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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 717-723, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939381

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant Korean women is increasing; however, nationwide studies are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to analyze regional colonization rates and antimicrobial susceptibility for GBS in pregnant Korean women through a nationwide survey. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2018 to December 2020, data from the Seoul Clinical Laboratories on vaginal swab cultures were retrospectively analyzed to detect maternal GBS carriers. Each swab specimen was inoculated onto a 5% blood agar plate and incubated at 35°C–37°C in a 5% CO 2 incubator for 24 h. GBS isolates were identified using a Microflex MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the Vitek 2 automated system. @*Results@#The overall nationwide GBS colonization rate in pregnant Korean women was found to be 10.6% (3578/33721). The maternal GBS colonization rates ranged from 10.5%–10.8% over the 3-year study period. The GBS colonization rates by province, in descending order, were as follows: Jeolla-do, 13.2%; Gangwon-do, 12.0%; Chungcheong-do, 11.8%; Gyeonggi-do, 11.3%; Seoul, 10.2%; and Gyeongsang-do, 9.6%. During the study period, the resistance rates against chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline were 2.6%–2.7%, 18.2%–19.6%, 33.4%–35.7%, 35.6%–36.8%, and 50.5%–53.3%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#In pregnant Korean women, GBS colonization rates were in the range of 9.6%–13.2%, with Gyeongsang-do being the lowest and Jeolla-do the highest. The resistance rate against clindamycin was high (33.4%–35.7%). GBS colonization rates during pregnancy should be studied nationwide according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended guidelines with periodic antimicrobial resistance monitoring.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926768

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing the consensus statement from the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging-Practical Tutorial 2020 (ASCI-PT 2020) on the reliability of cardiac MR with late gadolinium enhancement (CMR-LGE) myocardial viability scoring between observers in the context of ischemic cardiomyopathy. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 17 cardiovascular imaging experts from five different countries evaluated CMR obtained in 26 patients (male:female, 23:3; median age [interquartile range], 55.5 years [50–61.8]) with ischemic cardiomyopathy. For LGE scoring, based on the 17 segments, the extent of LGE in each segment was graded using a five-point scoring system ranging from 0 to 4 before and after exposure according to the consensus statement. All scoring was performed via webbased review. Scores for slices, vascular territories, and total scores were obtained as the sum of the relevant segmental scores. Interobserver reliability for segment scores was assessed using Fleiss’ kappa, while the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for slice score, vascular territory score, and total score. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using the limits of agreement from the mean (LoA). @*Results@#Interobserver reliability (Fleiss’ kappa) in each segment ranged 0.242–0.662 before the consensus and increased to 0.301–0.774 after the consensus. The interobserver reliability (ICC) for each slice, each vascular territory, and total score increased after the consensus (slice, 0.728–0.805 and 0.849–0.884; vascular territory, 0.756–0.902 and 0.852–0.941; total score, 0.847 and 0.913, before and after implementing the consensus statement, respectively. Interobserver agreement in scoring also improved with the implementation of the consensus for all slices, vascular territories, and total score. The LoA for the total score narrowed from ± 10.36 points to ± 7.12 points. @*Conclusion@#The interobserver reliability and agreement for CMR-LGE scoring for ischemic cardiomyopathy improved when following guidance from the ASCI-PT 2020 consensus statement.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926687

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aims to report the efficacy and safety of one-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique in patients with primary canaliculitis. @*Methods@#All patients diagnosed with primary canaliculitis between January 2020 and August 2021 at Inje University Busan Paik Hospital are included. All patients underwent one-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique. After the procedure, patients had topical antibiotics. The resolution of symptoms and inflammatory signs and complications were evaluated 3 weeks after the procedure. @*Results@#A total of 11 patients (eight female patients and three male patients, 14 canaliculi) aged 34 to 82 years with a mean age of 63.8 ± 15.7 years were participated. Common symptoms were epiphora, mucopurulent discharge, and injection, and common signs were discharge from punctum, pouting punctum, punctal erythema, and swellling. Among 14 canaliculi, 12 (85.7%) had complete resolution and two underwent second treatment which showed completed resolution after the treatment. @*Conclusions@#One-snip punctoplasty and 18-gauge irrigation technique are minimally invasive to punctum and canaliculi and are a highly effective surgical procedure for patients with primary canaliculitis.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926412

ABSTRACT

To provide high-quality training to residents in a rapidly changing medical environment, it is very important to improve the annual training curriculum centered on competency and ensure that training hospitals maintain an environment suitable for training. The Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) has been steadily improving the training system and has suggested the improvement of the training system by strengthening the competency-based evaluation and faculty development. Currently, KSR was selected for the second annual training curriculum systematization construction project in July 2021, and developed entrustable professional activities, core competencies, and assessment guidelines required by the construction project. Therefore, the development process and assessment guidelines will be introduced to residents and the faculty.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918227

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We aimed to evaluate the ostium of right coronary artery of anomalous origin from the left coronary sinus (AORL) with an interarterial course throughout the cardiac cycle on CT and analyze the clinical significance of the ostial findings. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2011 to December 2015, 68 patients (41 male, 57.3 ± 12.1 years) with AORL with an interarterial course and retrospective cardiac CT data were included. AORL was classified as high or low ostial location based on the pulmonary annulus in the diastolic and systolic phases on cardiac CT. In addition, the height, width, height/width ratio, area, and angle of the ostium were measured in both cardiac phases. After cardiac CT, patients were followed until December 31, 2020 for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Clinical and CT characteristics associated with MACE were explored using Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#During a median follow-up period of 2071 days (interquartile range, 1180.5–2747.3 days), 13 patients experienced MACE (19.1%, 13/68). Seven (10.3%, 7/68) had the ostial location change from high in the diastolic phase to low in the systolic phase. In the univariable analysis, younger age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.918, p < 0.001), high ostial location (HR = 4.008, p = 0.036), larger height/width ratio (HR = 5.621, p = 0.049), and smaller ostial angle (HR = 0.846, p = 0.048) in the systolic phase were significant predictors of MACE. In multivariable cox regression analysis, younger age (adjusted HR = 0.917, p = 0.002) and high ostial location in the systolic phase (adjusted HR = 4.345, p = 0.026) were independent predictors of MACE. @*Conclusion@#The ostial location of AORL with an interarterial course can change during the cardiac cycle, and high ostial location in the systolic phase was an independent predictor of MACE.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915600

ABSTRACT

Lesions occurring simultaneously in the somatosensory or motor cortex of the brain and the cervical spine are rare. Brain tumors can cause similar symptoms to cervical lesions which can lead to confusion in treatment priorities. Moreover, if cervical disease is noticeably observed in radiologic findings of a patient complaining of cervical radiculopathy with non-specific electromyography results, it is common to no longer perform further evaluation. Here we introduce two cases where the cause of cervical radiculopathy was first considered to be the result of a degenerative cervical disease but was later discovered to be a result of a brain tumor.

7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903073

ABSTRACT

Although diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of type 1 diabetes mellitus, DKA also occurs in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. Recently, cases of DKA associated with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) have been reported in adolescents. We reported a 14-year-old girl with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated DKA and HHS complicated with iatrogenic left femoral arterial thrombosis, requiring a below-knee amputation. In DKA and HHS, risk factors for thrombosis, vascular access predisposes patients to thrombosis. Consequently, occurrence of thrombosis should be monitored in patients with DKA or HHS.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902457

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the regional amyloid burden and myocardial deformation using T1 mapping and strain values in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) according to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty patients with CA were divided into 2 groups per LGE pattern, and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled. Global and regional native T1 and T2 mapping, extracellular volume (ECV), and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-feature tracking strain values were compared in an intergroup and interregional manner. @*Results@#Of the patients with CA, 32 had diffuse global LGE (group 2), and 8 had focal patchy or no LGE (group 1). Global native T1, T2, and ECV were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in the control group (native T1: 1384.4 ms vs. 1466.8 ms vs. 1230.5 ms; T2: 53.8 ms vs. 54.2 ms vs. 48.9 ms; and ECV: 36.9% vs. 51.4% vs. 26.0%, respectively; all, p < 0.001). Basal ECV (53.7%) was significantly higher than the mid and apical ECVs (50.1% and 50.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) in group 2. Basal and mid peak radial strains (PRSs) and peak circumferential strains (PCSs) were significantly lower than the apical PRS and PCS, respectively (PRS, 15.6% vs. 16.7% vs. 26.9%; and PCS, -9.7% vs. -10.9% vs. -15.0%; all, p < 0.001). Basal ECV and basal strain (2-dimensional PRS) in group 2 showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.623, p < 0.001). Group 1 showed no regional ECV differences (basal, 37.0%; mid, 35.9%; and apical, 38.3%; p = 0.184). @*Conclusion@#Quantitative T1 mapping parameters such as native T1 and ECV may help diagnose early CA. ECV, in particular, can reflect regional differences in the amyloid deposition in patients with advanced CA, and increased basal ECV is related to decreased basal strain. Therefore, quantitative CMR parameters may help diagnose CA and determine its severity in patients with or without LGE.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1397-1415, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902422

ABSTRACT

The use of pediatric cardiothoracic CT for congenital heart disease (CHD) was traditionally limited to the morphologic evaluation of the extracardiac thoracic vessels, lungs, and airways. Currently, the applications of CT have increased, owing to technological advancements in hardware and software as well as several dose-reduction measures. In the previously published part 1 of the guideline by the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Congenital Heart Disease Study Group, we reviewed the prerequisite technical knowledge for clinical applications in a user-friendly and vendor-specific manner. Herein, we present the second part of our guideline on contemporary clinical applications of pediatric cardiothoracic CT for CHD based on the consensus of experts from the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging CHD Study Group. This guideline describes up-to-date clinical applications effectively in a systematic fashion.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897032

ABSTRACT

Frontal sinus fractures are common traumatic injuries of the head and neck, accounting for 8% of facial fractures. When a severe frontal sinus fracture and a naso-ethmoid-orbital fracture occur together, a postoperative contour deformity is highly likely. A pericranial flap is a reliable and versatile tool for craniofacial reconstruction. The authors fabricated an anteriorly-based pericranial flap in multiple layers to camouflage the fracture site and augment the brow ridge for volumization. Open reduction and pericranial flap coverage using this method (dubbed the “Persian carpet” method) were successfully performed in a 26-year-old male patient with a comminuted frontal bone fracture and a naso-ethmoid-orbital fracture.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895369

ABSTRACT

Although diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of type 1 diabetes mellitus, DKA also occurs in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. Recently, cases of DKA associated with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) have been reported in adolescents. We reported a 14-year-old girl with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated DKA and HHS complicated with iatrogenic left femoral arterial thrombosis, requiring a below-knee amputation. In DKA and HHS, risk factors for thrombosis, vascular access predisposes patients to thrombosis. Consequently, occurrence of thrombosis should be monitored in patients with DKA or HHS.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894753

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the regional amyloid burden and myocardial deformation using T1 mapping and strain values in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) according to late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#Forty patients with CA were divided into 2 groups per LGE pattern, and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled. Global and regional native T1 and T2 mapping, extracellular volume (ECV), and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-feature tracking strain values were compared in an intergroup and interregional manner. @*Results@#Of the patients with CA, 32 had diffuse global LGE (group 2), and 8 had focal patchy or no LGE (group 1). Global native T1, T2, and ECV were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in the control group (native T1: 1384.4 ms vs. 1466.8 ms vs. 1230.5 ms; T2: 53.8 ms vs. 54.2 ms vs. 48.9 ms; and ECV: 36.9% vs. 51.4% vs. 26.0%, respectively; all, p < 0.001). Basal ECV (53.7%) was significantly higher than the mid and apical ECVs (50.1% and 50.0%, respectively; p < 0.001) in group 2. Basal and mid peak radial strains (PRSs) and peak circumferential strains (PCSs) were significantly lower than the apical PRS and PCS, respectively (PRS, 15.6% vs. 16.7% vs. 26.9%; and PCS, -9.7% vs. -10.9% vs. -15.0%; all, p < 0.001). Basal ECV and basal strain (2-dimensional PRS) in group 2 showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.623, p < 0.001). Group 1 showed no regional ECV differences (basal, 37.0%; mid, 35.9%; and apical, 38.3%; p = 0.184). @*Conclusion@#Quantitative T1 mapping parameters such as native T1 and ECV may help diagnose early CA. ECV, in particular, can reflect regional differences in the amyloid deposition in patients with advanced CA, and increased basal ECV is related to decreased basal strain. Therefore, quantitative CMR parameters may help diagnose CA and determine its severity in patients with or without LGE.

13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1397-1415, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894718

ABSTRACT

The use of pediatric cardiothoracic CT for congenital heart disease (CHD) was traditionally limited to the morphologic evaluation of the extracardiac thoracic vessels, lungs, and airways. Currently, the applications of CT have increased, owing to technological advancements in hardware and software as well as several dose-reduction measures. In the previously published part 1 of the guideline by the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Congenital Heart Disease Study Group, we reviewed the prerequisite technical knowledge for clinical applications in a user-friendly and vendor-specific manner. Herein, we present the second part of our guideline on contemporary clinical applications of pediatric cardiothoracic CT for CHD based on the consensus of experts from the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging CHD Study Group. This guideline describes up-to-date clinical applications effectively in a systematic fashion.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889328

ABSTRACT

Frontal sinus fractures are common traumatic injuries of the head and neck, accounting for 8% of facial fractures. When a severe frontal sinus fracture and a naso-ethmoid-orbital fracture occur together, a postoperative contour deformity is highly likely. A pericranial flap is a reliable and versatile tool for craniofacial reconstruction. The authors fabricated an anteriorly-based pericranial flap in multiple layers to camouflage the fracture site and augment the brow ridge for volumization. Open reduction and pericranial flap coverage using this method (dubbed the “Persian carpet” method) were successfully performed in a 26-year-old male patient with a comminuted frontal bone fracture and a naso-ethmoid-orbital fracture.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918030

ABSTRACT

Cervical spondyloptosis is defined as dislocation of the spinal column, most often caused by trauma. Due to transection of the spinal cord, severe neurological deficits are common.Here, we reviewed the case of a young man who presented with mental stupor and complete tetraplegia below the level of C5. The patient's left shoulder was sucked into a machine and subjected to strong lateral bending and distraction. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed fracture dislocation and complete transection of the spinal cord at the C5–6 level. Three-dimensional CT scan showed coronal and sagittal spondyloptosis. He underwent open reduction with two surgeries performed via the anterior and posterior approaches: C5–6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and lateral mass screw fixation with allograft from C3 to C7. In addition, both ends of the huge dura defect were sutured. We report the clinical history, imaging findings, and surgical management of spondyloptosis with a complete transected spinal cord containing a considerable dura tear.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916396

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion after filler injection for upper lid retraction. Diagnosis and treatment were performed to recover visual acuity and good results.Case summary: A 40-year-old woman presented to our clinic with upper lid retraction. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and thyroid orbitopathy. She had been examined regularly at a local clinic since 2016. At the first visit, her visual acuity was 1.0/1.0 and the intraocular pressure was 19 mmHg, with no unusual findings in the anterior segment. Hyaluronic acid filler was injected into the medial part of the left upper lid. As soon as the needle was removed, she complained of blurry vision and visual impairment. This was followed by the development of a relative afferent pupillary defect; her visual acuity was hand motion at 30 cm. After 5 minutes, we performed wide fundus imaging and optical coherence tomography, which revealed retinal artery occlusion and a cherry-red spot, along with inner retina hyperreflectivity. Under a diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, we performed anterior chamber paracentesis, intravenous mannitol and acetazole injection, and an ocular massage. Approximately 1.5 hours after filler injection, retinal artery reperfusion and loss of the cherry red spot were observed and, after about 3 hours, her vision had recovered to 1.0 from hand motion at 30 cm. @*Conclusions@#Central retinal artery occlusion after filler injection, when diagnosed promptly, can be treated by anterior chamber paracentesis, intravenous mannitol and acetazole injection, and ocular massage.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915583

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) in the treatment of brain metastases is well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of maximizing the radiation dose in GKR and the factors influencing tumor control in cases of small and medium-sized brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). @*Methods@#: We analyzed 230 metastatic brain tumors less than 5 mL in volume in 146 patients with NSCLC who underwent GKR. The patients had no previous radiation therapy for brain metastases. The pathologies of the tumors were adenocarcinoma (n=207), squamous cell carcinoma (n=18), and others (n=5). The radiation doses were classified as 18, 20, 22, and 24 Gy, and based on the tumor volume, the tumors were categorized as follows : small-sized (less than 1 mL) and medium-sized (1–3 and 3–5 mL). The progression-free survival (PFS) of the individual 230 tumors and 146 brain metastases was evaluated after GKR depending on the pathology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score (PS), tumor volume, radiation dose, and anti-cancer regimens. The radiotoxicity after GKR was also evaluated. @*Results@#: After GKR, the restricted mean PFS of individual 230 tumors at 24 months was 15.6 months (14.0–17.1). In small-sized tumors, as the dose of radiation increased, the tumor control rates tended to increase (p=0.072). In medium-sized tumors, there was no statistically difference in PFS with an increase of radiation dose (p=0.783). On univariate analyses, a statistically significant increase in PFS was associated with adenocarcinomas (p=0.001), tumors with ECOG PS 0 (p=0.005), small-sized tumors (p=0.003), radiation dose of 24 Gy (p=0.014), synchronous lesions (p=0.002), and targeted therapy (p=0.004). On multivariate analyses, an improved PFS was seen with targeted therapy (hazard ratio, 0.356; 95% confidence interval, 0.150–0.842; p=0.019). After GKR, the restricted mean PFS of brain at 24 months was 9.8 months (8.5–11.1) in 146 patients, and the pattern of recurrence was mostly distant within the brain (66.4%). The small and medium-sized tumors treated with GKR showed radiotoxicitiy in five out of 230 tumors (2.2%), which were controlled with medical treatment. @*Conclusion@#: The small-sized tumors were effectively controlled without symptomatic radiation necrosis as the radiation dose was increased up to 24 Gy. The medium-sized tumors showed potential for symptomatic radiation necrosis without signifcant tumor control rate, when greater than 18 Gy. GKR combined targeted therapy improved the tumor control of GKR-treated tumors.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914331

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) facilitated the discovery of countless disease-associated variants. However, GWASs have mostly been conducted in European ancestry samples. Recent studies have reported that these European-based association results may reduce disease prediction accuracy when applied in non-Europeans. Therefore, previously reported variants should be validated in non-European populations to establish reliable scientific evidence for precision medicine. In this study, we validated known associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related metabolic traits in 125,850 samples from a Korean population genotyped by the Korea Biobank Array (KBA). At the end of December 2020, there were 8,823 variants associated with glycemic traits, lipids, liver enzymes, and T2D in the GWAS catalog. Considering the availability of imputed datasets in the KBA genome data, publicly available East-Asian T2D summary statistics, and the linkage disequilibrium among the variants (r2 < 0.2), 2,900 independent variants were selected for further analysis. Among these, 1,837 variants (63.3%) were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Most of the non-replicated variants (n = 1,063) showed insufficient statistical power and decreased minor allele frequencies compared with the replicated variants. Moreover, known variants showed <10% genetic heritability. These results could provide valuable scientific evidence for future study designs, the current power of GWASs, and future applications in precision medicine in the Korean population.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913769

ABSTRACT

We report a patient with severe neurological deterioration due to leptomeningeal metastases involving brain and spinal cord from anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive lung adenocarcinoma, managed rapidly and successfully with lorlatinib therapy. A 48-year-old male patient presented with acute mental deterioration, severe headache, and weakness of both legs. The patient’s previous medical history included cerebral metastases from ALK-positive lung adenocarcinoma, which had been successfully managed via whole brain radiation therapy and gamma knife radiosurgery one year and three months before, respectively. Physical examination revealed neck stiffness and paraparesis with motor grade I.Gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI showed newly developed leptomeningeal enhancement along cerebellar folia, and whole spine MRI revealed similar leptomeningeal metastasis along the whole spinal axis. Lorlatinib was started orally with a dose of 100 mg/day. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement after one week. The patient was alert and the headache disappeared, while the paraparesis improved to normal ambulatory status. Two months of lorlatinib treatment resulted in almost complete disappearance of previous leptomeningeal enhancement of brain and spinal cord, and absence of newly developed metastatic lesions in the central nervous system, based on MRI results. The patient had been regularly followed with ongoing lorlatinib therapy for 5 months without any systemic complications or neurological abnormality. Conclusively, lorlatinib could be a rapid and effective treatment for patients with central nervous system leptomeningeal metastases arising from ALK-positive lung cancer.

20.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 425-433, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913394

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of survival outcomes, the cancer survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the whole stage has improved. Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is found in approximately 8% to 15% of patients with CRC, with a poorer prognosis than that associated with other sites of metastases. Randomized controlled trials and up-to-date meta-analyses provide firm evidence that cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) could significantly improve overall survival compared with systemic chemotherapy alone in selected patients with CRC-PM. Practical guidelines recommend that the management of CRC-PM should be led by a multidisciplinary team carried out in experienced centers and consider CRS plus HIPEC for selected patients. In this review, we aim to provide the latest results of land mark studies and an overview of recent insights with regard to the management of CRC-PM.

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