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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275814


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for determining glyphosate in the air of workplaces by ion chromatography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ultra-fine glass fiber filter paper was used to collect glyphosate from the workplace air. After being ultrasonically eluted with deionized water, samples were determined by ion chromatography using a conductivity detector.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Within the range of 0.05-1.00 mg/L, a linear relationship was found with a limit of detection of 0.003 mg/m(3). The minimum detectable concentration was 0.000 41 mg/m(3) (calculated by sampling 75 L of air). For three different concentrations of glyphosate, the intra-batch relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.8%, 1.6%, and 0.8%, respectively, and the inter-batch RSDs were 1.9%, 2.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. The recovery rate ranged from 94.8% to 97.4%. The elution efficiency ranged from 94.5% to 96.7%. The sampling efficiency was 100%. Samples could be stored at room temperature for at least 7 days.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This presented method meets the requirements of Guide for establishing occupational health standards-Part 4: Determination methods of air chemicals in workplace and is feasible for determination of glyphosate in the air of workplaces.</p>

Air Pollutants, Occupational , Chromatography, Gas , Glycine , Workplace
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320322


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess the current status of the acrylamide in the Chinese food supply, the dietary acrylamide exposure in the Chinese population and to estimate the public health risks of the current consumption.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The acrylamide content in the total diet study (TDS) food samples was analyzed using an LC-MS/MS method. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure calculations were performed using a deterministic method, combining mean acrylamide concentrations from the food group composite with their associated food consumptions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Acrylamide was detected in 43.7% of all samples collected and acrylamide concentration varied from ND to 526.6 µg/kg. The estimated dietary intakes of acrylamide among Chinese general population given as the mean and the 95th percentile (P95) were 0.286 and 0.490 µg•kg(-1) bw•day(-1), respectively. The margins of exposure (MOEs) for the population calculated using both benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a 10% extra risk of tumors in animals (BMDL10) 0.31 and 0.18 µg•kg(-1) bw•day(-1), were 1069 and 621 for the mean dietary exposure, and 633 and 367 for the high dietary exposure respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These MOE values might indicate a human health concern on acrylamide for Chinese population. Efforts should continue to reduce acrylamide levels in food in order to reduce the dietary risks to the human health.</p>

Acrylamide , Chemistry , China , Diet , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants , Chemistry , Food Analysis , Food Contamination , Humans
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291551


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop the dietary exposure evaluation model software accredited of Chinese intellectual property rights and to verify the rationality and accuracy of the results from the probabilistic model in Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model software according to international standards.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The software of SAS was used to build various evaluation model based on the data from Chinese dietary survey and the chemical compound in food surveillance and to design an operation interface. The results from probabilistic dietary exposure model for children 2 - 7 years old were compared with that from duplicate portion study of 2-7 years children dietary exposure in Jinhu, Jiangsu province in order to analyze the rationality of model. The results from probabilistic model of dietary exposure were compared with the results from @Risk software to verify the correction of the probabilistic model by using the same data of randomly selected 10 000 study subjects from national dietary survey. While, the mean drift was used as an internal index to illustrate the accuracy of the computation.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Chinese dietary exposure evaluation software was developed successfully. On the rationality, the results from probabilistic model were lower than that from the point estimation (e.g., cucumber: the result of point estimation of acephate was 4.78 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of probabilistic model which was 0.39 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). Meanwhile the results from probabilistic model were higher than the results of duplicate portion study (on the P95, the result of probabilistic model of Pb exposure in children was 11.08 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 5.75 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). On accuracy, the results from @Risk and the probabilistic model were highly consistent (on the P95, the result of probabilistic assessment of acephate diet exposure was 4.27 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), while the results of duplicate portion study was 4.24 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), and the mean drift was of random distribution, the drift region varied from 0.05% to 11.9%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results computed by the software of Chinese dietary exposure evaluation model are reliable and reasonable, which is a meaningful step to improve the dietary exposure evaluation technique in China.</p>

Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consumer Product Safety , Diet , Humans , Models, Statistical , Software Design , Software Validation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291531


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the resident dietary cadmium exposure in Jiangsu province and assess its safety.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cadmium concentration of 229 food items under 12 food groups were obtained from the food surveillance program in Jiangsu province between 2001 and 2006. Food consumption data of 778 food items of 3938 residents who were classified into four age groups (< 7, 7-, 13-, 18-) were got from the Nutrition and Health Status Survey of the Jiangsu resident in 2002 by 24 h dietary recall on three consecutive days. Dietary cadmium exposures for the residents of different age groups were obtained by using both point estimation and simple distribution estimation through integrating the two datasets above. The safety of dietary cadmium exposure was assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Point estimation showed that the average dietary cadmium intakes of different age groups ranged from 5.7 to 8.6 microg/kg, accounting for 567.1% - 857.1% of the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI, 1.0 microg/kg). Result of simple distribution method showed mean daily cadmium exposure of different age groups ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 microg/kg, accounting for 20% - 40% of PTDI. Mean weekly cadmium exposure ranged from 1.4 to 2.5 microg/kg, accounting for 20% - 35.7% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, 7.0 microg/kg). The mean daily dietary cadmium exposure for different groups were as follows: < 7, 0.4 microg/kg; 7-, 0.3 microg/kg; 13-, 0.2 microg/kg; 18-, 0.2 microg/kg. Differences of daily dietary cadmium exposures among groups were significant (F = 69.0, P < 0.05). The mean weekly dietary cadmium exposure for different groups were: < 7, 2.5 microg/kg; 7-, 2.0 microg/kg; 13-, 1.4 microg/kg; 18-, 1.4 microg/kg. Differences of weekly dietary cadmium exposures among groups were also significant (F = 41.6, P < 0.05). The P97.5 of daily cadmium exposure for < 7 and 7- were 1.4 and 1.2 microg/kg, respectively, both of which were higher than PTDI. The P99.0 of daily cadmium exposure for 13- and 18- were 1.3 and 1.1 microg/kg, respectively. The daily dietary exposure from cereals for different age groups were 21.5 - 253.4 microg/kg, occupying 42.2% - 47.8% of the total daily exposure. Vegetables were 8.0 - 119.4 microg/kg, occupying 14.6% - 20.1%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The average level of dietary cadmium exposures for residents in Jiangsu province calculated by simple distribution estimation were much lower than that calculated by point estimation and were considered to be at no risk. P97.5 or P99.0 of daily or weekly dietary cadmium exposure of different age groups exceeded PTWI and PTDI. The main food types of dietary cadmium exposure were cereals and vegetables.</p>

Adolescent , Cadmium , Child , Diet , Environmental Exposure , Food Contamination , Humans , Risk Assessment