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1.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 588-591, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-509985

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the basic situation of pharmacy staff in the hospitals in Beijing Xicheng district. Methods:Totally 12 hospitals in Xicheng district were investigated by a questionnaire( including the age,educational degree and professional title of phama-cists) , and the obtained information was classified, gathered and counted, and the evaluation and recommendation were also performed after the combination with regulations and actual work. Results:There were 385 persons working in the pharmacies of the 12 hospitals, which accounted for 7. 56 % of the total health professionals. Among them, 67. 02% were under the age of 40, 83. 11%were undergraduates or specialists, 84. 93% had primary or intermediate titles, 3. 38% had finished standardized training, and 4. 68%were clinical pharmacists. Conclusion:The composition of pharmacy staff can not match the national requirements. It is necessary to optimize the structure of pharmacy staff, improve the level of education, and strengthen the standardized training and clinical pharma-cist training in order to promote the career competence of pharmacists.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-480987

ABSTRACT

Objective To measure the dose to the primary operator and assistant operators by employing eight beam projections commonly used in coronary angiography with and without radiation protection shields in order to supply helpful guidance on radiation protection in cardiac intervention.Methods From 20 to 180 cm above the ground at the primary and assistant operators' locations,a DoseAware personal dose meter was placed in terms of an increment of 20 cm to measure radiation dose.Eight commonly used beam projections were performed,including LAO (left anterior oblique) 45°,RAO (right anterior oblique) 30°,CRAN (cranial)25°,cranial LAO (LAO45°/25°),caudal LAO(LAO45°/ 25°),CAUD (caudal) 25°,cranial RAO (RAO30°/25°),caudal RAO (caudal RAO30°/25°).Under the two different conditions,with or without radiation protection shields,the doses to the operators in the selected beam projections were respectively recorded at nine measuring positions and the shielding factor were calculated.Results The primary operator was effectively protected with radiation protection shields.In the standing area of the primary operator,except for the position at the height of 120 cm (radiation dose rate:0.35-4.78 mSv/h;shielding factor:27.67%-89.33%),the shielding factor for each measuring position was above 91%.Higher radiation doses were found at caudal LAO,LAO,and cranial LAO.The shielding factor for the assisting operator was lower than for the primary operator.In the standing area of the assisting operator (radiation dose rate:0.27-1.86 mSv/h;shielding factor:30.34%-92.13%),the peak levels were found at the height of 80,100,140 cm.And caudal RAO,caudal LAO,CRAN,LAO were found to have received higher radiation doses.Conclusions Emphasis should be attached to the use of radiation shields in coronary angiography.With radiation protection shields,higher dose is still recorded in caudal LAO,LAO,cranial LAO,caudal RAO.Furthermore,it should be paid more attention to radiation protection at 80-140 cm height,and less prolonged exposure should be employed in those beam projections mentioned above.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-467909

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the radiation protective efficacy of different types and the positions of ceiling-suspended lead shield to the principal and assistant interventional operators in order to provide a scientific basis for the selection of optimal scheme in using ceiling-suspended lead shield. Methods At the principal and assistant interventional operators’ standing places the personal dose-measuring instruments were set up, which were placed at the height of 20 cm to 180 cm above the ground with an interval distance of 20 cm between each other. The postero-anterior (PA) projection and left lateral projection were used. The ceiling-suspended protection lead shields included lead glass (glass type) and lead glass with connected lead flexible stripe below (mixed type). The placed sites of the protection lead-shields were close to the principal operator, away from the principal operator, on the left side of the principal operator and close to the X-ray tube respectively. The radiation doses of PA projection and left lateral projection were determined. The real-time radiation dose rate and dose shielding rate at the nine measuring positions for the principal operator and assistant operator were separately calculated. The results were analyzed. Results The radiation protection of the glass type was slightly superior to that of the mixed type , but the difference was not significant. The principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned close to him in the PA projection , and for left lateral projection the principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned on his left side. For the assistant operator, the optimal protection was obtained when the shield was positioned close to him in both PA and left lateral projection . In the optimal position of ceiling-suspended lead shield , the highest radiation dose rate (0.71 mSv/h in glass group and 1.07 mSv/h in mixed group) was recorded on the principal operator at the height of 120 cm at PA projection, and higher radiation dose rate (≥0.47 mSv/h) was recorded on every point of both operators at the left lateral projection. Meanwhile , the overall received radiation doses of the two groups were very close. At the principal operator standing area , except for the position of 120 cm height (attenuation ratio 60.11% in glass group and 39.89% in mixed group), the attenuation ratio of each measuring point was above 93%. And the assistant operator standing area the attenuation ratio was 57%-97%. The lateral shielding ratio was generally slightly higher than PA shielding ratio. Conclusion The radiation protection effect of the two type shields is quite similar, both shields can obtain excellent protection efficacy. But the radiation dose at the height of 120 cm above the ground at PA projection is higher for the principal operator, while at lateral projection the radiation dose at all height levels is still relatively higher for both operators. Therefore, the radiation protection at the level of 120 cm height needs to be strengthened and the lateral projection exposure should be used as less as possible.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-465010

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the radiation protective efficacy of different types and the positions of ceiling-suspended lead shield to the principal and assistant interventional operators in order to provide a scientific basis for the selection of optimal scheme in using ceiling-suspended lead shield.Methods At the principal and assistant interventional operators’ standing places the personal dose-measuring instruments were set up, which were placed at the height of 20 cm to 180 cm above the ground with an interval distance of 20 cm between each other.The postero-anterior (PA) projection and left lateral projection were used.The ceiling-suspended protection lead shields included lead glass (glass type) and lead glass with connected lead flexible stripe below (mixed type).The placed sites of the protection lead-shields were close to the principal operator, away from the principal operator, on the left side of the principal operator and close to the X-ray tube respectively.The radiation doses of PA projection and left lateral projection were determined.The real-time radiation dose rate and dose shielding rate at the nine measuring positions for the principal operator and assistant operator were separately calculated.The results were analyzed.Results The radiation protection of the glass type was slightly superior to that of the mixed type, but the difference was not significant.The principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned close to him in the PA projection, and for left lateral projection the principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned on his left side.For the assistant operator, the optimal protection was obtained when the shield was positioned close to him in both PA and left lateral projection.In the optimal position of ceiling-suspended lead shield, the highest radiation dose rate (0.71 mSv/h in glass group and 1.07 mSv/h in mixed group) was recorded on the principal operator at the height of 120 cm at PA projection, and higher radiation dose rate (≥0.47 mSv/h) was recorded on every point of both operators at the left lateral projection.Meanwhile, the overall received radiation doses of the two groups were very close.At the principal operator standing area, except for the position of 120 cm height (attenuation ratio 60.11% in glass group and 39.89% in mixed group), the attenuation ratio of each measuring point was above 93%.And the assistant operator standing area the attenuation ratio was 57%-97%.The lateral shielding ratio was generally slightly higher than PA shielding ratio.Conclusion The radiation protection effect of the two type shields is quite similar, both shields can obtain excellent protection efficacy.But the radiation dose at the height of 120 cm above the ground at PA projection is higher for the principal operator, while at lateral projection the radiation dose at all height levels is still relatively higher for both operators.Therefore, the radiation protection at the level of 120 cm height needs to be strengthened and the lateral projection exposure should be used as less as possible.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-423558

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate commence time of liver specific phase on Sonazoid contrastenhanced ultrasound.Methods Rats were administrated with saline (n =6),SonoVue (n =24) and Sonazoid(n =24),respectively.Liver perfusion was performed at 2 min,5 min,10 min and 20 min in situ.Changes of liver enhancement caused by perfusion were quantitatively analyzed.Results Degree of liver enhancement without administration of contrast agent increased after perfusion.In SonoVue group,liver enhancement decreased after perfusion at 2 min and 5 min and increased at 10 min and 20 min significantly.In Sonazoid group,liver enhancement decreased dramatically at 2 min after perfusion,but no changes were found at 5 min,10 min and 20 min after perfusion.Conclusions Liver specific phase on Sonazoid CEUS can begin as early as 5min after administration of contrast agent.

6.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 159-161, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-472802

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage in hematological diseases to improve the recognition of them. Methods Thirty-one clinical data of intracranial hemorrhage cases with hematological diseases were reviewed. The basic diseases, clinical and radiological manifestations, and risk factors of mortality were analyzed. Results Intracranial hemorrhage usually occurred in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP),and 13 and 6 cases, respectively, in this group. Most patients presented with headache, restlessness, nausea,vomiting, conscious disturbance and no localization sign by physical examination. CT or MRI images often revealed focus of errlysis. Compared with CT scan, a higher detection rate of ICH could be realized by MRI scan. The total mortality in this group of ICH patients was 71% (22/31). Fever, white blood cell >5×109/L,platelet <50×109/L, hyperimmunoglobulinemia and disturbance of blood coagulation were risk factors for ICH of this group of patients. The mortality was higher in patients with no less than 2 risk factors[86.4 % (19/22)vs 33.3 % (3/9)] (x2 = 8.718, P = 0.003). Conclusion ICH is a serious complication for hematological patients. MRI scan is good at improving the diagnosis of ICH. It is of high risk of death in patients with no less than 2 risk factors such as fever, white blood cell higher than 5×109/L, platelet less than 50×109/L,hyperimmunoglobulinemia and disturbance of blood coagulation.

7.
Chinese Journal of Nephrology ; (12): 884-889, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-428211

ABSTRACT

Objective To interpret the clinicopathological features and the key factors for diagnosis of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN).Methods Clinicopathological data of 13casesof polyomavirus-associatednephropathyduring2008-2011inour hospitalwere retrospectively analyzed.Three cases received repeat biopsy.The clinicopathological features were analyzed according to thelight microscopicsceneandSV40-Timmunochemicalexpression.Results Recipients had a peak incidence of PVAN in 12 to 18 months period after renal transplantation,accompanied by elevated serum creatinine.Due to the progression of the disease,3patterns of histological findings could be identified.The early lesion was confined to the collected ducts,with slightly inflammatory infiltration in medullary interstitium,viral inclusions were not necessarily seen.The only findings could be enlarged nuclear and irregular arrangement of the tubular epithelial cells.At the developing stage,prominent tubulointerstitial nephritis was detected,and the involved tubules extended to other segments of renal tubule,even the parietal epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule could be compromised.The epithelial cells shed off,leading the tubular basement membrane exposed.Typical intra-nuclear inclusions as well as variable nuclear changes were found.At the end stage,the allograft showed notable chronic tubulointersititial change,with diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis.Although in this period,typical viral inclusions were rare, stillIHCshowedpositiveexpression of SV40-T. After immunosuppressantreductionor exchange,2 cases developed renal failure,4 cases showed sustained increment in serum creatinine,while 7 cases had a stabilized serum creatinine level.Conclusions Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy can display uneven pathological changes,as well as the morphology of the infected epithelial cells.Segments of the involved tubule are associated with the course of disease.Reduction of immunosuppressant at the early stage has a favorable effect.A prompt renal biopsy should be done in renal transplant recipient if who shows increased serum creatinine,and a routine polyomavirus immunohistochemical staining should be applied as well.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-421361

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the feasibility and method of Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. Methods Liver cirrhosis was induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride to male wistar rats. Both conventional ultrasound and Sonazoid-CEUS were applied to each rat, respectively. Qualitative and quantitive analysis were performed, and the diagnostic performance of Sonazoid-CEUS on diagnosis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis were analyzed. Results Twenty four rats were divided into three groups as group 1 (normal liver, n =5),group 2(fibrotic liver, n =6) and group 3 (cirrhotic liver, n =13). The Kupffer phase findings of Sonazoid-CEUS were as following: the enhancement level of normal liver was significantly higher than those of fibrotic/cirrhotic liver, and the difference between liver and spleen of fibrotic/cirrhotic liver was larger than those of normal liver with significant difference. Sonazoid-CEUS showed higher performance on diagnosis of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis than conventional US, with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 84.2%, 100% and 87.5%,respectively. The quantification data of liver and spleen further proved the characteristic findings of normal liver,fibrotic liver and cirrhotic liver in Kupffer phase. Conclusions Decrease of liver enhancement and increase of the difference between spleen and liver during Sonazoid-CEUS Kupffer phase are the typical findings of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis.

9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1157-1164, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292157

ABSTRACT

To establish a refolding process for the protein fused with 12-peptide of hirudin and reteplase (HV12p-rPA), we developed an anion-exchange chromatography assisted method to form correct disulfide bonds. After evaluating various parameters by orthogonal experiments with Q Sepharose XL as refolding medium, we found that urea gradient, sample loading size and L-Arg concentration were three major factors to affect the refolding outcomes, and urea gradient was critical to the recovery yield. Meanwhile, enzymatic activity of the refolded protein was decreased by the increase of sample loading size, and the optimal concentration of L-Arg in the eluting buffer was 1 mol/L. Thus, a dual-gradient of urea and pH on the anion-exchange chromatography resulted in remarkable increase of specific fibrinolytic and anti-coagulative activities of the refolded protein. Compared with the dilution method for refolding HV12p-rPA, the present approach was more effective and advantageous.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Methods , Disulfides , Chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents , Chemistry , Hirudins , Chemistry , Protein Refolding , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Chemistry , Recombinant Proteins , Chemistry , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Chemistry
10.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 587-589,599, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-601662

ABSTRACT

Objective To improve the recognition of diagnosis, treatment and leukemia transformation of primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Methods One case with PMF which transformed into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was reported and the literatures on this topic were reviewed. Results The patient was diagnosed according to the 2008 version of the WHO classification of PMF leukemia transformation was diagnosed after 2.5 years. The JAK2 V617F gene mutation was detectable both before and after leukemia transformation. The outcome of low dose chemotherapy could keep a short time. Conclusion JAK2 V617F gene could remain detectable after leukemia transformation in PMF patients. It is difficult to control the disease progress by low dose chemotherapy.

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