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1.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 196-199, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a radioactive sewage purification device that can effectively filter the nuclides in low-level nuclide-contaminated wastewater. METHODS: The radioactive sewage purification device was composed of lifting pump, stack filter, multi-medium filter, security filter, tubular ultrafiltration membrane, high-pressure pump and reverse osmotic membrane. The combined process of adsorption-ultrafiltration-reverse osmosis was used to separate radioactive elements from wastewater by reverse osmosis membrane separation system. Through two-stage multi-medium filter circulation system circulation treatment, radioactive sewage was purified. The flow rate of water treatment is 20 L/min. The filtration efficiency and purification efficiency of the device were tested by filtration experiments on elements containing radionuclide and purification experiments on radionuclide.RESULTS: The filtration efficiency on iodine, potassium, strontium and cesium, that are the common elements in radioactive sewage samples were 97.88%, 98.38%, 99.99% and 99.80%, respectively. The single purification efficiency of radionuclide ~(40)K in low-level radioactive sewage was over 90.00%. CONCLUSION: The device has high filtering efficiency for common elements such as iodine, potassium, strontium and cesium in sewage and high removal rate of radioactive activity for sewage containing ~(40)K. It can be further optimized and transformed into a suitable radioactive sewage water purifier.

2.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 354-358, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881805

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the long-term prognosis of patients with occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene( OMDT) after recovery. METHODS: A total of 185 patients with OMDT were surveyed through landline and correspondence after recovery. Based on the individual's wishes,19 patients( follow-up examination group)were followed up and arranged for health examination in hospital. RESULTS: Seventy-one cases of OMDT was successfully follow-up. The success rate was 38. 4%( 71/185). Among the 71 cases who were successfully followed up,64. 8%( 46/71)cases complained of physical discomfort. The main complain included skin itching,allergy,upper respiratory tract infection or frequent fever,xerophthalmus,osteonecrosis of femoral head. The 19 cases in the follow-up examination group had different degrees of skin itching,dryness and mild melanosis. The abnormal rates of schirmer I test were 42. 1%( 8/19)and 52. 6%( 10/19) in the left and right eye,respectively. The abnormal rate of tear break-up time in both left and right eyes was 84. 2%( 16/19). The highest positive rate of patch test was chloral hydrate( 100. 0%). There was no abnormality in body temperature,superficial lymph nodes,blood routine,urine routine,liver function and autoimmunity antibody. There was no new rash. CONCLUSION: Different degree of long-term prognosis can occur in OMDT recovery patients. Xerophthalmus and osteonecrosis of femoral head are the major sequelae. Chloral hydrate,which is the main metabolite of trichloroethylene,may be the causative culprit compound for OMDT.

3.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 302-306, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881794

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiologic characteristics of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene( OMDT) in Guangdong Province. METHODS: The data of OMDT cases diagnosed by Guangdong occupational disease diagnosis institutions from 1988 to 2016 was collected and analyzed. The data of OMDT come from medical records,the National Occupational Disease Network Reporting System and literature retrieval. RESULTS: A total of 475 cases of OMDT were diagnosed in Guangdong Province during 1988 to 2016. The recovery rate was 91. 4%( 434/475),and the fatality rate was 8. 6%( 41/475). All cases had a clear history of trichloroethylene( TCE) exposure and had not been exposed to TCE prior to the present exposure. The median incubation period was 30 days. The exceeding standard rate of TCE time weighted average concentration was 80. 7%( 171/212),and the exceeding standard rate of urine trichloroacetic acid was 75. 0%( 123/164). The years that have most OMDT cases were from 1999 to 2006,which accounted for 64. 0%( 304/475); but there was no seasonal aggregation. The enterprises of OMDT cases concentrated in the Pearl River Delta Region,with Shenzhen City and Dongguan City accounting for 62. 9%. The median age of onset was22 years old,81. 9% of cases were 30 years old or below. The male-female ratio was 1. 2 ∶ 1. 0; 57. 7%( 274/475) cases were from southern China. Meanwhile,95. 4%( 453/475) of the cases came from the manufacturing industry such as electronics factory,hardware factory,electroplating factory and others. CONCLUSION: The distribution of OMDT cases on area,age of onset,native place and occupation in Guangdong Province showed a certain aggregation.

4.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 708-712, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution of network reported suspected occupational diseases( SOD),and the follow-up of confirmed diagnosis of occupational diseases in Guangdong Province from 2014 to 2017. METHODS: In July2018,the SOD cases reported from 2014 to 2017 in the direct network of Guangdong Province were collected as study subjects through the Suspected Occupational Diseases Report Card,Occupational Disease Report Card and Pneumoconiosis Report Card from the subsystem of National Information Surveillance System for Occupational Disease and Occupational Health. And the institutions for occupational disease diagnosis were asked to collect related data of applying for diagnosis and to investigate the final confirmed diagnostic status through the report cards of occupational diseases and pneumoconiosis. RESULTS: A total of 10 155 SOD cases were reported in Guangdong Province from 2014 to 2017,with an average annual growth rate of 62. 2% and an increasing trend year by year. The top three SOD were: suspected occupational otorhinolaryngological oral diseases( 58. 9%), particularly the suspected occupational noise deafness( 99. 9%); suspected occupational chronic chemical poisoning( 24. 6%),particularly suspected occupational chronic benzene poisoning( 88. 4%); and suspected occupational pneumoconiosis( 12. 8%). In total,there were 3 514 SOD cases applying for occupational diseases diagnosis,and the appication rate was 34. 6%. The final confirmed diagnosis rate was 59. 5%( 2 090/3 514). The application rate of occupational otorhinolaryngological oral diseases,occupational chronic chemical poisoning,occupational pneumoconiosis was 33. 8%,31. 3% and 35. 7%,while the final confirmed diagnosis rate was 54. 0%,49. 9% and 89. 5%. The application rate and the final confirmed diagnosis rate were the highest in the occupational disease prevention and treatment institutions, with the rate of 58. 1% and 70. 2% respectively. The application rate and the final confirmed diagnosis rate from occupational health examination were lower than those from occupational disease diagnosis institution,outpatient department and hospitalization( P < 0. 005). CONCLUSION: There is a rapid increasing trend of SOD in Guangdong Province from 2014 to 2017,but the confirmed diagnosis rate is low.

5.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 669-674, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To screen the allergens of trichloroethylene-induced occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis( OMDT) by patch test,and explore methods for OMDT auxiliary diagnosis and trichloroethylene( TCE) allergic population screening. METHODS: A total of 20 subjects diagnosed with OMDT were selected as case group,and 22 nonOMDT healthy workers exposed to TCE≥12 weeks were selected as control group. Different concentrations of TCE and its main metabolites such as chloral hydrate( CH),trichloroethanol( TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid( TCA) were used as allergens in a skin patch test in workers of these two groups. Another 20 new workers exposed to TCE < 12 weeks without OMDT were tested as validation group. They were tested with a patch test at a mass fraction of 15. 00% CH and follow-up observations were performed until 12 weeks of TCE exposure. RESULTS: The patch test of TCE,CH,TCOH and TCA were negative in the control group. In the case group,the patch test positive rate for 50. 00% TCE was 10. 00%,the patch tests were negative in 25. 00%,10. 00% and 5. 00% TCE. The CH patch test positive rate was 100. 00% with the CH mass concentrations of 15. 00%,10. 00% and 5. 00%. The TCOH patch test positive rates were 90. 00%,75. 00% and50. 00%,with the corresponding concentration of 5. 00%,0. 50% and 0. 05%. The TCA patch test positive rates were50. 00% and 0. 00% with the TCA concentrations of 5. 00% and 0. 50% respectively. When the mass concentration was5. 00%,the patch test positive rates in case group from high to low were CH,TCOH,TCA and TCE( P < 0. 01). And the patch test positive rates of CH and TCOH showed no statistical significant difference( P > 0. 05). The patch test positive rate of TCOH increased with increase of TCOH mass concentrations( P < 0. 01). The patch test positive rates for 5. 00%TCA was higher than that of 0. 50% TCA( P < 0. 01). The patch test positive rate in 0. 50% TCOH was higher than that of 0. 50% TCA( P < 0. 01). In the validation group,the patch test of 15. 00% CH was negative,and there was no OMDT case found during the follow-up 12 weeks of TCE exposure. CONCLUSION: The metabolites CH and TCOH of TCE may be the main allergens of OMDT after exposure to TCE. The CH and TCOH patch test can be an auxiliary diagnosis method for OMDT. The CH patch test could be used as a method for screening population allergic to TCE.

6.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 46-50, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using network system to carry out desktop health emergency response exercise for sudden poisoning incidents,and to understand the emergency response capability on sudden poisoning incident in Guangdong Province. METHODS: A chemical poisoning incident caused by drinking polluted water was simulated. Eight questions were designed in 4 sections including the emergency report,response,disposal and strain capacity to the emergency. A total of 10 teams from prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province answered through the desktop network exercise system designed by National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control. Meanwhile,the experts judged score using this system. RESULTS: Ten teams were familiar and adapted to the network system in a relatively short period of time. The scores of emergency report,response,disposal and strain capacity on emergency were(14. 9 ± 2. 3),(6. 0 ±2. 2),(20. 7 ± 4. 1) and(13. 2 ± 3. 5),respectively. The score rates of above 4 sections were(74. 5 ± 11. 5) %,(50. 4 ±18. 7) %,(43. 5 ± 8. 5) % and(66. 2 ± 17. 5) %,respectively. The score rate of emergency report was higher than that of response and disposal( P < 0. 05). The score rate of strain was higher than that of disposal( P < 0. 05). The total score of desktop exercises of the 10 teams was(55. 0 ± 8. 0),which was low on the whole. CONCLUSION: The network system can be used for desktop exercise for sudden poisoning incidents. There is a weak link in the health emergency response capacity of sudden poisoning incidents in Guangdong Province and the capability of emergency response and disposal should be strengthened.

7.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 41-45, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore an objective evaluation mode for emergency response capacity on sudden poisoning incidents. METHODS: Based on the health emergency drills and blind design,22 teams in Guangdong Province were recruited to participate in the first round of evaluation,including blind sample analysis,theoretical examination( poisoning medical rescue,detection and investigation) and skills assessment( poisoning medical care,poisoning investigation,personal protection,poisoning detection and emergency decision-making). Then,the top 10 teams in the first round of evaluation were proceeded to desktop exercise in the second round of evaluation. The evaluation results were compared with the local gross domestic product( GDP) from 2011 to 2015 by Spearman rank correlation analysis. RESULTS: The median scores of the 4 sections were as follows: blind sample analysis was 71. 0,theoretical examination was 61. 4,skills assessment was 76. 5,and the desktop exercise was 55. 0. The rates of excellent for assessment of blind sample analysis,theoretical examination and skills assessment were 22. 7%,4. 5% and 0. 0%,while the failure rates were 31. 8%,45. 5% and 4. 5%,respectively. The rates of failure in medical rescue and investigation in theoretical examination were63. 6% and 50. 0%,the rates of failure in medical rescue and investigation in skills assessment were 40. 9% and 31. 8%,respectively. The middle-grade and passing rates of the top 10 teams in the desktop exercise were 10. 0%,and the failure rate was 80. 0%. There was a moderate positive correlation between the emergency response capacity for emergent poisoning and local GDP( Spearman rank correlation coefficient > 0. 700,P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: The evaluation mode of emergency response capability assessment combined with actual combat and desktop emergency drill is established successfully. It can objectively test the assessment of emergency response capabilities.

8.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 35-40, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of health emergency drill for sudden poisoning incidents in Guangdong Province. METHODS: A double-blinded method was used to organize 22 teams in Guangdong Province to conduct a health emergency drill which contained preliminary and repeated drill. The preliminaries contained blind sample analysis,theoretical examination and skills assessment. The repeated drills was desktop network exercise carried out for the teams ranked top 10 in the preliminaries. RESULTS: In the preliminary round,the median( M) of total score among the 22 teams was 72. 5. Among them,blind sample analysis,theoretical examination and skills assessment were 71. 0,61. 4 and 76. 5,respectively. The total score of skill assessment was higher than that of theoretical assessment( P < 0. 05). The passing rate of 22 teams was 68. 2%(15/22),and the failure rate was 31. 8%(7/22). The failing teams all came from the nonPearl River Delta region. The total preliminary scores,passing rate,the total scores of blind sample analysis and skills assessment of the teams in Pearl River Delta Region were higher than that in the non-Pearl River Delta region( P < 0. 01).In the theoretical examination,the scores of detection and investigation were both higher than that of medical rescue( P <0. 05). For the skills assessment,the scores of decision-making,personal protection and poisoning detection were in the top three,the scores of the medical rescue and investigation were relatively low( P < 0. 05). In the repeated round,the M of desktop exercise was 55. 0,passing rate was 20. 0%,and the failure rate was 80. 0%. CONCLUSION: The health emergency response capacity for sudden poisoning incidents in Guangdong Province needs to be improved. The construction of emergency response capacity for emergency poisoning in the non-Pearl River Delta region should be strengthened,especially the training on strengthening theoretical and practical knowledge of poisoning medical treatment and poisoning investigation.

9.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 420-429, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical pathway of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene(OMDT).METHODS: OMDT was selected as the clinical disease category.The diagnosis and treatment schemes of OMDT were determined and the clinical pathway was developed on the basis of evidence-based medicine,clinical data analysis,and the expert opinion as well as GBZ 185—2006 Diagnostic Criteria of Occupational Medicamentosa-like Dermatitis due to Trichloroethylene.The initial clinical validation was performed.RESULTS: We formulated the clinical pathway of OMDT for medical staffs,including standard hospitalization procedures(including normative use of glucocorticoids),Clinical Path Form,and Informed Consent for Glucocorticoid Therapy.The Clinical Pathway Notification of OMDT for patients or their family members was established.Based on the initial clinical verifications,the clinical pathway was conducive to optimize the medical process,none of the patients suffered from rebounds and complications,and the awareness of OMDT and satisfaction with treatments were improved.CONCLUSION: The clinical pathway for OMDT is scientific and reasonable,which is suitable for use to regulate medical behaviors.

10.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 285-289, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the retrospective problem of occupational disease diagnostic criteria,and to improve the correct application and the theoretic basis of legal norms of occupational disease diagnosis. METHODS: Based on the related theory and principle of laws retroaction,different retroaction and its advantages and disadvantages of the occupational disease diagnostic criteria were analyzed. The applicable methods of new and old occupational disease diagnostic criteria based on the current occupational disease diagnosis and appraisal system were discussed. RESULTS: The occupational disease diagnostic criteria are updated frequently,but there is a lack of clear specification on the application of the old and new criteria. There is misunderstanding in correct application of old and new occupational disease diagnostic criteria from the society,which could have great influence on occupational disease diagnosis and appraisal. The occupational disease diagnostic criteria are a part of laws and regulations and the essence of its correct application is the retroactive force of law.The non-retrospection of occupational disease diagnostic criteria might be against the reasonable protection of the rights of laborers' health. The retroactivity of occupational disease diagnostic criteria reflects the value orientation of social law,but at the same time it must comply with the provisions of laws,regulations or administration rules. CONCLUSION: Active occupational disease diagnostic criteria should be used in the process of occupational disease diagnosis,and occupational disease appraisal should use the criteria of diagnosis.

11.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 245-252, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of dynamic observation and measurement of living silicosis rat model by using small animal positron emission tomography( PET)-computed tomography( CT). METHODS: Specific pathogens free SD rats were divided into model group and control group. The silicosis rat model was established by one-time endotracheal injection of 30 g/L silica suspension,while the control group rats were injected of isopyknic 0. 9% sodium chloride solution. Six rats from each group were randomly selected for CT scan from 1st,2nd,3rd,4th,6th,8th and 12 th week after silica injection using the small animal PET-CT. CT value and standardized uptake value( SUV) of18F-fluorodeoxyglucose were measured. Lung tissue was collected for pathological sections. The levels of hydroxyproline( HYP) of lung tissue and serum transforming growth factor β1( TGF-β1) and interleukin-1( IL-1) were measured.RESULTS: Pathological sections of rats of model group showed inflammatory exudation,inflammation reduced and fibrosis increased with extended time. The results are identical with findings in PET-CT. Lung SUV of rats in model group in the1st-3rd weeks were higher than that in control group in the same time point( P < 0. 05) and decreased by the increasing time during the 1st-4 th weeks of dust injection( P < 0. 05). Lung CT values of model group in the 1st-12 th weeks were higher than that of control group in the same 7 time points( P < 0. 05) and decreased in the 1st-6th weeks and then increased in the 6th-12th weeks by the increasing time of dust injection( P < 0. 05). Lung coefficients and HYP levels of model group in the 7 time points were higher than that of control group in the same 7 time points( P < 0. 05). Lung coefficients decreased in 1st-4th weeks and lung HYP levels increased in 6th-12th weeks with the increasing time of dust injection( P < 0. 05). Excepted of the 3rd and 4th weeks,serum TGF-β1 levels of model group in other 5 time-points were higher than that of control group in the same 5 time points( P < 0. 05) and decreased in the 1st-4th weeks( P < 0. 05)then increased in the 4th-8th weeks( P < 0. 05) by the increasing time of dust injection. Serum IL-1 levels of model group in the 1st-4th weeks were higher than that of control group in the same 4 time points( P < 0. 05) and decreased by the increasing time of dust injection( P < 0. 05) and decreased by the increasing time of dust injection( P < 0. 05).CONCLUSION: Early inflammation and terminal fibrosis of living silicosis rat model could be observed effectively by small animal PET-CT,which can be used as a new approach for dynamic tracing silicosis in rat models.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306241

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX-1) gene, rs3448, rs1050450, rs1800668, and rs1987628, and the susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A case-control study was conducted to investigate the threshold shift of the left ear at 3000 Hz among the workers of Chinese Han population who were exposed to the same level of sound pressure. Two hundred and one (10%) of the subjects with the highest level of threshold shift were recruited in susceptible group, while 202 of (10%) of the subjects with the lowest level of threshold shift were recruited in tolerant group. Targeted occupational health survey and questionnaire survey were performed among these people. For each individual, genome DNA was extracted from 5 ml of fasting peripheral venous blood. Four SNPs (GPX-1 rs3448, rs1050450, rs1800668, and rs1987628) were genotyped by the TaqMan SNP genotyping kit. The main effects of SNPs and the association between NIHL susceptibility and SNPs were analyzed by logistic regression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The C allele of rs1987628 was a risk factor for NIHL, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.531 (95%CI: 1.878-3.411) as compared with the T allele. The CC genotype of rs1987628 was more associated with NIHL than the TT genotype (OR = 3.500, 95% CI: 1.984-6.174; adjusted OR = 3.544, 95% CI: 1.974 ∼ 6.364).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among Chinese Han population, GPX-1 SNP rs1987628 may be associated with the susceptibility to NIHL.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glutathione Peroxidase , Genetics , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Genetics , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Young Adult
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