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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 651-664, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929317

ABSTRACT

Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ) is one of important kinases in inflammation to phosphorylate inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (IκBα) and then activate nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Inhibition of IKKβ has been a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here we report that IKKβ is constitutively activated in healthy donors and healthy Ikkβ C46A (cysteine 46 mutated to alanine) knock-in mice although they possess intensive IKKβ-IκBα-NF-κB signaling activation. These indicate that IKKβ activation probably plays homeostatic role instead of causing inflammation. Compared to Ikkβ WT littermates, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) could induce high mortality rate in Ikkβ C46A mice which is correlated to breaking the homeostasis by intensively activating p-IκBα-NF-κB signaling and inhibiting phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) expression. We then demonstrated that IKKβ kinase domain (KD) phosphorylates AMPKα1 via interacting with residues Thr183, Ser184, and Thr388, while IKKβ helix-loop-helix motifs is essential to phosphorylate IκBα according to the previous reports. Kinase assay further demonstrated that IKKβ simultaneously catalyzes phosphorylation of AMPK and IκBα to mediate homeostasis. Accordingly, activation of AMPK rather than inhibition of IKKβ could substantially rescue LPS-induced mortality in Ikkβ C46A mice by rebuilding the homeostasis. We conclude that IKKβ activates AMPK to restrict inflammation and IKKβ mediates homeostatic function in inflammation via competitively phosphorylating AMPK and IκBα.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924159

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the epidemiological characteristics and analyze the incidence trend of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Shanghai, China, and compare with the characteristics of the infection in Jilin Province of China during the same period in 2022 and Wuhan at the beginning of 2020. MethodsInformation of new locally-transmitted confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases, imported confirmed COVID-19 cases, local asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and imported asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers in Shanghai from March 1 to April 18, 2022 was collected for descriptive analysis. ResultsFrom March 1 to April 18, 2022, a total of 397 933 locally-transmitted SARS-CoV-2 cases were reported in Shanghai. Of those, 27 613 were clinically confirmed cases and 21 were severe cases. Ten deaths were related to COVID-19. The pathogen is Omicron variant BA.2 of SARS-CoV-2. The number of the infected subjects increased rapidly after March 24 and lead to a disease outbreak. Severe and deceased cases had severe comorbidity and were mostly unvaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers accounted for 93.06%, which is significantly higher than that in Jilin Province during the same period (48.07%, P<0.001). Daily increase in the number of clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases in Shanghai in 2022 was much lower than that in Wuhan, Hubei Province, in 2020. Number of daily newly imported confirmed COVID-19 cases and imported asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers declined during this period. ConclusionThe Omicron variant in Shanghai 2022 is highly infectious and less pathogenic. Omicron variant BA.2 replicates rapidly in asymptomatic carriers, which makes the carriers the major source of infection. Full-term vaccination of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine might decrease the pathogenicity and fatality of SARS-CoV-2 variants. SARS-CoV-2 of the Omicron BA2 strain is likely transmitted through aerosols and droplets, which poses a great challenge to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic in large cities with high population density and sophisticated public transportation.

3.
International Eye Science ; (12): 785-790, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923412

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To observe the efficacy of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)injection treatment in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy(CCSC)combined with choroidal neovascularization(CNV)using multimodal imaging, to explore and evaluate the influence factors.<p>METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 patients(30 eyes)were diagnosed as CCSC combined with CNV. Comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations were performed, including best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), enhanced-depth imaging(EDI)spectral domain optical coherence tomography(SD-OCT), fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA), Indocyanine green angiography(ICGA), and optical coherence tomography angiography(OCTA). Patients were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab(IVR)parallel 1+PRN schem for subretinal fluid(SRF)secondary to CCSC combined with CNV. All the patients were followed up at 1wk, 1mo after treatment and 3mo after consecutive treatment. The BCVA, central macular thickness(CMT), subfoveal choroid thickness(SFCT)and CNV flow area were compared.<p>RESULTS: All the patients were observed at baseline, 1wk, 1mo after treatment and 3mo after consecutive treatment. The difference at various time points of CMT(μm)were statistically significant(<i>F</i>=62.06, <i>P</i><0.01). CMT after treatment at each time point was compared with baseline, the difference among each time points was statistically significant(<i>t</i>=3.08, 6.57, 4.90; <i>P</i>=0.01, 0.02, <0.01). In which 46.7% of patients, SRF can be completely absorbed(14/30). The difference at various time points of BCVA(LogMAR)were statistically significant(<i>F</i>=87.21, <i>P</i><0.01). BCVA after treatment at each time point was compared with baseline, the difference between each group was statistically significant(<i>t</i>=6.52, 4.71, 6.01; <i>P</i>=0.03, <0.01, <0.01). The difference at various time points of SFCT(μm)were statistically significant(<i>F=</i>57.98, <i>P</i><0.01). SFCT after treatment at each time point was compared with baseline, the difference among each time points was statistically significant(<i>t</i>=5.11, 9.03, 4.2; <i>P</i>=0.03, <0.01, <0.01). The difference at various time points of CNV area(mm<sup>2</sup>)were statistically significant(<i>F</i>=70.78, <i>P</i><0.01). CNV area at 1wk and 1mo after treatment was compared with baseline, the difference was no statistically significant(<i>t</i>=7.01, 6.54; <i>P</i>=0.07, 0.05). CNV area at 3mo after the last treatment was compared with baseline, the difference was statistically significant(<i>t</i>=4.51, <i>P</i>=0.02). The change of CMT was positively correlated with the baseline CMT, BCVA and CNV area(<i>r</i>=0.43, 0.41, 0.41; <i>P=</i>0.02, 0.03, 0.03). The change of BCVA was positively correlated with the baseline BCVA and CMT(<i>r</i>=0.89, 0.43; <i>P</i><0.01, 0.02). <p>CONCLUSION: CCSC combined with CNV show different sensitivity to anti-VEGF therapy, the SRF can be completely absorbed after treatment in parts of patients. CNV may not be the only predictive factor leading to the SRF. The baseline BCVA, CMT and CNV area may be the factors that influence the final therapeutic effect of the intravitreal anti-VEGF injection therapy.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912452

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the sex-, age-and season-specific (month) reference intervals (RI) for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement by big data and indirect method in adults.Methods:TSH data of anonymous patients were collected from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University in 2016, the data were selected and outliers were removed. Indirect methods (Hoffmann method and Bhattacharya method) were used to calculate TSH reference intervals of whole population, different genders, ages and seasons (months). TSH RI from two indirect methods of total population, selected population, physical examination population was compared with RI from reagent instruction according to reference change value ( RCV) based on biological variability. Results:A total of 61 599 records were obtained from 90 699 records including 18 776 males and 42 823 females. The TSH RI were obtained by Hoffmann method: the whole population, 0.59-5.59 μIU/ml (1 μIU/ml=1 mIU/L), male, 0.53-5.16 μIU/ml, female, 0.59-6.11 μIU/ml. The upper limits of TSH RI were higher with age and in winter (January): 18-30 years old, 0.62-5.57 μIU/ml, 71-80 years old, 0.49-6.45 μIU/ml; January, 0.59-6.40 μIU/ml, August, 0.60-5.56 μIU/ml; The RI of TSH by Bhattacharya method: the whole population, 0.58-5.80 μIU/ml, male, 0.55-5.02 μIU/ml, female, 0.62-6.21 μIU/ml. The upper limits of TSH RI were also higher with age and in winter (January): 18-30 years old, 0.65-5.67 μIU/ml, 71-80 years old, 0.46-5.99 μIU/ml, January: 0.61-6.52 μIU/ml, August: 0.61-5.69 μIU/ml. Compared to RI from reagent instruction, the differences of TSH RI from two indirect methods of total population, selected population, physical examination population were acceptable.Conclusions:TSH RI was established by indirect method. With the increase of age and winter, the upper limit of TSH reference interval tends to increase.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912379

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the safety and effectiveness of targeted navigation laser with continuous wave threshold power in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSC).Methods:A retrospective clinical study. From November 2018 to June 2020, 28 eyes of 28 patients with CCSC diagnosed in the Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were included in the study. Among them, there were 17 males with 17 eyes and 11 females with 11 eyes; all of them had a monocular disease. The average age of the patients was 36.24±5.14 years, and the average course of the diseases was 4.7±1.3 months. All affected eyes underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fluorescein fundus angiography, fundus autofluorescence, frequency domain optical coherence tomography and angiography, multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG) and micro field inspection. BCVA was carried out using the international standard visual acuity chart, which was converted into the logarithmic minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity during statistics. A targeted navigation laser system was used for continuous wave power therapy under the threshold. Two weeks and 1, 3 months after treatment, the same equipment and methods as before treatment were used to perform related examinations to observe the BCVA, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), foveal retinal thickness (CMT), the mean light sensitivity (MS) in the 10° range of the macular center, and the amplitude density of P 1 wave at ring 1 and 2. The t test was used to compare CMT, SFCT, retinal amplitude density and MS before and after treatment. Results:Before treatment and 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months after treatment, the average logMAR BCVA of the eyes were 0.74±0.16, 0.57±0.16, 0.22±0.05, 0.21±0.06, and the average CMT was 512.33±31.56, 350.40±36.61, 256.49±22.38, 253.45±23.65 μm respectively, the average SFCT was 462.82±25.38, 462.37±39.54, 461.51±29.36, 461.25±34.55 μm, the average MS was 16.32±5.41, 17.53±4.23, 19.52±4.12, 21.35±2.77 dB respectively. At different times before and after treatment, BCVA ( t=6.52, 5.71, 6.01; P=0.00, 0.00, 0.00), CMT ( t=3.08, 6.57, 4.90; P=0.01, 0.00, 0.00), SFCT ( t=7.01, 6.54, 4.85; P=0.08, 0.07, 0.17), MS ( t=6.17, 4.25, 5.46; P=0.02, 0.00, 0.00), the difference was statistically significant. The amplitude density of P 1 wave at ring 1 in the affected eye was 64.37±18.25, 85.31±13.98, 98.35±14.52, 98.40±22.17 nV/deg 2, and the amplitude density of P 1 wave at ring2 was 36.12±18.32, 44.02±17.15, 62.35±14.85, 63.17±15.79 nV/deg 2. The amplitude density of P 1 wave at ring 1 ( t=5.11, 9.03, 4.27; P=0.03, 0.00, 0.00) and ring 2 ( t=5.11, 9.03, 4.27; P=0.03, 0.00, 0.00) before and after treatment showed statistical significance. Conclusion:Targeted navigation laser continuous wave threshold power treatment for CCSC can increase the BCVA, macular retinal amplitude density and macular foveal MS, and reduce CMT and SFCT.

6.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 1017-1021, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909659

ABSTRACT

Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis.Methods:PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Library, clinical trials and other databases were searched to collect the clinical control studies of EGFR-TKI combined with radiotherapy versus EGFR-TKI or radiotherapy alone in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma with CNS metastasis published at home and abroad from January 2012 to April 2019. After evaluating the data, Revman 5.3 software was used for meta-analysis.Results:10 studies involving 1 379 participants were included. The results indicated that compared with EGFR-TKI or radiotherapy alone, EGFR-TKI plus radiotherapy had a significant benefit on overall response rate (ORR) [ OR: 3.81, 95% CI(1.73, 8.39); P<0.01], overall survival (OS) [ HR: 0.60, 95% CI(0.41, 0.89); P=0.01], neurological progression free survival (nPFS) [ HR: 0.65, 95% CI(0.46, 0.91); P=0.01] compared with EGFR-TKI or radiotherapy alone. Conclusions:EGFR-TKI plus radiotherapy had better ORR, OS, nPFS compared with TKI or radiotherapy alone.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907548

ABSTRACT

Caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) is an enteric-specific nuclear transcription factor, which is mainly expressed in the small intestine and colorectum and not expressed in normal gastric mucosa. CDX2 is involved in the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of gastrointestinal tumors, and its expression state is related to the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal tumors. It is expected to provide a new idea for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal tumors by further studying the mechanism of CDX2 involvement in tumor genesis and development and its relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906047

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba on the proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the expression of interleukin-6(IL-6), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K),protein kinase B (Akt), p-protein kinase B (p-Akt), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), hypoxia-inducible factor-1<italic>α </italic>(HIF-1<italic>α</italic>), and Cyclin D<sub>1</sub> at the cellular level, and to explore their molecular mechanism. Method:Following the set-up of the blank group (complete medium), low-, moderate-,and high-dose (20, 40, and 60 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba groups, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose (5, 10, and 20 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) cisplatin groups, the cell were treated with the corresponding drugs for 24, 48, and 72 h for detecting their viability by tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. A549 cells were then divided into the blank group, Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba group, cisplatin group, and combined medication group and intervened with the<sup> </sup>complete medium, 40 mg·L<sup>-1 </sup>Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba, 10 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> cisplatin, and 40 mg·L<sup>-1 </sup>Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba + 10 mg·L<sup>-1 </sup>cisplatin, respectively, for 24, 48 and 72 h, followed by the measurement of inhibitory effects against the proliferation of A549 cells in each experimental group. The level of IL-6 in cell culture supernatant was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after 72 h. The mRNA expression levels of HIF-1<italic>α</italic> and Cyclin D<sub>1</sub> in each group were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), and the protein expression levels of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, mTOR, HIF-1<italic>α</italic>, and Cyclin D<sub>1</sub> by Western blot. Result:After 24 h intervention, Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba did not significantly inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells. However, 48 h later, the inhibitory effect in Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba groups were significantly enhanced in comparison with that in the blank group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), exhibiting a time-dependent response. After 72 h of action, no significant change was present in the inhibitory effect of each Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba group, so the optimal concentration of Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba was set at 40 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> for follow-up experiments. As demonstrated by the comparison with the blank group, cisplatin at each concentration inhibited the cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). Considering the cell survival rate, the best concentration of cisplatin was set at 10 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>. Compared with the blank group, Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba combined with cisplatin remarkably inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells in a time-dependent manner (<italic>P<</italic>0.05), and the differences between the combined medication group and the other two groups became more significant after 72 h of medication (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). The IL-6 level in each experimental group, especially in the combined medication group, significantly declined in contrast to that in the blank group (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). The mRNA expression levels of HIF-1<italic>α</italic> and Cyclin D<sub>1</sub> in all experimental groups were obviously lower than those in the blank group, with the most significant changes observed in the combined medication group (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). The protein expression levels of PI3K, p-Akt, mTOR, HIF-1<italic>α</italic>, and Cyclin D<sub>1</sub> in each experimental group was significantly down-regulated(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the levels in the combined medication group were even lower than those in the cisplatin group (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Conclusion:Scutellariae Radix-Hedyotidis Herba has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 cells, which may be related to its inhibition against the expression and secretion of IL-6/PI3K/Akt/mTOR-HIF-1<italic>α</italic> axis.

9.
International Eye Science ; (12): 148-151, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837735

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To compare the consistency of IOL Master 700 with IOL Master 500 and A-mode ultrasound for biological measurements, and evaluate the measurements of IOL Master 700 in preoperative examinations of cataract patients. <p>METHODS:In this prospective study, a total of 52 patients(100 eyes)diagnosed as age-related cataract were selected at the Nanjing Medical University Eye Hospital. All the patients were examined in turn by IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500 and A-mode ultrasound. Measurements by these three instruments were compared for axial length(AL), corneal curvature(Km), central anterior chamber depth(ACD), white-to-white(W-W)and pupil diameter(P). The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman. <p>RESULTS: The detection rates of AL and ACD with IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500 and A-mode ultrasound were 98%, 87%, 99% and 100%, 99%, 99%; respectively. The detection of Km with IOL Master 700 and IOL Master 500 were 100%, 99%. The detection of W-W and P were both 99%. Among them, 24 eyes had high myopia, posterior scleral grape swelling and axial length ≥26mm. The detection of AL with IOL Master 700, IOL Master 500 and A-mode ultrasound were 96%, 79%, 96%. There was a significant difference in AL and ACD between three instruments(<i>F</i>=11.58, <i>P</i>=0.03; <i>F</i>=12.46, <i>P</i>=0.02). There were no significant differences in Km, W-W and P parameters among three instruments(all <i>P</i>>0.05). The average difference between three instruments for AL measurement: IOL Master 700 and IOL Master 500 was 0.05±0.12mm, IOL Master 700 and A-mode ultrasound was 0.16±0.14mm; The average difference between three instruments for AL measurement in axial length≥26mm: IOL Master 700 and IOL Master 500 was 0.17±0.16mm, IOL Master 700 and A-mode ultrasound was 0.55±0.22mm. The Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there was a high correlation between the measured results of each equipment. The consistency of AL results using Bland-Altman analysis showed there was good consistency in the range of 95% consistency.<p>CONCLUSION: There was high consistency in ocular biological measurements between three instruments in cataract eyes. However, the detection rate of IOL Master 700 in AL was higher than that of IOL Master 500, and the accuracy of the IOL Master 700 measurement was higher in the AL measurement in high myopia with posterior staphyloma. Compared with traditional examination equipment, IOL Master 700 has better penetration and accuracy to provide more accurate measurement parameters.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885995

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the intervention effect of auricular point sticking on dry eye in myopia patients after small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery.Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled study conducted among the myopia patients who received SMILE surgery at Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University. The post-SMILE operation patients who screened by the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized into a control group and a treatment group. Patients in the control group were given 0.1% fluorometholone and 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium eye drops, while the treatment group was given additional unilateral auricular point sticking for 1 month. The patients were estimated using ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), tear film break-up time (TF-BUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) score, corneal sensitivity (CS) and visual quality (VQ) at 1 d, 1 week and 1 month after surgery; the changes in anxiety and depression were also observed in the patients. Results: Compared with the first day after operation, CS in the nasal region was improved in the treatment group, and the VQ score increased in the control group patients at 1 week after operation (both P<0.05); at 1 month after operation, the TF-BUT increased, CFS score decreased, CS in the central and nasal regions increased (all P<0.05), and VQ score increased (P<0.01) in the treatment group, and the CS in the central, upper, lower and nasal regions were improved (all P<0.05), and VQ score increased (P<0.01) in the control group. The between-group comparison showed that the differences in the change of TF-BUT were statistically significant at 1 week and 1 month after surgery, respectively (both P<0.05). Conclusion: Auricular point sticking therapy can increase the TF-BUT and accelerate the repair of ocular surface function in post-SMILE patients.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883663

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activity and its clinical characteristics in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Methods:From January 2016 to August 2017, patients with HFRS who were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were routinely tested by EBV serology, and were divided into two groups according to their presence or absence of EBV infection, namely EBV active group and non-EBV active group. The clinical data between the two groups were compared and analyzed by SPSS 18.0.Results:A total of 188 HFRS patients were enrolled, including 73 cases in EBV active group and 115 cases in non-EBV active group. The EBV active rate of HFRS patients was 38.83% (73/188). The incidences of lumbago [57.53% (42/73) vs 42.61% (49/115)], abdominal pain [42.47% (31/73) vs 20.00% (23/115)], skin and mucosa congestion [57.53% (42/73) vs 39.13% (45/115)], and conjunctiva edema [50.68% (37/73) vs 28.70% (33/115)] in EBV active group were significantly higher than those in non-EBV active group (χ 2 = 3.983, 11.008, 6.083, 9.239, P < 0.05). There were 10, 7 and 43 patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) stage 1, 2 and 3 in EBV active group and 5, 13 and 53 patients in non-EBV active group. Degree of AKI in EBV active group was higher than that in non-EBV active group, and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 12.615, P < 0.05). In EBV active group, the proportion of patients whose renal function recovery over 15 days [23.29% (17/73)] and white blood cell count [11.26 (3.39 ~ 54.23) × 10 9/L] were significantly higher than those in non-EBV active group [6.96% (8/115), 10.03 (2.91 ~ 66.99) × 10 9/L], and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 = 10.330, Z = - 2.003, P < 0.05). Conclusion:HFRS patients may cause latent EBV activity, complicate their clinical features, cause severe renal damage and prolong the recovery time of renal function.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883104

ABSTRACT

The definition of visual impairment, the current status of visual impairment in the elderly, influencing factors related with visual impairment and management control modes are reviewed.There are three international standards of visual impairment including the WHO standard in 1972, the United States standard, and the WHO standard in 2003. The domestic standard is consistent with the WHO standard in 1972. Currently, with the global aging, the international and the Chinese situations of visual impairment are severe,and it is urgent to reduce the incidence of visual impairment. The visual impairment of the elderly is affected by various factors. A variety of management and control modes of visual impairment for the elderly have begun to bear fruit. The aim of the review is to provide the basis to screen for high-risk groups of visual impairment and provide timely intervention to reduce the prevalence of visual impairment in the older population.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882020

ABSTRACT

The severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)is responsible for the global pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19). Understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 is of great significance to the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. The spike(S)protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a major target of protective immunity. The mutations of S protein impact the transmission and pathogenic capacity of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2)is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and mediates viral entry into target cells. The genetic polymorphisms of the ACE2 gene may lead to the difference of incidence of COVID-19 among different populations. Protease can promote the infection of SARS-Cov-2 by activating the S protein. This review summarized the current understanding of the function and genetic variants of S protein, ACE2, and the related proteases. The synergistic effect of these three molecules on the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection was further discussed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897926

ABSTRACT

Background@#The accessory tendon of the extensor hallucis longus (ATEHL) muscle is a common abnormal structure, and its clinical significance remains debatable. In this study, we provide the incidence of the ATEHL and characterize its morphological types in Asian cadavers and investigate its clinical applications. @*Methods@#The tendons from 50 adult cadaveric feet, fixed in 10% formalin, were analyzed. We measured the length and width of both the ATEHL and the extensor hallucis brevis (EHB). @*Results@#All dissected specimens had an ATEHL. The first metatarsophalangeal joint was surrounded by an accessory tendon that inserted onto the joint capsule and the dorsal base of the proximal phalanx. We classified the ATEHL into 3 types based on their directions. Differences in ATEHL type based on sex were not statistically significant. @*Conclusions@#We found an ATEHL in all cadaveric specimens in this study. We surmise that the ATEHL acts as an antagonist with the EHB when the toe is extending, which might help prevent the occurrence of hallux valgus deformity.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890222

ABSTRACT

Background@#The accessory tendon of the extensor hallucis longus (ATEHL) muscle is a common abnormal structure, and its clinical significance remains debatable. In this study, we provide the incidence of the ATEHL and characterize its morphological types in Asian cadavers and investigate its clinical applications. @*Methods@#The tendons from 50 adult cadaveric feet, fixed in 10% formalin, were analyzed. We measured the length and width of both the ATEHL and the extensor hallucis brevis (EHB). @*Results@#All dissected specimens had an ATEHL. The first metatarsophalangeal joint was surrounded by an accessory tendon that inserted onto the joint capsule and the dorsal base of the proximal phalanx. We classified the ATEHL into 3 types based on their directions. Differences in ATEHL type based on sex were not statistically significant. @*Conclusions@#We found an ATEHL in all cadaveric specimens in this study. We surmise that the ATEHL acts as an antagonist with the EHB when the toe is extending, which might help prevent the occurrence of hallux valgus deformity.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878436

ABSTRACT

Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), also known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease. It is thought to be caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene, and its incidence is 1/57 000 to 1/256 000. The case of a 7-year-old patient with BCNS and Duchenne muscular dystrophy was reported in this paper.


Subject(s)
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Mutation
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878317

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In the present study, the ABCA1 was used as a label to capture specific exosomes, the level of ABCA1-labeled exosomal microRNA-135a (miR-135a) was evaluated for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in patients with early stages of AD.@*Methods@#This is a preliminary research focused on the levels of ABCA1 in WBCs, RBCs, HT-22 cells, and neuron cells. The diagnostic value of ABCA1-labeled exosomal miR-135a was examined using the CSF and serum of APP/PS1 double transgenic mice, and 152 patients with SCD, 131 patients with MCI, 198 patients with DAT, and 30 control subjects.@*Results@#The level of ABCA1 exosomes harvested from HT-22 cells and neuron culture medium was significantly higher compared to that of RBCs and WBCs ( @*Conclusion@#This study outlines a method to capture specific exosomes and detect them using immunological methods, which is more efficient for early diagnosis of AD.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/cerebrospinal fluid , Animals , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Cell Line , Cognitive Dysfunction/cerebrospinal fluid , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Exosomes , Female , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice, Transgenic , MicroRNAs/blood , Neurons/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872985

ABSTRACT

Objective::To study the therapeutic and inflammatory effects of gentiopicroside(GPS) on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. Method::The 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely the model group, GPS groups (low, medium and high dose), and the methotrexate (MTX) group, with six rats in each group. AA rats were induced through intradermal injection with 0.1 mL complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the right hind paw, except the normal group. After modeling, rats in each group were treated with drugs for 7 days, once a day. The doses were 30, 60, 120 mg·kg-1 in the GPS groups, and 0.2 mg·kg-1 in the MTX group. The normal group and the model group were intragastrically treated with the same volume of normal saline. During the experiment, the paw thickness and paw volume of rats were recorded everyday by the digital vernier calipers and the toe volume measuring instrument. On the seventh day, X-ray and histopathological examination of the ankle joints were performed by the small animal living imaging instrument and hematoxylin eosin stain. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta at the end of the experiment to determine the levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kits. The mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in synovial tissues were determined by Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR). Result::Compared with the normal group, the results of each index in the model group were significantly different (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the results of paw volume and paw thickness decreased significantly (P<0.01), TNF-α level decreased significantly (P<0.01), and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA levels decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) in drug treated groups. The results of X-ray and histopathological examinations indicated that GPS had a protective effect on the ankle joints of AA rats. Conclusion::GPS has the therapeutic effect on AA rats by inhibiting levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and relevant mRNA levels in synovial tissues.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872926

ABSTRACT

Objective:The chemical differences of Lycii Fructus samples from Qinghai, Ningxia, Gansu, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia provinces were compared based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) plant metabolomics. Method:A total of 97 Lycii Fructus samples from five provinces were collected, including 61 samples in Qinghai, and extracted by 50% methanol for detecting. 1H-NMR spectra were obtained and compared by multivariate statistical analysis for investigating the chemical differences of samples from Qinghai and other production areas. And the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides in all samples was determined with the wavelength of 490 nm (calculated by anhydrous glucose). Result:A total of 32 chemical components were detected in the Lycii Fructus extract by 1H-NMR. The multivariate statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference among the samples from five provinces. The difference between Lycii Fructus from Qinghai and Ningxia, as well as the samples among the six regions of Qinghai province were relatively small. The similarity values of the majority of samples were >0.85. Univariate analysis showed that no significant difference was observed for the most metabolites in Lycii Fructus collected from five provinces, except for sucrose, glucose, proline and so on. There was no significant difference in the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides between Qinghai and other provinces. And the correlation coefficient between the content of Lycii Fructus polysaccharides and the small molecular compounds identified by 1H-NMR was -0.2-0.4. Conclusion:In this study, chemical characteristics of Lycii Fructus in Qinghai province are analyzed from the holistic view by 1H-NMR plant metabolomics, in combination of polysaccharide determination, and the results show that there is no significant difference between samples from Qinghai and other four provinces. The quality evaluation method based on 1H-NMR established in this study can provide scientific basis for improving quality control level and selecting planting areas of Lycii Fructus.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871834

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the changes in choroidal characteristics of polypoid choroidal vascular disease (PCV) eyes after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF drugs, and to preliminarily evaluate its predictive effect on the response of PCV anti-VEGF drugs.Methods:A retrospective clinical study. From January 2015 to May 2020, 63 eyes (63 PCV patients) diagnosed in NanJing Medical University Eye Hospital were included in the study. There were 39 eyes (39 males) and 24 eyes (24 females); all were monocular, with the average age of 62.53±6.05 years old. All eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and those with poor response after treatment were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with anti-VEGF drugs. Among the 63 eyes, 38 eyes did not respond or responded poorly after treatment, and 25 eyes responded well. Based on response results, patients were divided into the poor response group and the good response group. The confocal laser synchronous angiography system (HRA+OCT) enhanced depth scanning technology of Herdelberg (Germany) was used to measure the foveal choroid thickness (SFCT) and the choroidal large vessel thickness (LCVT). The choroidal hyperpermeability (CVH) was judged based on the ICGA inspection results. CVH: In the middle and late stages (10-15 min after indocyanine green injection), the choroid of the posterior pole can be seen with multifocal strong fluorescence with blurred edges. The SFCT and LVCT changes of the two groups of eyes before treatment and 6 months after treatment in the good response group, and 6 months after the treatment of the poor response group combined with PDT were observed. SFCT and LCVT were compared with t test before and after treatment. Results:Before treatment, of the 63 eyes, 38 eyes (60.3%) with CVH manifestations, of which 5 eyes (20.0%, 5/25) and 33 eyes (86.8%, 33/ 38). The SFCT and LCVT of the good response group and the poor response group were 244.16±23.74, 152.76±22.70 μm and 367.34±35.21, 271.84±35.42 μm, respectively. The comparison of SFCT and LVCT between the two groups of eyes before treatment showed statistically significant differences ( t=7.24, 6.87; P=0.01, 0.01). Six months after treatment, the SFCT and LVCT of the eyes in the good response group were 241.04±32.56 and 150.44±23.45 μm, respectively; compared with those before treatment, the difference was not statistically significant ( t=5.35, 8.64; P=0.08, 0.07). Six months after the poor response group combined with PDT treatment, SFCT and LCVT were 311.63±25.36 and 220.11±41.30 μm respectively; compared with those before treatment, the difference was statistically significant ( t=6.84, 9.23; P=0.02, 0.01). After treatment, the CVH manifestations of all the eyes did not change significantly, but the eyes of the poor response group were treated with PDT, and the multifocal strong fluorescence was significantly weakened. Conclusions:PCV thick choroid is mostly caused by abnormal thickening of choroidal large vessels. Eyes with thick choroid and CVH have poor response to anti-VEGF drug therapy alone, and combined PDT therapy may be more suitable for this type of patients.

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