of presenting an antigen to the T cell receptor, are involved in various signaling pathways in B cell activation. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2B1 as an MHC class II molecule-associated protein involved in MHC class II-mediated signal transduction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated 38B9 B cells. Although the function of hnRNP A2B1 in the nucleus is primarily known, the level of hnRNP A2B1 in the cytoplasm was increased in LPS-stimulated 38B9 cells, while it was not detected in the cytoplasm of non-treated 38B9 cells. The silencing of hnRNP A2B1 expression using siRNA disturbed B cell maturation by regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, NF-κB activation, and protein kinase B activation. These results suggest that hnRNP A2B1 is associated with MHC class II molecules and is involved in B cell activation signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated 38B9 cells.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Cytoplasm , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Protein Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , RNA, Small Interfering , Signal Transduction
7.
Immune Network ; : 228-236, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22202

ABSTRACT

In the intestinal mucosal surface, microfold cells (M cells) are the representative gateway for the uptake of luminal antigens. At the same time, M cells are the primary infection site for pathogens invading mucosal surface for their infection. Although it is well recognized that many mucosal pathogens exploit the M cells for their infection, the mechanism to infect M cells utilized by pathogens is not clearly understood yet. In this study, we found that M cells expressing complement 5a (C5a) receptor (C5aR) also express Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 and TLR4. Infection of Yersinia enterocolitica, an M cell-invading pathogen, synergistically regulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) signaling which are involved in signal crosstalk between C5aR and TLRs. In addition, Y. enterocolitica infection into M cells was enhanced by C5a treatment and this enhancement was abrogated by C5a antagonist treatment. Finally, Y. enterocolitica infection into M cells was unsuccessful in C5aR knock-out mice. Collectively, we suggest that exploit the crosstalk between C5aR and TLR signaling is one of infection mechanisms utilized by mucosal pathogens to infect M cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adenosine , Complement C5a , Complement System Proteins , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Mice, Knockout , Phenobarbital , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a , Toll-Like Receptors , Yersinia enterocolitica , Yersinia
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43949

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the most successful immunological practice that improves the quality of human life and health. Vaccine materials include antigens of pathogens and adjuvants potentiating the effectiveness of vaccination. Vaccines are categorized using various criteria, including the vaccination material used and the method of administration. Traditionally, vaccines have been injected via needles. However, given that most pathogens first infect mucosal surfaces, there is increasing interest in the establishment of protective mucosal immunity, achieved by vaccination via mucosal routes. This review summarizes recent developments in mucosal vaccines and their associated adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Methods , Needles , Vaccination , Vaccines
9.
Immune Network ; : 140-145, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168213

ABSTRACT

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Altitude , Colon , Ecosystem , Fermentation , Food, Organic , Fungi , Homicide , Insecta , Killer Cells, Natural , Larva , Lymphocytes , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Paecilomyces , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Immune Network ; : 44-49, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220543

ABSTRACT

Interactions between microbes and epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract are closely associated with regulation of intestinal mucosal immune responses. Recent studies have highlighted the modulation of mucosal immunity by microbe-derived molecules such as ATP and short-chain fatty acids. In this study, we undertook to characterize the expression of the ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M cells and its role in gastrointestinal mucosal immune regulation because it was poorly characterized in Peyer's patches, although purinergic signaling via P2X7R and luminal ATP have been considered to play an important role in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present the first report on the expression of P2X7R on M cells and characterize the role of P2X7R in immune enhancement by ATP or LL-37.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Epithelial Cells , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gastrointestinal Tract , Immunity, Mucosal , Peyer's Patches , Phenobarbital , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161404

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most successful applications of immunology and for a long time has depended on parenteral administration protocols. However, recent studies have pointed to the promise of mucosal vaccination because of its ease, economy and efficiency in inducing an immune response not only systemically, but also in the mucosal compartment where many pathogenic infections are initiated. However, successful mucosal vaccination requires the help of an adjuvant for the efficient delivery of vaccine material into the mucosa and the breaking of the tolerogenic environment, especially in oral mucosal immunization. Given that M cells are the main gateway to take up luminal antigens and initiate antigen-specific immune responses, understanding the role and characteristics of M cells is crucial for the development of successful mucosal vaccines. Especially, particular interest has been focused on the regulation of the tolerogenic mucosal microenvironment and the introduction of the luminal antigen into the lymphoid organ by exploiting the molecules of M cells. Here, we review the characteristics of M cells and the immune regulatory factors in mucosa that can be exploited for mucosal vaccine delivery and mucosal immune regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Administration, Oral , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Peyer's Patches/cytology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
12.
Immune Network ; : 157-162, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77565

ABSTRACT

Application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. In particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from FMDV transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where FMDV infection has been initiated, which is hardly achievable through parenteral immunization. Given that effective delivery of vaccine materials into immune inductive sites is prerequisite for effective oral mucosal vaccination, M cell-targeting strategy is crucial in successful vaccination since M cells are main gateway for luminal antigen influx into mucosal lymphoid tissue. Here, we applied previously identified M cell-targeting ligand Co1 to VP1 of FMDV in order to test the possible oral mucosal vaccination against FMDV infection. M cell-targeting ligand Co1-conjugated VP1 interacted efficiently with M cells of Peyer's patch. In addition, oral administration of ligand-conjugated VP1 enhanced the induction of VP1-specific IgG and IgA responses in systemic and mucosal compartments, respectively, in comparison with those from oral administration of VP1 alone. In addition, the enhanced VP1-specific immune response was found to be due to antigen-specific Th2-type cytokine production. Collectively, it is suggested that the M cell-targeting strategy could be applied to develop efficient oral mucosal vaccine against FMDV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Administration, Oral , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Imidazoles , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lymphoid Tissue , Nitro Compounds , Phenobarbital , Vaccination
13.
Immune Network ; : 165-175, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226029

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent infectious diseases. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the first areas where infections are established, and therefore have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa ideal sites for vaccine application. Moreover, vaccination through the mucosal immune system could induce effective systemic immune responses together with mucosal immunity in contrast to parenteral vaccination, which is a poor inducer of effective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Among mucosal vaccines, oral mucosal vaccines have the advantages of ease and low cost of vaccine administration. The oral mucosal immune system, however, is generally recognized as poorly immunogenic due to the frequent induction of tolerance against orally-introduced antigens. Consequently, a prerequisite for successful mucosal vaccination is that the orally introduced antigen should be transported across the mucosal surface into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). In particular, M cells are responsible for antigen uptake into MALT, and the rapid and effective transcytotic activity of M cells makes them an attractive target for mucosal vaccine delivery, although simple transport of the antigen into M cells does not guarantee the induction of specific immune responses. Consequently, development of mucosal vaccine adjuvants based on an understanding of the biology of M cells has attracted much research interest. Here, we review the characteristics of the oral mucosal immune system and delineate strategies to design effective oral mucosal vaccines with an emphasis on mucosal vaccine adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Biology , Communicable Diseases , Immune System , Immunity, Mucosal , Lymphoid Tissue , Mucous Membrane , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a , Vaccination , Vaccines
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186140

ABSTRACT

Corn, one of the most important forage crops worldwide, has proven to be a useful expression vehicle due to the availability of established transformation procedures for this well-studied plant. The exotoxin Apx, a major virulence factor, is recognized as a common antigen of Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. In this study, a cholera toxin B (CTB)-ApxIIA#5 fusion protein and full-size ApxIIA expressed in corn seed, as a subunit vaccine candidate, were observed to induce Apx-specific immune responses in mice. These results suggest that transgenic corn-derived ApxIIA and CTB-ApxIIA#5 proteins are potential vaccine candidates against A. pleuropneumoniae infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Actinobacillus Infections/microbiology , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cholera Toxin/chemistry , Hemolysin Proteins/immunology , Immunization, Secondary , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plants, Genetically Modified , Zea mays/genetics
15.
Mycobiology ; : 48-52, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729209

ABSTRACT

Essential oils are mixtures of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Some essential oils have useful biological activities including antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiplasmodial, and insect-repelling activities. In this study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of essential oil prepared from the aromatic plant, Cymbopogon citrates, against three important plant pathogenic and medical microorganisms, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Aspergillus niger. It effectively inhibited the growth of the bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, in a dose-dependent fashion, and 0.5% of the oil inhibited the growth of bacteria completely. Similarly, the essential oil inhibited the growth of plant pathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the addition of 1% of essential oil completely inhibited the growth of fungus even after 5 days of culture. Finally, it effectively inhibited the growth of the medically and industrially important fungal species, Aspergillus spp. These results suggest that the essential oil from Cymbopogon citrates may be an environmentally safe alternative to inhibit antimicrobial agents for various uses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Aspergillus , Aspergillus niger , Bacteria , Citrates , Colletotrichum , Cymbopogon , Fungi , Oils, Volatile , Pectobacterium carotovorum , Plants
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210998

ABSTRACT

We previously induced protective immune response by oral immunization with yeast expressing the ApxIIA antigen. The ApxI antigen is also an important factor in the protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 infection; therefore, the protective immunity in mice following oral immunization with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing either ApxIA (group C) or ApxIIA (group D) alone or both (group E) was compared with that in two control groups (group A and B). The immunogenicity of the rApxIA antigen derived from the yeast was confirmed by a high survival rate and an ApxIA-specific IgG antibody response (p < 0.01). The highest systemic (IgG) and local (IgA) humoral immune responses to ApxIA and ApxIIA were detected in group E after the third immunization (p < 0.05). The levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 after challenge with an A. pleuropneumoniae field isolate did not change significantly in the vaccinated groups. The level of TNF-alpha increased in a time-dependent manner in group E but was not significantly different after the challenge. After the challenge, the mice in group E had a significantly lower infectious burden and a higher level of protection than the mice in the other groups (p < 0.05). The survival rate in each group was closely correlated to the immune response and histopathological observations in the lung following the challenge. These results suggested that immunity to the ApxIA antigen is required for optimal protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Actinobacillus Infections/prevention & control , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/genetics , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Hemolysin Proteins/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Intestines/immunology , Lung/cytology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71821

ABSTRACT

Oral vaccination may be the most efficient way of inducing an immune response at the remote mucosal site through the common mucosal immune network. Antigenspecific secretory IgA (sIgA) is the major immunoglobulin type generally detected in the secretions of experimental animals following an effective oral immunization. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causing disease in the lung of pig initially interacts, colonizes, and infects the host tissues at the mucosal surface of the respiratory tract. Also, importantly for A. pleuropneumoniae protection, the quantity of sIgA in the lung had merits associated with the mucosal immunity. However, there is no simple method to monitor the level of sIgA as an indicator for the induction of local immune responses by an oral vaccination in the target tissue. Therefore, the relationship between sIgA and IgG was analyzed to evaluate the induction of local immune responses by an oral immunization with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the apxIA and apxIIA genes of A. pleuropneumoniae in this study. The correlation coefficient of determination (r2 x 100) for paired samples in both vaccinated and control groups showed a significant positive-relationship between IgG in sera and sIgA in the lung or intestine. These results indicated that IgG antibody titers in sera could be useful to indirectly predict local immune response, and sIgA, in the lung or intestine to evaluate the efficacy of an oral vaccination.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Administration, Oral , Antigens, Fungal/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Hemolysin Proteins , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Intestine, Small/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76971

ABSTRACT

Immunization with dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with tumor antigen can activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which is responsible for tumor protection and regression. In this study, we examined whether DCs pulsed with necrotic tumor lysates can efficiently prevent malignant melanoma tumor cell metastasis to the lung. DCs derived from mouse bone marrow were found to produce remarkably elevated levels of IL-12 after being pulsed with the tumor lysates. Moreover, immunization with these DCs induced CTL activation and protected mice from metastasis development by intravenously inoculated tumor cells. In addition, these DCs activated NK cells in vitro in a contact-dependent manner, and induced NK activities in vivo. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before DC vaccination significantly reduced the tumor-specific CTL activity, IFN-g production, and IFN-gamma- inducible gene expression, and eventually interfered with the antitumor effect of tumor-pulsed DCs. Finally, similar findings with respect to NK cell dependency were obtained in the C57BL/ 6J-bg/bg mice, which have severe deficiency in cytolytic activity of NK cells. These data suggest that the antitumor effect elicited by DC vaccination, at least in a B16 melanoma model, requires the participation of both cytolytic NK and CD8+ T cells. The findings of this study would provide important data for the effective design of DC vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interleukin-12/biosynthesis , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Melanoma, Experimental/immunology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins/biosynthesis , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79777

ABSTRACT

A few members of coronavirus group I which includes porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) use porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) as a cellular receptor. Cellular receptors play an important role in virus attachment and entry. However, the low permissiveness of PEDV to APN-expressing porcine cell lines has made it difficult to elucidate the role of pAPN in vitro. The purpose of this study was to prove whether the treatment of soluble pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs, rabbits and sows. The animals (20 guinea pigs, 8 rabbits and 20 sows) were divided into 4 groups. Group A was injected intramuscularly (IM) with soluble pAPN at one hour before intramuscular infection of PEDV on the same site, group B for IM simultaneous injection of pAPN and PEDV, and group C for IM injection of PEDV only. Group D served as a control of pAPN treatment or PEDV infection. Antibody production against PEDV was compared among groups at regular intervals. The results suggested that pAPN could enhance the antibody production against PEDV in guinea pigs and rabbits which are free of pAPN, however, the effect of pAPN treatment in sows was not clearly elucidated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rabbits , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , CD13 Antigens , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Guinea Pigs , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Injections, Intramuscular , Solubility , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Vero Cells/virology
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115363

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Infection of PTFE hemoaccess is the gravest complication associated with these devices. Infection most commonly results in premature access failure. Other potential complications of graft infections include: bleeding, systemic sepsis, limb ischemia from interruption of the arterial supply, bacterial endocarditis, or even death. This study was undertaken to evaluate the major pathogen and the appropriate treatment modality, according to the time of the infection occurrence. METHODS: Between February 1996 and May 2002, sixty PTFE hemoaccess infections were treated by the same surgeon at Soonchunhyang University Hospital. All the patients' records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Four cases developed a PTFE hemoaccess infection within one month of their construction, and were treated with the total removal and new access formation of the contralateral arm. The other fifty-six cases occurred after one month; twenty-six were treated with the removal and new access formation, eighteen with segmental resection and interposition, seven with incision and drainage, and five with antibiotics only. In the four cases that developed within one month, two developed infectious complications and one died. Whereas, in the fifty-six cases that developed after one month, five cases developed infectious complications and four died. Twenty-four cases of thirty nine graft infections with being checked culture test for bacteria were due to Staphylococcus aureus, with sensitivity to vancomycin. CONCLUSION: The managements of the PTFE hemoaccess infections were influenced by the time the infection occurred. Graft infections that occur within one month should be treated aggressively, with total removal. Infections that occur after one month could be selected for a salvage operation. The causative organism of a graft infection is Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin is the drug of choice.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arm , Bacteria , Drainage , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Extremities , Hemorrhage , Ischemia , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Staphylococcus aureus , Transplants , Vancomycin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL