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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763034

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in pathologic ocular neovascularization and vascular leakage via activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic mechanisms and effects of the tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE), a VEGFR2 inhibitor, in the development of vascular permeability and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs), treatment with RLYE blocked VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Akt, ERK, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to suppression of VEGF-A-mediated hyper-production of NO. Treatment with RLYE also inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated angiogenic processes (migration, proliferation, and tube formation) and the hyperpermeability of HRMECs, in addition to attenuating VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability in mice. The anti-vascular permeability activity of RLYE was correlated with enhanced stability and positioning of the junction proteins VE-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin-5, and ZO-1, critical components of the cortical actin ring structure and retinal endothelial barrier, at the boundary between HRMECs stimulated with VEGF-A. Furthermore, intravitreally injected RLYE bound to retinal microvascular endothelium and inhibited laser-induced CNV in mice. These findings suggest that RLYE has potential as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of CNV by preventing VEGFR2-mediated vascular leakage and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Actins , Animals , Capillary Permeability , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Claudin-5 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Humans , Macular Degeneration , Mice , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Permeability , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Retinaldehyde , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 366-375, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation induced by native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) stimulation is dependent on superoxide production from activated NADPH oxidase. The present study aimed to investigate whether the novel arginase inhibitor limonin could suppress nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation and to examine related mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated VSMCs from rat aortas were treated with nLDL, and cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 and BrdU assays. NADPH oxidase activation was evaluated by lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence, and phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) βII and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was determined by western blot analysis. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed using MitoSOX-red, and intracellular L-arginine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the presence or absence of limonin. RESULTS: Limonin inhibited arginase I and II activity in the uncompetitive mode, and prevented nLDL-induced VSMC proliferation in a p21Waf1/Cip1-dependent manner without affecting arginase protein levels. Limonin blocked PKCβII phosphorylation, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and translocation of p47phox to the membrane was decreased, as was superoxide production in nLDL-stimulated VSMCs. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS generation was increased by nLDL stimulation and blocked by preincubation with limonin. Mitochondrial ROS production was responsible for the phosphorylation of PKCβII. HPLC analysis showed that arginase inhibition with limonin increases intracellular L-arginine concentrations, but decreases polyamine concentrations. L-Arginine treatment prevented PKCβII phosphorylation without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Increased L-arginine levels following limonin-dependent arginase inhibition prohibited NADPH oxidase activation in a PKCβII-dependent manner, and blocked nLDL-stimulated VSMC proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Proliferation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Lipoproteins , Luminescence , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , NADP , NADPH Oxidases , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914288

ABSTRACT

Arginase inhibition exhibits beneficial effects in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs), native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) that is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effect of arginase inhibition on IL-8 production and the underlying mechanism. In hAoSMCs, reverse transcription–PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry with MitoTracker confirmed that arginase II was confined predominantly to mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. The MMP decreased upon nLDL stimulation but was restored upon arginase inhibition. MMP loss caused by nLDL was prevented by treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. In mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements using Rhod-2 AM, increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels by nLDL were inhibited upon preincubation with an arginase inhibitor. Among the polyamines, spermine, an arginase activity-dependent product, caused mitochondrial Ca(2+) movement. The nLDL-induced MMP change resulted in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and IL-8 production and was prevented by the arginase inhibitors BAPTA and ruthenium 360. In isolated AoSMCs from ApoE(−/−) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, arginase activity, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, spermine and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production were increased compared with wild-type (WT) mice. However, in AoSMCs isolated from arginase II-null mice, increases in MMP and decreases in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were noted compared with WT and were associated with p38 MAPK activation and IL-8 production. These data suggest that arginase activity regulates the change in MMP through Ca(2+) uptake that is essential for p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158433

ABSTRACT

Heme oxygenase-1-derived carbon monoxide prevents inflammatory vascular disorders. To date, there is no clear evidence that HO-1/CO prevents endothelial dysfunction associated with the downregulation of endothelial NO synthesis in human endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α. Here, we found that the CO-releasing compound CORM-2 prevented TNF-α-mediated decreases in eNOS expression and NO/cGMP production, without affecting eNOS promoter activity, by maintaining the functional activity of the eNOS mRNA 3′-untranslated region. By contrast, CORM-2 inhibited MIR155HG expression and miR-155-5p biogenesis in TNF-α-stimulated endothelial cells, resulting in recovery of the 3′-UTR activity of eNOS mRNA, a target of miR-155-5p. The beneficial effect of CORM-2 was blocked by an NF-κB inhibitor, a miR-155-5p mimic, a HO-1 inhibitor and siRNA against HO-1, indicating that CO rescues TNF-α-induced eNOS downregulation through NF-κB-responsive miR-155-5p expression via HO-1 induction; similar protective effects of ectopic HO-1 expression and bilirubin were observed in endothelial cells treated with TNF-α. Moreover, heme degradation products, except iron and N-acetylcysteine prevented H₂O₂-mediated miR-155-5p biogenesis and eNOS downregulation. These data demonstrate that CO prevents TNF-α-mediated eNOS downregulation by inhibiting redox-sensitive miR-155-5p biogenesis through a positive forward circuit between CO and HO-1 induction. This circuit may play an important preventive role in inflammatory endothelial dysfunction associated with human vascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Bilirubin , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells , Heme , Humans , Iron , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Small Interfering , Vascular Diseases
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1329-1338, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81716

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. RESULTS: SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. CONCLUSION: These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions.


Subject(s)
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid , Acetylcholine , Arginase , Arginine , Blotting, Western , Endothelium , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxynitrous Acid , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30206

ABSTRACT

Elevated plasma concentration of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the mechanisms of superoxide generation and its contribution to pathophysiological cell proliferation in response to nLDL stimulation. Lucigenin-induced chemiluminescence was used to measure nLDL-induced superoxide production in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs). Superoxide production was increased by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and decreased by NADPH oxidase inhibitors in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMC and hAoSMC homogenates, as well as in prepared membrane fractions. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta) and protein kinase C-beta (PKCbeta) were phosphorylated and maximally activated within 3 min of nLDL stimulation. Phosphorylated Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, PKCtheta and PKCbeta stimulated interactions between p47phox and p22phox; these interactions were prevented by MEK and PKC inhibitors (PD98059 and calphostin C, respectively). These inhibitors decreased nLDL-dependent superoxide production and blocked translocation of p47phox to the membrane, as shown by epifluorescence imaging and cellular fractionation experiments. Proliferation assays showed that a small interfering RNA against p47phox, as well as superoxide scavenger and NADPH oxidase inhibitors, blocked nLDL-induced hAoSMC proliferation. The nLDL stimulation in deendothelialized aortic rings from C57BL/6J mice increased dihydroethidine fluorescence and induced p47phox translocation that was blocked by PD98059 or calphostin C. Isolated aortic SMCs from p47phox-/- mice (mAoSMCs) did not respond to nLDL stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was responsible for superoxide generation and cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs. These data demonstrated that NADPH oxidase activation contributed to cell proliferation in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/cytology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxides/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194084

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in vascular functions, including vasorelaxation. We here investigated the pharmacological effect of the natural product syringaresinol on vascular relaxation and eNOS-mediated NO production as well as its underlying biochemical mechanism in endothelial cells. Treatment of aortic rings from wild type, but not eNOS-/- mice, with syringaresinol induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was abolished by addition of the NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. Treatment of human endothelial cells and mouse aortic rings with syringaresinol increased NO production, which was correlated with eNOS phosphorylation via the activation of Akt and AMP kinase (AMPK) as well as elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. A phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor blocked the increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels, AMPK-dependent eNOS phosphorylation, and NO production, but not Akt activation, in syringaresinol-treated endothelial cells. Syringaresinol-induced AMPK activation was inhibited by co-treatment with PLC inhibitor, Ca2+ chelator, calmodulin antagonist, and CaMKKbeta siRNA. This compound also increased eNOS dimerization, which was inhibited by a PLC inhibitor and a Ca2+-chelator. The chemicals that inhibit eNOS phosphorylation and dimerization attenuated vasorelaxation and cGMP production. These results suggest that syringaresinol induces vasorelaxation by enhancing NO production in endothelial cells via two distinct mechanisms, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- and PLC/Ca2+/CaMKKbeta-dependent eNOS phosphorylation and Ca2+-dependent eNOS dimerization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Furans/pharmacology , Gene Deletion , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Humans , Lignans/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C/metabolism , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Vasodilation/drug effects
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194081

ABSTRACT

The integrity of blood vessels controls vascular permeability and extravasation of blood cells, across the endothelium. Thus, the impairment of endothelial integrity leads to hemorrhage, edema, and inflammatory infiltration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying vascular integrity has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrate an essential role for A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity during vascular development. Zebrafish embryos depleted of akap12 (akap12 morphants) exhibited severe hemorrhages. In vivo time-lapse analyses suggested that disorganized interendothelial cell-cell adhesions in akap12 morphants might be the cause of hemorrhage. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which the cell-cell adhesions are impaired, we examined the cell-cell adhesion molecules and their regulators using cultured endothelial cells. The expression of PAK2, an actin cytoskeletal regulator, and AF6, a connector of intercellular adhesion molecules and actin cytoskeleton, was reduced in AKAP12-depleted cells. Depletion of either PAK2 or AF6 phenocopied AKAP12-depleted cells, suggesting the reduction of PAK2 and AF6 results in the loosening of intercellular junctions. Consistent with this, overexpression of PAK2 and AF6 rescued the abnormal hemorrhage in akap12 morphants. We conclude that AKAP12 is essential for integrity of endothelium by maintaining the expression of PAK2 and AF6 during vascular development.


Subject(s)
A Kinase Anchor Proteins/genetics , Animals , Blood Vessels/abnormalities , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation , Embryo, Nonmammalian/abnormalities , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Hemorrhage/embryology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Intercellular Junctions/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Myosins/genetics , Zebrafish/embryology , p21-Activated Kinases/genetics
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149763

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the effects of the prenylated flavonoid kurarinone on TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis and its underlying mechanism. A low dose of kurarinone had no significant effect on apoptosis, but this compound markedly promoted tumor cell death through elevation of Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release and caspase activation in HeLa cells treated with TRAIL. Caspase inhibitors inhibited kurarinone-mediated cell death, which indicates that the cytotoxic effect of this compound is mediated by caspase-dependent apoptosis. The cytotoxic effect of kurarinone was not associated with expression levels of Bcl-2 and IAP family proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bid, Bad, Bax, XIAP, cIAP-1 and cIAP-2. In addition, this compound did not regulate the death-inducing receptors DR4 and DR5. On the other hand, kurarinone significantly inhibited TRAIL-induced IKK activation, IkappaB degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, as well as effectively suppressed cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein long form (cFLIPL) expression. The synergistic effects of kurarinone on TRAIL-induced apoptosis were mimicked when kurarinone was replaced by the NF-kappaB inhibitor withaferin A or following siRNA-mediated knockdown of cFLIPL. Moreover, cFLIP overexpression effectively antagonized kurarinone-mediated TRAIL sensitization. These data suggest that kurarinone sensitizes TRAIL-induced tumor cell apoptosis via suppression of NF-kappaB-dependent cFLIP expression, indicating that this compound can be used as an anti-tumor agent in combination with TRAIL.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein/genetics , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 8/metabolism , Drug Synergism , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HeLa Cells , Humans , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Transport/drug effects , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Signal Transduction , TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand/physiology , Up-Regulation/drug effects
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162257

ABSTRACT

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an emerging technique for a variety of uses involving the analysis of cells. AFM is widely applied to obtain information about both cellular structural and subcellular events. In particular, a variety of investigations into membrane proteins and microfilaments were performed with AFM. Here, we introduce applications of AFM to molecular imaging of membrane proteins, and various approaches for observation and identification of intracellular microfilaments at the molecular level. These approaches can contribute to many applications of AFM in cell imaging.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Actin Cytoskeleton/physiology , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Molecular Imaging/methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104277

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the effects of cAMP on immune regulation and apoptosis during acute rat cardiac allograft rejection. We found that the production of immune markers such as inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha), iNOS expression, and nitric oxide (NO) production, was significantly increased in the blood and transplanted hearts of allograft recipients, but not of isograft controls. These increases were effectively suppressed by the administration of the membrane permeable cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP). Administration of db-cAMP reduced allograft-induced elevation of several biochemical markers, such as adhesion molecule expression, iron-nitrosyl complex formation, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic DNA fragmentation in an animal model. Furthermore, treatment of allograft recipients with db-cAMP prolonged median graft survival to 11 days compared with a median graft survival time of 8 days in saline-treated allograft recipients. These results suggest that db-cAMP exerts a beneficial effect on murine cardiac allograft survival by modulating allogeneic immune response and cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/analogs & derivatives , Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Survival/drug effects , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Rats , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76611

ABSTRACT

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS), also called PP1R10, p99, or CAT 53 was originally isolated as a mammalian nuclear PP1-binding protein. In this study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens to identify PNUTS-interacting proteins. Here, we report that LCP1 (epidermal Langerhans cell protein 1), a novel member of the HMG-box protein family, binds tightly to PNUTS. Co-immunoprecipitation of deletion constructs revealed that the C-terminus of LCP1 is sufficient for the interaction with an N-terminal region of PNUTS that is distinct from its PP1-binding domain. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies showed that a subpopulation of LCP1 co-localizes with PNUTS in nuclear speckles. Importantly, we found that the N-terminus of LCP1 has a strong trans-activation activity in a GAL4-based heterologous transcription assay. The transcriptional activity of LCP1 is markedly suppressed by its interaction with PNUTS, in a PP1-independent manner. These findings suggest that the coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of LCP1 and PNUTS may be a novel mechanism to control the expression of genes that are critical for certain physiological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , HMGB Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Mapping , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Two-Hybrid System Techniques
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727525

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) has both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects depending on its concentration and the experimental model. We tested the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures and hippocampal CA3 neuronal death. L-NAME (50 mg/kg, i.p.) and/or aminoguanidine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 1 h prior to the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of KA. Pretreatment with L-NAME significantly increased KA-induced CA3 neuronal death, iNOS expression, and activation of microglia. However, pretreatment with aminoguanidine significantly suppressed both the KA-induced and L-NAME-aggravated hippocampal CA3 neuronal death with concomitant decreases in iNOS expression and microglial activation. The protective effect of aminoguanidine was maintained for up to 2 weeks. Furthermore, iNOS knockout mice (iNOS-/-) were resistant to KA-induced neuronal death. The present study demonstrates that aminoguanidine attenuates KA-induced neuronal death, whereas L-NAME aggravates neuronal death, in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, suggesting that NOS isoforms play different roles in KA-induced excitotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guanidines , Hippocampus , Kainic Acid , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Microglia , Models, Theoretical , Neurons , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Protein Isoforms , Seizures
14.
Immune Network ; : 75-81, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelets take part in repairing the lesions of endothelial damage. To understand the molecular mechanism of this process, we tested the hypothesis that CD154 expressed on activated platelets stimulates proliferation of human endothelial cells. METHODS: The expression levels of CD154 and CD40 on platelets and endothelial cells, respectively, were measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Function-blocking monoclonal antibody against CD154 was developed after immunization with CD154- transfected L cells. RESULTS: An anti-CD40 agonist antibody and soluble CD154 both induced significant proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, a function-blocking anti-CD154 antibody inhibited the platelet-induced proliferation of endothelial cells, indicating that the CD154-CD40 pathway is involved in these cellular interactions. An anti-VEGF antibody failed to inhibit the proliferation. This, in addition to the fact that very small amounts of VEGF are released from platelets or endothelial cells, suggests that VEGF does not play an important role in the platelet-stimulated proliferation of endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that platelets induce proliferation of endothelial cells by CD154-CD40 interactions independently of VEGF.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Endothelial Cells , Flow Cytometry , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Immunization , Microscopy, Confocal , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174057

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor, but the pathogenesis is not well understood. While cyclooxygeanse-2 (COX-2) is known to be closely associated with tumor growth and metastasis in several kinds of human tumors, the function of COX-2 in osteosarcoma is unclear. Therefore, to investigate the function of COX-2 in osteosarcoma, we established stable cell lines overexpressing COX-2 in U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. COX-2 overexpression as well as prostaglandin E(2) treatment promoted proliferation of U2OS cells. In addition, COX-2 overexpression enhanced mobility and invasiveness of U2OS cells, which was accompanied by increases of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and -9) activities. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 and celecoxib, inhibited cell proliferation and abrogated the enhanced mobility, invasiveness and MMP activities induced by COX-2 overexpression. These results suggest that COX-2 is directly associated with cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human osteosarcoma cells, and the therapeutic value of COX-2 inhibitors should be evaluated continuously.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms/enzymology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cyclooxygenase 2/biosynthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Nitrobenzenes/pharmacology , Osteosarcoma/enzymology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-90609

ABSTRACT

Colchicine has been shown to regulate the expression of inflammatory gene, but this compound possesses much weaker anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we synthesized a new colchicine derivative CT20126 and examined its immunomodulatory property. CT20126 was found to have immunosuppressive effects by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation without cytotoxicity and effectively inhibit the transcriptional expression of the inflammatory genes, iNOS, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, in macrophages stimulated by LPS. This effect was nearly comparable to that of cyclosporine A. This compound also significantly suppressed the production of nitric oxide and Th1-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-2, with minimal suppression of Th2-related anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the sponge matrix allograft model. Moreover, administration of CT20126 prolonged the survival of allograft skins from BALB/c mice (H-2d) to the dorsum of C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. The in vivo immune suppressive effects of CT20126 were similar to that of cyclosporine A. These results indicate that this compound may have potential therapeutic value for transplantation rejection and other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Colchicine/analogs & derivatives , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Graft Survival/drug effects , Immunosuppression Therapy , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Skin Transplantation/immunology , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Transplantation, Homologous , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200504

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effect of tilianin upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in the plasma of low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr-/-) mice fed with high cholesterol diet and in primary peritoneal macrophages of Ldlr-/- mice. High cholesterol diet induced nitric oxide production in the plasma of Ldlr-/- mice. Tilianin reduced the level of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma from Ldlr-/- mice induced by the high cholesterol diet. Tilianin also inhibited the NO production from the primary culture of peritoneal macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of NO production was caused by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression in peritoneal macrophages isolated from Ldlr-/- mice. Moreover, tilianin inhibited the transcriptional activation of iNOS promoter that has NF-kappa B binding element. Thus, these results provide the first evidence that tilianin inhibit iNOS expression and production of NO and may act as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.


Subject(s)
Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Tissue Distribution , Sinus of Valsalva/metabolism , Receptors, LDL/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Mice , Male , Inflammation/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Animals
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177639

ABSTRACT

beta-Carotene has shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities; however, its molecular mechanism has not been clearly defined. We examined in vitro and in vivo regulatory function of beta-carotene on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 as well as expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta. beta-Carotene inhibited the expression and production of these inflammatory mediators in both LPSstimulated RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion as well as in LPS-administrated mice. Furthermore, this compound suppressed NF-kappaB activation and iNOS promoter activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. beta-Carotene blocked nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 subunit, which correlated with its inhibitory effect on IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation. This compound directly blocked the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS as both the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate did. The inhibition of NADPH oxidase also inhibited NO production, iNOS expression, and iNOS promoter activity. These results suggest that beta-carotene possesses anti-inflammatory activity by functioning as a potential inhibitor for redox-based NF-kappaB activation, probably due to its antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , beta Carotene/pharmacology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191492

ABSTRACT

Prostaglandin E2(PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase, has been implicated in modulating angiogenesis, vascular function, and inflammatory processes, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly elucidated. We here investigated the molecular mechanism by which PGE 2 regulates angiogenesis. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with PGE 2 increased angiogenesis. PGE 2 increased phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), eNOS activity, and nitric oxide (NO) production by the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Dibutyryl cAMP (DB-cAMP) mimicked the role of PGE 2 in angiogenesis and the signaling pathway, suggesting that cAMP is a down-stream mediator of PGE 2. Furthermore, PGE 2 increased endothelial cell sprouting from normal murine aortic segments, but not from eNOS-deficient ones, on Matrigel. The angiogenic effects of PGE 2 were inhibited by the inhibitors of PKA, PI3K, eNOS, and soluble guanylate cyclase, but not by phospholipase C inhibitor. These results clearly show that PGE 2 increased angiogenesis by activating the NO/cGMP signaling pathway through PKA/PI3K/Akt-dependent increase in eNOS activity.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Aorta , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic GMP/biosynthesis , Dinoprostone/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/deficiency , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Umbilical Veins/cytology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-201942

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been reported to be associated with tumor development and progression as well as to protect cells from apoptosis induced by various cellular stresses. Through a tetracycline-regulated COX-2 overexpression system, we found that COX-2 inhibits detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) in a human bladder cancer cell line, EJ. We also found that the inhibition of anoikis by COX-2 results from activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathway as evidenced by suppression of the COX-2 effect on anoikis by a PI-3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, COX-2 enhanced Mcl-1 expression in the anoikis process, implying that Mcl-1 also may be involved in mediating the survival function of COX-2. Together, these results suggest that COX-2 inhibits anoikis by activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathway and probably by enhancement of Mcl-1 expression in human bladder cancer cells. This anti- anoikis effect of COX-2 may be a part of mechanisms to promote tumor development and progression.


Subject(s)
Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Anoikis/physiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Tumor Cells, Cultured
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