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1.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 876-879, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867798

ABSTRACT

After the notice strengthening the management of diagnosis and treatment of chronic wounds on the body surface is issued by the General Office of the National Health and Health Commission [(2019) No.865], how to speed up the construction of wound repair discipline in China, especially how to build a group of high-level wound repair department, become an important and urgent task for the medical workers who are interested in the construction of wound repair discipline. The authors put forward suggestions on the construction of high-level wound repair department from five elements, including attention from departments and hospitals, talent construction, supporting conditions construction, academic and technological development, and department culture construction. The authors hope that it will be a reference to colleagues who are preparing for the wound repair department in China.

2.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 865-871, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867796

ABSTRACT

Electric burn is a kind of severe burn with a high disability rate. Although some experience in the diagnosis and treatment of electric burn has been accumulated over the years, there still lacks consensus on a standard treatment of the electric burn wound. To improve the treatment level and the life quality of electric burn patients, the Burns and Trauma branch of Chinese Geriatrics Society and the Expert Committee of Standardization Construction of Wound Repair Department under Chinese Medical Doctor Association have made the consensus on electric burn wound management and repair according to relevant research reports at home and abroad. In this consensus, the standardized wound repair measures of electric burns are systematically introduced from the aspects of injury mechanism, pathophysiological changes, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of wounds, debridement and repair, and matters needing attention, so as to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

3.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 186-192, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804886

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on autophagy in early hypoxic mouse cardiomyocytes and the mechanism in vitro.@*Methods@#The hearts of 120 C57BL/6 mice aged 1-2 days, no matter male or female, were isolated, and then primary cardiomyocytes were cultured and used for the following experiments, the random number table was used for grouping. (1) The cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups, with one well in each group. The cells in normoxia group were routinely cultured (the same below), the cells in hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were treated with fetal bovine serum-free and glucose-free Dulbecco′ s modified Eagle medium under low oxygen condition in a volume fraction of 1% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide, and 94% nitrogen for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively. The protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, TRPV1 were determined with Western botting. (2) The cells were divided into normoxia group and hypoxia group, with two coverslips in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above. The positive expression of TRPV1 was detected by immunofluorescence assay. (3) The cells were divided into 4 groups, with one well in each group. The cells in simple hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, and the cells in hypoxia+ 0.1 μmol/L capsaicin group, hypoxia+ 1.0 μmol/L capsaicin group, and hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group were respectively treated with 0.1, 1.0, 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin for 30 min before hypoxia for 6 h. The protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, and TRPV1 were detected by Western blotting. (4) The cells were divided into 5 groups, with 5 wells in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, the cells in hypoxia+ chloroquine group, hypoxia+ capsaicin group, and hypoxia+ capsaicin+ chloroquine group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h after being cultured with 50 μmol/L chloroquine, 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin, and 50 μmol/L chloroquine+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin for 30 min, respectively. Viability of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 assay. (5) The cells were divided into simple hypoxia group and hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group, with one well in each group. The cells in hypoxia group were treated with hypoxia for 6 h as above, the cells in hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group were treated with 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin for 30 minutes and then with hypoxia for 6 h. The protein expressions of lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) and LAMP-2 were detected by Western blotting. Each experiment was repeated for 3 or 5 times. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, least significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction.@*Results@#(1) Compared with those of normoxia group, the protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, and TRPV1 were significantly increased in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups (t3 h=4.891, 5.890, 4.928; t6 h=9.790, 6.750, 10.590; t9 h=6.948, 6.764, 5.049, P<0.05 or P<0.01), which of hypoxia 6 h group were the highest (1.08±0.05, 1.12±0.10, 0.953±0.071, respectively). (2) The density of TRPV1 in cell membrane and inside the cardiomyocytes in hypoxia group was significantly increased with lump-like distribution, and the expression of TRPV1 was higher than that in normoxia group. (3) Compared with those of simple hypoxia group, the protein expression of Beclin-1 in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia+ 0.1 μmol/L capsaicin group was increased (t=10.488, P<0.01), while the protein expressions of LC3 and TRPV1 were increased without statistically significant differences (t=4.372, 3.026, P>0.05); the protein expressions of LC3, TRPV1, and Beclin-1 in cardiomyocytes of hypoxia+ 1.0 μmol/L capsaicin group and hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group were significantly increased (t=15.505, 5.773, 13.430; 20.915, 8.054, 16.384; P<0.05 or P<0.01), which of hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group were the highest (2.33±0.09, 1.34±0.07, 1.246±0.053, respectively). (4) Compared with 0.585±0.045 in normoxia group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia group was significantly decreased (0.471±0.037, t=4.365, P<0.05). Compared with that in hypoxia group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia+ chloroquine group was further decreased (0.350±0.023, t=6.216, P<0.01), while 0.564±0.047 in hypoxia+ capsaicin group was significantly increased (t=3.489, P<0.05). Compared with that in hypoxia+ chloroquine group, the cardiomyocyte viability in hypoxia+ capsaicin+ chloroquine group did not significantly change (0.364±0.050, t=0.545, P>0.05). (5) Compared with 0.99±0.04 and 0.54±0.04 in simple hypoxia group, the protein expressions of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 in hypoxia+ 10.0 μmol/L capsaicin group were significantly increased (1.49±0.06, 0.81±0.05, t=12.550, 7.442, P<0.01).@*Conclusions@#TRPV1 can further promote the expression of autophagy-related proteins in hypoxic cardiomyocytes through autophagy-lysosomal pathway, enhance autophagy activity, and improve autophagic flow for alleviating early hypoxic cardiomyocyte injury.

4.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 169-178, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804884

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effect of human antigen R on lysosomal acidification during autophagy in mouse cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro.@*Methods@#The hearts of 20 C57BL/6 mice aged 1-2 days no matter male or female were isolated to culture primary cardiomyocytes which were used in the following experiments. (1) The cells were divided into 5 groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), i. e., normal control group and sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups. The cells in normal control group were routinely cultured for 54.0 h with Dulbecco′s modified Eagle medium/nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium (the same regular culture condition below), and the cells in sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups were firstly regularly cultured for 53.5, 53.0, 51.0, 48.0 h and then cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium for 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h, respectively. The protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3Ⅱ), autophagy-related protein 5, and adenosine triphosphatase V1 region E1 subunit (ATP6V1E1) were detected by Western blotting. (2) The cells were divided into normal control group and sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group. The cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (1), and the cell lysosomal acidification level was observed and detected under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (3) Two batches of cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (1). The protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of one batch and its protein expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus protein of cells of the other batch were detected by Western blotting. (4) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple control small interfering RNA (siRNA) group, simple human antigen R-siRNA1 (HuR-siRNA1) group, simple HuR-siRNA2 group, sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group. After 48 hours of regular culture, the cells in simple control siRNA group and sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group were transfected with negative control siRNA for 6 h, the cells in simple HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group were transfected with HuR-siRNA1 for 6 h, and the cells in simple HuR-siRNA2 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group were transfected with HuR-siRNA2 for 6 h. Hereafter, the cells in these 8 groups were continuously cultured for 48 h with regular conditon, and then the cells in normal control group and each simple siRNA-treated group were replaced with DMEM/F12 medium, the cells in the other groups were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium, and they were cultured for 3 h. The protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells was detected by Western blotting. (5) Two batches of cells were divided into sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The distribution and expression of human antigen R in the cells of one batch were observed and detected by immunofluorescence method, and the lysosomal acidification level in the cells of the other batch was observed and detected under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (6) Three batches of cells were divided into sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The protein expressions of cathepsin D in the whole protein of cells of one batch, human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells of one batch, and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells of the other batch were detected by Western blotting. (7) The cells were divided into normal control group, sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group, sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group, and the cells in corresponding groups were treated the same as those in experiment (4). The mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in cells was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The sample number of each experiment was 3. Data were processed with independent data t test, one-way analysis of variance, least significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction.@*Results@#(1) Compared with those of normal control group, the protein expressions of LC3Ⅱ and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups were significantly increased (t=12.16, 4.05, 4.82, 11.64, 3.29, 8.37, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with that of normal control group, the protein expression of autophagy-related protein 5 in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups was significantly increased (t=6.88, 10.56, 5.76, 9.91, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (2) Compared with 1.03±0.08 of normal control group, the lysosomal acidification level in the cells of sugar-free serum-free 3.0 group (2.92±0.30) was significantly increased (t=6.01, P<0.01). (3) There was no statistically significant difference in the overall comparison of protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells among the 5 groups (F=1.09, P>0.05). Compared with that of normal control group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells was significantly increased in sugar-free serum-free 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 h groups (t=43.05, 11.07, 5.39, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the protein expression of human antigen R in the nucleus protein of cells was significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free 3.0 and 6.0 h groups (t=11.18, 12.71, P<0.01). (4) Compared with that of simple control siRNA group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of simple HuR-siRNA1 group and simple HuR-siRNA2 group was significantly decreased (t=4.82, 4.44, P<0.05). Compared with that of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the protein expression of human antigen R in the whole protein of cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group was significantly decreased (t=4.39, 6.27, P<0.05). (5) Compared with those of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the distribution of human antigen R in the cytoplasm of cells and its expression level were significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group (t=10.13, P<0.01). Compared with 1.00±0.06 of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the lysosomal acidification level (0.73±0.06) in the cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group was significantly decreased (t=3.28, P<0.01). (6) Compared with those of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the protein expressions of cathepsin D in the whole protein of cells, human antigen R in the cytoplasm protein of cells, and ATP6V1E1 in the whole protein of cells were significantly decreased in sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group and sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA2 group (t=4.16, 3.99, 4.81, 5.07, 11.68, 12.97, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (7) Compared with that of normal control group, the mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in the cells of sugar-free serum-free 3.0 h group was significantly increased (t=5.51, P<0.05). Compared with that of sugar-free serum-free+ control siRNA group, the mRNA expression of ATP6V1E1 in the cells of sugar-free serum-free+ HuR-siRNA1 group was significantly decreased (t=5.97, P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#After sugar-free serum-free treatment in vitro, the autophagy in mouse primary cardiomyocytes is activated, the lysosomal acidification is enhanced, and the expression of human antigen R in cytoplasm is increased. Human antigen R function is activated and involved in maintaining lysosomal acidification during autophagy in mouse cardiomyocytes.

5.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 163-168, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804883

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of early organ injury in elderly patients with severe burns and the effects on the prognosis of patients.@*Methods@#From January 2010 to August 2018, 62 patients with severe burns (43 men and 19 women, aged from 60 to 89 years at the time of admission) who were hospitalized in the Institute of Burn Research of the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University, hereinafter referred to as the author′s affiliation), meeting the inclusion criteria, were included in elderly (E) group, and 124 patients with severe burns (86 men and 38 women, aged from 18 to 59 years at the time of admission) at the same term were included in young and middle-aged (YM) group. Treatment of patients in the 2 groups followed the conventional procedures of the author′s affiliation. The following data of patients in the 2 groups were retrospectively analyzed. (1) Fluid replacement volume and urine volume within the first and second post injury hour (PIH) 24 were recorded. The levels of hemoglobin, haematocrit, and blood lactic acid at admission, PIH 24 and 48 were recorded. (2) The creatine kinase isozyme-MB (CK-MB), total bilirubin, blood creatinine, oxygenation index, and blood platelet count at admission, at shock stage, and on post injury day (PID) 3 to 7 were collected. (3) The days of seriously or critically ill and deaths were recorded. Data were processed with chi-square test, group t test, Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, and Bonferroni correction.@*Results@#(1) There were no statistically significant differences in fluid replacement volume within the first and second PIH 24, and urine volume within the second PIH 24 between patients in the 2 groups (t=0.351, 1.307, 1.110, P>0.05). The urine volume of patients in group E within the first PIH 24 was significantly less than that in group YM (t=5.628, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in levels of hemoglobin (t=0.011, 1.075, 0.239), haematocrit (t=0, 0.033, 0.199), and blood lactic acid (t=0.017, 1.002, 0.739) at admission, PIH 24 and 48 between patients in the 2 groups (P>0.05). (2) There were no statistically significant differences in levels of CK-MB at admission and on PID 3 to 7 between patients in the 2 groups (t=0.069, 0.001, P>0.05). The level of CK-MB of patients in group E at shock stage was significantly higher than that in group YM (t=4.017, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in levels of total bilirubin at admission and on PID 3 to 7 between patients in the 2 groups (t=0.227, 0.002, P>0.05). However, the level of total bilirubin of patients in group E at shock stage was significantly higher than that in group YM (t=6.485, P<0.05). The levels of blood creatinine of patients in group E at admission and shock stage were significantly higher than those in group YM (t=4.226, 12.299, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while there was no statistically significant difference between them on PID 3 to 7 (t=0.693, P>0.05). The oxygenation indexes of patients in group E at admission and shock stage and on PID 3 to 7 [(371±16), (263±16), and (228±18) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)] were lower than (420±13), (327±13), and (281±17) mmHg of patients in group YM, respectively (t=5.650, 9.782, 4.856, P<0.05 or P<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in levels of blood platelet count at admission and shock stage between patients in the 2 groups (t=0.038, 0.588, P>0.05), while the level of blood platelet count of patients in group E on PID 3 to 7 was significantly lower than that in group YM (t=6.636, P<0.05). (3) The days of seriously or critically ill and death rate of patients in group E were respectively longer or higher than those in group YM (Z=-2.303, χ2=13.676, P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*Conclusions@#In the case of the same tissue perfusion at shock stage, injuries in heart, liver, kidney, lung, and coagulation system in elderly patients with severe burns are more obvious than those in young and middle-aged patients, with more severe illness and higher mortality.

6.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 116-124, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804755

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the role of hexokinase Ⅱ in the changes of autophagic flow in cardiomyocytes of mice with ischemia-hypoxia in vitro.@*Methods@#The hearts of totally six male and female C57BL/6 mice aged from 1 to 2 days were isolated to culture primary cardiomyocytes which were used for the following experiments. (1) The cells were divided into 6 groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), i. e., normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups and ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups, with 4 wells in each group. After being regularly cultured for 48 h with Dulbecco′s modified Eagle medium/nutrient mixture F12 (DMEM/F12) medium (the same regular culture condition below), the cells in normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium in the low-oxygen incubator with a volume fraction of 1% oxygen and a volume fraction of 5% carbon dioxide at 37 ℃ (the same hypoxic culture condition below) for 3, 6, and 9 h, respectively. Cell viability was measured by the cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) method. (2) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (1), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 Ⅰ (LC3Ⅰ), LC3Ⅱ, p62, and hexokinase Ⅱ. (3) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) group, with 4 wells in each group. After a regular culture for 48 h, the cells in normal control group were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 9 h; the cells in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group were replaced with sugar-free serum-free medium in which 2-DG was dissolved in a concentration of 10 mmol/L (20 μmol), and then they were cultured with hypoxia for 9 h. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method. (4) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (3), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of LC3Ⅰ, LC3Ⅱ, and p62. (5) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (3), with 2 wells in each group. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe autophagosomes/autolysosomes in cardiomyocytes. (6) The cells were divided into normal control group, simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ hexosinase Ⅱ small interfering RNA1 (HK-ⅡsiRNA1) group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group, with 4 wells in each group. The cells in normal control group and simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were regularly cultured for 48 h, and the cells in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were respectively transfected with 200 nmol/L HK-ⅡsiRNA1 and HK-ⅡsiRNA2 and then also cultured for 48 h. The cells in normal control group were cultured with replaced fresh DMEM/F12 medium for 9 h, and the cells in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group, and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were cultured with replaced sugar-free serum-free medium and hypoxia for 9 h. Cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method. (7) The cells were grouped and treated the same as those in experiment (6), with 1 well in each group. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of LC3Ⅰ, LC3Ⅱ, p62, and hexokinase Ⅱ. Except for experiment (5), each experiment was repeated 3 times. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and lest significant difference t test, and Bonferroni correction.@*Results@#(1) The viabilities of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were 0.450±0.022, 0.385±0.010, and 0.335±0.015, respectively, which were significantly lower than 0.662±0.026, 0.656±0.028, and 0.661±0.021 of the corresponding normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups, respectively (t=6.21, 9.12, 12.48, P<0.01). (2) Compared with those of corresponding normal control 3, 6, and 9 h groups, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 3, 6, and 9 h groups were significantly increased (t3 h=16.15, 10.99, 5.30, t6 h=6.79, 10.42, 9.42, t9 h=15.76, 16.51, 7.20, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (3) The viability of cardiomyocytes in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was 0.353±0.022, which was significantly lower than 0.673±0.027 of normal control group (t=9.29, P<0.01). The viability of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group was 0.472±0.025, which was significantly higher than that of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group (t=3.60, P<0.05). (4) Compared with those of normal control group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expression of p62 in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were significantly increased (t=9.45, 8.40, P<0.01). Compared with those of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰratio and protein expression of p62 in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group were significantly decreased (t=4.39, 4.74, P<0.05). (5) In cardiomyocytes of normal control group, only single autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure was observed. Compared with that of normal control group, the number of autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was increased significantly. Compared with that of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the number of autophagosome/autolysosome with bilayer membrane structure in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ 2-DG group was significantly decreased. (6) The viability of cardiomyocytes in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group was 0.358±0.023, which was significantly lower than 0.673±0.026 in normal control group (t=9.12, P<0.01). The viabilities of cardiomyocytes in ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were 0.487±0.027 and 0.493±0.022, respectively, which were significantly higher than the viability in simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group (t=3.63, 4.28, P<0.05). (7) Compared with those of normal control group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group were significantly increased (t=6.08, 6.31, 4.83, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with those of simple ischemia-hypoxia 9 h group, the LC3Ⅱ/Ⅰ ratio and protein expressions of p62 and hexokinase Ⅱ in cardiomyocytes of ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA1 group and ischemia-hypoxia 9 h+ HK-ⅡsiRNA2 group were significantly decreased (t=5.10, 7.76, 15.33, 4.17, 8.42, 12.11, P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*Conclusions@#Ischemia-hypoxia upregulates the expression level of hexokinase Ⅱ protein in mouse cardiomyocytes cultured in vitro, which decreases the viability of cardiomyocytes by impairing autophagic flow. To inhibit the activity of hexokinase Ⅱ or its expression can alleviate the ischemia-hypoxia damage of cardiomyocytes.

7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 437-441, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806926

ABSTRACT

Burn medicine of China started in 1958. Great progress has been achieved in discipline construction, scientific research, clinical treatment level, and talent team construction in 60 years. A large number of severely burned patients have been successfully treated, and plans for treatment of burn patients with Chinese characteristics have been established with world-leading treatment level. At the same time, in the continuous improvement of clinical treatment level, extensive experimental researches for the key scientific problems in clinical treatment of burn patients have been conducted, and a large number of innovative research results have been achieved by Chinese burn medicine workers. The theoretical research of burn medicine in China has stepped into advanced ranks of the world. Burn medicine will confront development opportunity and tough challenge in the future. We can take advantage of wound repair of burn discipline to deal with the situation of decreasing incidence of burn and undiminished importance of burn medicine. To establish and improve the chain of burn treatment is an important direction for burn discipline development in the future.

8.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 303-308, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806549

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of decline of pH value on cardiomyocyte viability of rats, and to analyze the possible mechanism.@*Methods@#Hearts of five newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated, and then primary cardiomyocytes were cultured and used in the following experiments. (1) The primary cardiomyocytes were divided into pH 7.4+ 6 h, pH 7.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 6 h, pH 6.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 1 h, and pH 6.5+ 3 h groups according to the random number table, with 4 wells in each group. After being routinely cultured for 48 h (similarly hereinafter), cells in pH 7.4+ 6 h, pH 7.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 6 h, and pH 6.0+ 6 h groups were cultured with pH 7.4, pH 7.0, pH 6.5, and pH 6.0 DMEM-F12 medium (similarly hereinafter), respectively, and then they were cultured for 6 h. Cells in pH 6.5+ 1 h and pH 6.5+ 3 h groups were cultured with pH 6.5 medium, and then they were cultured for 1 h and 3 h, respectively. Viability of cells was detected by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) method. (2) The primary cardiomyocytes were divided into pH 7.4, pH 6.5, and pH 6.5+ taxol groups according to the random number table, with 2 wells in each group. Cells in pH 7.4 group were cultured with pH 7.4 medium, while cells in pH 6.5 and pH 6.5+ taxol groups were cultured with pH 6.5 medium. Cells in pH 6.5+ taxol group were added with taxol of a final molarity of 0.2 μmol/L in addition, and then they were cultured for 6 h. Morphology and density of microtubule of cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. (3) The primary cardiomyocytes were grouped and treated as in experiment (2), with 2 wells in each group. The expressions of polymerized microtubulin and free microtubulin were determined with Western blotting. (4) The primary cardiomyocytes were grouped and treated as in experiment (2), with 4 wells in each group. Viability of cells after treated with taxol was detected by MTT method. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and LSD-t test.@*Results@#(1) The viability of cells in pH 7.4+ 6 h, pH 7.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 6 h, pH 6.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 1 h, and pH 6.5+ 3 h groups were 1.00±0.08, 0.90±0.08, 0.85±0.06, 0.83±0.04, 0.91±0.10, and 0.89±0.10, respectively. Compared with that in pH 7.4+ 6 h group, viability of cells in pH 7.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 6 h, pH 6.0+ 6 h, pH 6.5+ 1 h, and pH 6.5+ 3 h groups were all decreased in different degrees (t=2.476, 4.002, 4.996, 2.168, 2.400, P<0.05). (2) Microtubules of cells in pH 7.4 group were radially distributed around the nucleus with clear tubular structure. Compared with that in pH 7.4 group, the skeleton of microtubules of cells in pH 6.5 group was obviously damaged, with broken structure of microtubule and reduced density. Compared with that in pH 6.5 group, the damage degree of microtubules of cells in pH 6.5+ taxol group was obviously alleviated, and the structure of microtubules basically returned to normal. (3) Compared with that in pH 7.4 group, the expression of free microtubulin of cells in pH 6.5 group was significantly increased (t=3.030, P<0.05), while the expression of polymerized microtubulin of cells was significantly decreased (t=8.604, P<0.05). Compared with that in pH 6.5 group, the expression of free microtubulin of cells in pH 6.5+ taxol group was significantly decreased (t=4.559, P<0.05), while the expression of polymerized microtubulin of cells was significantly increased (t=5.472, P<0.05). (4) Viability of cells in pH 7.4, pH 6.5, and pH 6.5+ taxol groups were 1.00±0.10, 0.83±0.04, and 0.93±0.10, respectively. Compared with that in pH 7.4 group, the viability of cells in pH 6.5 group was obviously declined (t=4.412, P<0.05). Compared with that in pH 6.5 group, the viability of cells in pH 6.5+ taxol group was obviously increased (t=2.461, P<0.05).@*Conclusions@#The decline of pH value reduces the viability of cardiomyocytes of rats through destroying the skeleton of microtubule. Stabilizing microtubule skeleton can significantly reduce acidic treatment-induced damage and ameliorate cardiomyocyte viability.

9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 8-13, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805940

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of cardiac support on delayed resuscitation in extensively burned patients with shock.@*Methods@#Clinical data of 62 extensively burned patients with shock on admission, admitted to the 159th Hospital of PLA (hereinafter referred to as our hospital) from January 2012 to January 2017, were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into cardiac support group (n=35) and control group (n=27) according to the use of deslanoside and ulinastatin. All patients were treated with routine fluid resuscitation based on the formula of the Third Military Medical University till post injury hour (PIH) 48. Patients in cardiac support group were given slow intravenous injection of deslanoside which was added in 20 mL 100 g/L glucose injection with first dose of 0.4 to 0.6 mg, 0.2 to 0.4 mg per 6 to 8 h, no more than 1.6 mg daily, and slow intravenous injection of 1×105U ulinastatin which was added in 100 mL 50 g/L glucose injection, once per 12 h. Other treatments of patients in the two groups followed the same conventional procedures of our hospital. The following data of the two groups of patients were collected. (1) The data of urine volume per hour within PIH 48, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), blood lactic acid, base excess, hematocrit, and albumin at PIH 48 were recorded. (2) The input volumes of electrolyte, colloid within the first and second 24 hours post burn and the total fluid input volumes within PIH 48 were recorded. (3) The data of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total bile acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, β2-microglobulin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine at PIH 48 were recorded. (4) The complications including cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, seroperitoneum, renal failure, sepsis, and death were also recorded. Data were processed with independent sample ttest, Fisher′s exact test, Pearson chi-square test, or continuous correction chi-square test.@*Results@#(1) There were no statistically significant differences in urine volume within PIH 48, heart rate, MAP, CVP, hematocrit, or albumin at PIH 48 between the patients of two groups (t=0.150, 0.488, 0.805, 0.562, 1.742, 0.696, P>0.05). While the levels of blood lactic acid and base excess were respectively (4.2±2.2) and (-4.3±2.0) mmol/L in patients of cardiac support group, which were significantly better than (5.9±1.7) and (-6.0±3.1) mmol/L in patients of control group (t=3.249, 2.480, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (2) There was no statistically significant difference in input volume of colloid within the first 24 hours post burn between the patients of two groups (t=0.642, P>0.05). The input volume of electrolyte within the first 24 hours post burn, the input volumes of electrolyte and colloid within the second 24 hours post burn, and the total fluid input volume within PIH 48 of patients in cardiac support group were significantly less than those in control group (t=2.703, 4.223, 3.437, 2.515, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (3) The levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, total bile acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, β2-microglobulin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine of patients in cardiac support group at PIH 48 were significantly lower than those in control group (t=3.066, 3.963, 3.225, 2.943, 2.431, 3.084, 4.052, 2.915, 3.353, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (4) The occurrences of pleural effusion and seroperitoneum and mortality of patients in cardiac support group were significantly lower than those in control group (χ2=5.514, 6.984, 4.798, P<0.05 or P<0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, renal failure, and sepsis between the patients of two groups [χ2=1.314 (sepsis), P>0.05].@*Conclusions@#The cardiotonic and cardiac protection treatments in delayed resuscitation of extensively burned patients with shock contribute to improving the cellular anonic metabolism, reducing the volume of fluid resuscitation, and mitigating the ischemic and hypoxic damage to organs, so as to lay foundation for decreasing further complication incidences and mortality.

10.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 3-7, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805939

ABSTRACT

It is an important clinical subject to illuminate the mechanisms of myocardial damage in the early stage post severe burn in prevention against and treatment of burn shock, which may offer a targeted " dynamic support" in the treatment of severe burn patients. In recent years, the role of autophagy in hypoxic myocardial injury has attracted much attention. Autophagy is a physiological phenomenon on intracellular digestion process of long-life proteins and the aging and damaged organelles through lysosomal system, and it is essential for maintaining the homeostasis of cells. Severe hypoxia/ischemia causes lysosome dysfunction, insufficient fusion between autophagosome and lysosome, accumulation of autophagosomes, and damaged autophagy flux, thus leading to cell dysfunction and cell death. To study the roles of autophagy and explore the potential signals in autophagy modulation will provide a new therapeutic target for alleviating cardiac dysfunction following severe burn.

11.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 759-760, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773053

ABSTRACT

There is no national referral criteria for burns in China till now, which brings inconvenience and confusion. Based on the oversea experiences and the actual situation in China, many famous experts in burns discussed and developed this (2018 ). We hope these referral criteria will be helpful in clinical practice of burns and can be improved continuously through application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burn Units , Reference Standards , Burns , Therapeutics , China , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Reference Standards , Referral and Consultation , Reference Standards
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700573

ABSTRACT

The referential significance of standardized training for residents in clinical practice teaching was explored by analyzing current teaching situation. We analyzed some plans for improvement in management construction,talent training, teaching content construction and so on, in order to standardize medical teaching management and improve teaching quality, so as to link up clinical practice teaching to standardized residency training tightly.

13.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 537-544, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809258

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare and analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized elderly, young and middle-aged patients with severe burn in recent years, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of elderly patients with severe burn.@*Methods@#Relying on the entry system of epidemiological case data and biological sample of severe burn from multicenter in clinic, medical records of patients with severe burn, aged above 18, hospitalized in 8 burn wards from January 2012 to December 2015 were collected. Six hundred and fifteen patients who were more than 18 years old and less than or equal to 65 years old were included in young and middle-aged group (YM). Eighty-two patients aged more than 65 years old were included in elderly group (E). Data of age, gender, residence, education level, cause of injury, location of injury, season of injury, total burn area, occurrence and area of full-thickness burn injury, wound site, inhalation injury incidence and severity, post burn admission time, proportion of delayed resuscitation, proportion of escharectomy or tangential excision and skin grafting, preinjury systemic disease, system complication during hospitalization, length of hospital stay, outcome of treatment, and reason of abandoning treatment of patients were analyzed. Data were processed with chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. The odds ratios of preinjury systemic disease, system complication during hospitalization, and adverse outcome of patients in group YM were compared with those in group E.@*Results@#(1) The majority of patients in the two groups were male, but the proportion of male patients in group YM was higher. There was statistically significant difference in gender distribution of patients between the two groups (χ2=18.727, P<0.001). The majority of patients in the two groups were from rural areas, but the proportion of rural patients in group E was higher. There was statistically significant difference in residence distribution of patients between the two groups (χ2=9.306, P=0.002). Patients in group YM mainly had secondary education, while patients in group E mainly had primary education. There was statistically significant difference in distribution of education level of patients between the two groups (χ2=146.797, P<0.001). (2) The most common causes of injury of patients in the two groups were both flame, but the proportion of patients with flame burn injury in group E was higher. There was statistically significant difference in distribution of cause of injury of patients between the two groups (χ2=25.063, P<0.001). The main locations of injury of patients in groups YM and E were respectively public place and private residence. There was statistically significant difference in location distribution of injury of patients between the two groups (χ2=46.313, P<0.001). The main seasons of injury of patients in groups YM and E were respectively summer and winter. There was statistically significant difference in season distribution of patients between the two groups (χ2=23.143, P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference in distribution of total burn area of patients between the two groups (χ2=25.799, P=0.002). The occurrences of full-thickness burn injury of patients in the two groups were similar (χ2=2.685, P=0.101), while there was statistically significant difference in area of full-thickness burn injury of patients between the two groups (χ2=26.702, P=0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in distribution of wound site of patients between the two groups (χ2=3.954, P=0.785). There were no statistically significant differences in incidence and severity distribution of inhalation injury of patients between the two groups (with χ2 values respectively 0.425 and 0.672, P values above 0.05). (3) There was statistically significant difference in distribution of admission time of patients between the two groups (χ2=6.632, P=0.036), but there was no statistically significant difference in proportion of delayed resuscitation of patients between the two groups (χ2=1.261, P=0.261). The proportion of escharectomy or tangential excision and skin grafting of patients in group YM was 72.0% (443/615), which was significantly higher than 35.4% (29/82) of group E (χ2=44.498, P<0.001). The incidence of preinjury systemic disease of patients in group YM was 13.2% (81/615), which was significantly lower than 61.0% (50/82) of group E (χ2=108.337, P<0.001). The risk of preinjury systemic disease of patients in group E was 10.30 times of that of patients in group YM [with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 6.24-17.01, P<0.001]. During hospitalization, 59.8% (49/82) of patients in group E suffered from system complications, which was significantly higher than 36.6% (225/615) of group YM (χ2=16.282, P<0.001). The risk of system complication of patients in group E was 2.57 times of patients in group YM (with 95% CI of 1.61-4.12, P<0.001). The length of hospital stay of patients in group E was significantly shorter than that of group YM (U=36 735, P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference in treatment outcome of patients between the two groups (χ2=106.251, P<0.001). The risk of adverse outcome of patients in group E was 7.52 times of group YM (with 95% CI of 4.40-12.88, χ2=67.709, P<0.001). The proportion of abandoning treatment of patients in group E was significantly higher than that of group YM (χ2=150.670, P<0.001). The risk of abandoning treatment of patients in group E was 15.86 times of that of group YM (with 95% CI of 9.36-26.88, P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in distribution of reason of abandoning treatment of patients between the two groups (χ2=4.178, P=0.243).@*Conclusions@#There were significant differences in the epidemiological characteristics of patients in groups E and YM. In elderly burn patients, the proportion of rural population was higher and the education level was lower. Flame burn was common and burns mostly occurred in private residences and in winter. The total burn area was slightly lower but the area of full-thickness burn injury was larger. The length of hospital stay was shorter and the proportion of surgical treatment was lower. The incidences of preinjury systemic disease and system complication during hospitalization were higher, and therefore the risks of adverse outcome and abandoning treatment were higher.

14.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 529-532, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809256

ABSTRACT

With ageing of the population, it is estimated that the percentage of old people aged above 65 years old will be approached to 30% in China by 2035. This presents a considerable challenge to geriatric burn treatment, as elderly burn patients have more serious injuries, longer hospital lengths of stay, and higher rates of complications and mortality. In this article, we analyze the current status of burns in the elderly in China and the factors contributing to the outcome of the elderly, and put forward therapeutic strategies so as to improve the level of prevention and treatment of burns in the elderly.

15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 295-300, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808692

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of change of activity of vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) of myocardial lysosome on myocardial damage in rats after severe burn and its mechanism.@*Methods@#The myocardial lysosomes were extracted from the hearts of 12 SD rats with ultra-high speed gradient density centrifugation, then Western blotting and transmission electron microscope observation were conducted for identification. One hundred and twenty rats were divided into pure burn group, ATP group, normal control group, and bafilomycin group according to the random number table, with 30 rats in each group. Rats in pure burn group and ATP group were inflicted with 40% TBSA full-thickness scald on the back. Immediately after injury, rats in pure burn group were intraperitoneally injected with lactated Ringer′s solution in 4 mL·%TBSA-1·kg-1, and rats in ATP group were intraperitoneally injected with ATP in 0.4 mg/kg at 12 h before burn, immediately after burn, and 12 h after burn. Rats in normal control group did not receive any treatment, and rats in bafilomycin group were intraperitoneally injected with bafilomycin A1 in 0.3 mg/kg at the same time points as those of ATP group. At 24 h after burn, 30 rats from each group were collected for determining activity of V-ATPase of myocardial lysosome with coupled-enzyme assay and the expression of myocardium autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and P62 by Western blotting. Left ventricular arterial blood was collected to detect the content of 5 items of myocardial enzyme spectrum and cardiac troponin T (cTnT). Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and t test.@*Results@#(1) After identification, both the expression level of lysosome-related membrane protein 1 and purity of lysosome in the sample were high, and the structure of lysosome was intact. (2) At 24 h after burn, the activity values of V-ATPase of myocardial lysosome in rats of pure burn group, ATP group, normal control group, and bafilomycin group were (2.03±0.67), (3.01±0.58), (4.29±0.26), and (1.83±0.52) μmol·mg-1·h-1, respectively. The activity value of V-ATPase of myocardial lysosome in rats of pure burn group was significantly lower than the values in ATP group and normal control group (with t values respectively 3.14 and 8.87, P values below 0.01). The activity values of V-ATPase of rats in normal control group were significantly higher than those in bafilomycin group (t=11.87, P<0.01). At 24 h after burn, the expressions of myocardial LC3 and P62 in pure burn group were significantly higher than those in ATP group and normal control group (with t values from 3.73 to 5.88, P values below 0.01). The expressions of myocardial LC3 and P62 in normal control group were significantly lower than those in bafilomycin group (with t values respectively 2.64 and 3.07, P<0.05 or P<0.01). At 24 h after burn, the content of 5 items of myocardial enzyme spectrum and cTnT in pure burn group was significantly higher than that in ATP group and normal control group (with t values from 3.24 to 16.72, P values below 0.01). The content of 5 items of myocardial enzyme spectrum and cTnT in normal control group was significantly lower than that in bafilomycin group (with t values from 2.39 to 10. 70, P values below 0.01).@*Conclusions@#The activity of V-ATPase of myocardial lysosome decreased in rats after severe burn, which can result in myocardial damage by inhibiting myocardial autophagy flux.

16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 224-231, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327354

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of direct current electric fields on directional migration and arrangement of dermal fibroblasts in neonatal BALB/c mice and the related mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twelve neonatal BALB/c mice were divided into 4 batches. The skin on the back of 3 neonatal mice in each batch was obtained to culture fibroblasts. Fibroblasts of the second passage were inoculated in 27 square cover slips with the concentration of 5 × 10(4) cells per mL. (1) Experiment 1. Six square cover slips inoculated with fibroblasts of the second passage were divided into electric field group (EF) and sham electric field group (SEF), with 3 cover slips in each group. The cover slips were put in live cell imaging workstation. The cells in group EF was treated with electric power with EF intensity of 200 mV/mm, while simulating process without actual power was given to SEF group (the same below) for 6 h. Cell proliferation rate was subsequently counted. (2) Experiment 2. Six cover slips were divided and underwent the same processes as in experiment 1. Cell movement locus within EF hour (EFH) 6, direction change of cell migration at EFH 0 (immediately), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 which was denoted as cos(α), cell migration velocity within EFH 6, direction change of long axis of cell within EFH 6, and direction change of cell arrangement at EFH 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 which was denoted as polarity value cos[2(θ-90)] were observed under live cell imaging workstation. After EFH 6, the morphological changes in microtubules and microfilaments were observed with immunofluorescent staining. (3) Experiment 3. Six cover slips were divided into cytochalasin D group (treated with 1 μmol/L cytochalasin D for 10 min) and colchicine group (treated with 5 μmol/L colchicine for 10 min), with 3 cover slips in each group. The morphological changes in microfilaments and microtubules were observed with the same method as in experiment 2. (4) Experiment 4. Nine cover slips were divided into control group (no reagent was added), cytochalasin D group and colchicine group (added with the same reagents as in experiment 3), with 3 cover slips in each group. Cells in the 3 groups were exposed to an EF of 200 mV/mm for 6 h. Cell movement locus within EFH 6, cell migration velocity within EFH 6, cell polarity values at EFH 0, 3, and 6, and morphological changes of cells at EFH 0 and 6 were observed. Data were processed with independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and LSD test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) There was no statistically significant difference in cell proliferation rate in group EF and group SEF (t=-0.24, P﹥0.05). (2) Within EFH 6, cells in group EF migrated towards the anode of EF, while cells in group SEF moved randomly. At EFH 0, the values of cos(α) of cells in the 2 groups were both 0. The absolute value of cos(α) of cells in group EF (-0.57 ± 0.06) was significantly higher than that in group SEF (0.13 ± 0.09, t=6.68, P<0.01) at EFH 1, and it was still higher than that in group SEF from EFH 2 to 6 (with t values from 5.33 to 6.83, P values below 0.01). Within EFH 6, migration velocity of cells in group EF was (0.308 ± 0.019) μm/min, which was significantly higher than that in group SEF [(0.228 ± 0.021) μm/min, t=-2.76, P<0.01]. Within EFH 6, long axis of cells in group EF was perpendicular to the direction of EF, while arrangement of cells in group SEF was irregular. Cell polarity values in group EF were significantly higher than that in group SEF from EFH 2 to 6 (with t values from -7.52 to -0.90, P values below 0.01). At EFH 6, the morphology of microfilaments and microtubules of cells in EF group was similar to that in SEF group. (3) The fluorescent intensity of microfilaments of cells in cytochalasin D group became weakened, and the filamentary structure became fuzzy. The microtubules of cells in colchicine group became fuzzy with low fluorescent intensity. (4) Within EFH 6, cells in control group migrated towards the anode of EF, while cells in cytochalasin D group and colchicine group moved randomly. Within EFH 6, there was statistically significant difference in migration velocity of cells in the 3 groups (F=6.36, P<0.01). Migration velocity of cells in cytochalasin D group and colchicine group was significantly slower than that in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At EFH 0, 3, and 6, cell polarity values in the 3 groups were close (with F values from 0.99 to 1.51, P values above 0.05). At EFH 0, cells in control group were spindle; cells in cytochalasin D group were polygonal or in irregular shapes; cells in colchicine group were serrated circle or oval. At EFH 6, no morphological change was observed in cells in control group; cells in cytochalasin D group were spindle with split ends on both ends; cells in colchicine group were serrated oval.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The physiologic strength of exogenous direct current EF can induce directional migration and alignment of dermal fibroblasts in neonatal BALB/c mice. Microfilaments and microtubules are necessary skeleton structure for cell directional migration induced by EF, while they are not necessary for cell directional arrangement induced by EF.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cell Movement , Cells, Cultured , Electricity , Fibroblasts , Cell Biology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microtubules , Skin , Cell Biology
17.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 257-259, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327350

ABSTRACT

A series of studies demonstrated that myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction occurs immediately following severe burn, even before significant reduction in blood volume due to increased capillary permeability. Such myocardial damage and cardiac dysfunction leads to cardiac deficiency, and it is a precipitating factor for burn shock and ischemic/hypoxic injury. In recent years, many experimental and clinical studies elucidated the pathogenesis and confirmed the clinical importance of prevention and treatment of"shock heart"in the early stage post severe burn.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burns , Pathology , Therapeutics , Heart , Hypoxia , Pathology , Myocardium , Pathology , Shock , Pathology
18.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 260-265, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327349

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To retrospectively analyze the risk factors and clinical manifestations of myocardial damage of patients with severe burn in order to provide evidence for its prevention and treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two hundred and fifty-two patients with severe burn admitted to 5 burn centers from January 2010 to June 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were treated in accordance with the fluid resuscitation formula of the Third Military Medical University. According to the creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB) level before treatment on admission, patients were divided into non-myocardial damage group (n=118, CK-MB level less than 75 U/mL) and myocardial damage group (n=134, CK-MB level higher than or equal to 75 U/mL). Data of patients in two groups were collected and evaluated such as gender, age, body mass, number of patients with chemical burn, admission time after injury, total burn area, full-thickness burn area, number of patients with inhalation injury, levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood lactate on admission and at post injury hour (PIH) 24 and 48, volumes of urine output and fluid input at PIH 24 and 48, levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, total bile acid, diamine oxidase on admission and at PIH 24 and 48, and mortality. Furthermore, patients were divided into three groups, i. e. less than 50% total body surface area (TBSA) group (n=110), larger than or equal to 50% TBSA and less than 80% TBSA group (n=83), and larger than or equal to 80% TBSA group (n=59) according to the total burn area, and the incidence rates of myocardial damage in patients of three groups were recorded. Data were processed with chi-square test, t test, Wilcoxon test, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, and the values of P were adjusted by Bonferroni. Basic data of 252 patients were processed with binary logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve of total burn area of 252 patients was drawn to predict myocardial damage.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) There were no statistically significant differences in age, body mass, number of patients with chemical burn, number of patients with inhalation injury, and full-thickness burn area between two groups (with t values respectively 0.20 and 0.31, χ(2) values respectively 0.49 and 4.10, Z=1.42, P values above 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in gender, admission time after injury, and total burn area of patients between two groups (χ(2)=5.00, with t values respectively 2.44 and 3.13, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (2) Gender, admission time after injury, and total burn area were independent risk factors related to myocardial damage in the patients (with odds ratios respectively 2.608, 3.620, and 1.030; 95% confidence intervals respectively 1.315-5.175, 1.916-6.839, and 1.011-1.049; P values below 0.01). (3) The incidence rates of myocardial damage of patients in less than 50% TBSA group, larger than or equal to 50% TBSA and less than 80% TBSA group, and larger than or equal to 80% TBSA group were 38.2% (42/110), 54.2% (45/83), and 61.0% (36/59) respectively, and there was statistically significant difference among them (χ(2)=9.46, P<0.05). (4) The total area under receiver operating characteristic curve of total burn area to predict myocardial damage of 252 patients was 0.706 (with 95% confidence interval 0.641-0.772, P<0.01), and 51.5% TBSA was chosen as the optimal threshold value, with sensitivity of 62.6% and specificity of 65.3%. (5) Compared with those in non-myocardial damage group, except the levels of haemoglobin and hematocrit at PIH 48 (with t values respectively -0.76 and -0.61, P values above 0.05), the levels of haemoglobin, hematocrit, and blood lactate of patients in myocardial damage group were significantly increased at each time point (with t values from -2.80 to -2.06, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with those in non-myocardial damage group, the volume of urine output of patients was significantly declined (with t values respectively 2.05 and 3.68, P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the volume of fluid input of patients was not obviously changed in myocardial damage group at PIH 24 and 48 (with t values respectively 1.01 and 1.08, P values above 0.05). (6) Compared with those in non-myocardial damage group, the level of creatinine of patients was significantly increased on admission and at PIH 24 and 48 (with Z values from -2.91 to -1.99, P<0.05 or P<0.01), the level of urea nitrogen of patients was only significantly increased at PIH 24 and 48 (with t values respectively -4.75 and -5.24, P values below 0.01), the level of total bile acid of patients was not obviously changed on admission and at PIH 24 and 48 (with t values from -0.81 to -0.20, P values above 0.05), and the level of diamine oxidase of patients was only significantly increased on admission and PIH 24 in myocardial damage group (with t values respectively -3.97 and -2.02, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (7) Compared with that in myocardial damage group, the mortality of patients in non-myocardial damage group was significantly declined (χ(2)=5.81, P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Patients with severe burn have high incidence of myocardial damage, which may be predicted by total burn area. Severely burned patients with myocardial damage are more likely to suffer from decline of effective circulating volume, tissue oxygenation disorders, and damage in other organs in shock stage.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Surface Area , Burn Units , Burns , Pathology , Fluid Therapy , Hematocrit , Hemoglobins , Lactic Acid , Blood , Myocardium , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Shock
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 231-236, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311963

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of hypoxia of different duration on movement and proliferation of human epidermal cell line HaCaT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>(1) HaCaT cells in logarithmic phase were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% FBS (the same culture method below). Cells were divided into control group (routine culture) and hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 6 wells in each group. Cells in the 3 hypoxia groups were cultured in incubator containing 5% CO2, 2% O2, and 93% N2 (the same hypoxic condition below) for corresponding duration. Range of movement of cells in 3 hours was observed under live cell imaging workstation, and their curvilinear and rectilinear movement speeds were calculated at post observation hour (POH) 1, 2, 3. (2) HaCaT cells in logarithmic phase were divided into control group (routine culture) and hypoxia for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 h groups, with 20 wells in each group. Cells in the 6 hypoxia groups were cultured under hypoxic condition for corresponding duration. Proliferation of cells was examined with cell counting kit and microplate reader (denoted as absorbance value). (3) HaCaT cells in logarithmic phase were divided into control group (routine culture) and hypoxia for 1, 3, 6, 24 h groups, with 5 wells in each group. Cells in the 4 hypoxia groups were cultured under hypoxic condition for corresponding duration. Protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was determined with Western blotting. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett- t test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with that of control group, the movement area of cells was obviously expanded in hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups. The longer the hypoxic treatment, the greater the increase was. At POH 1, 2, 3, the curvilinear movement speeds of cells in hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups were respectively (43 ± 18), (44 ± 17), (43 ± 16) µm/h; (44 ± 16), (44 ± 14), (45 ± 14) µm/h; (55 ± 19), (54 ± 17), (56 ± 18) µm/h. They were significantly higher than those of control group [(33 ± 13), (33 ± 12), (33 ± 10) µm/h, with t values from 2.840 to 9.330, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01]. The curvilinear movement speed of cells was significantly higher in hypoxia for 6 h group than in hypoxia for 1 or 3 h group (with t values from 3.474 to 4.545, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the curvilinear movement speed among the observation time points within each group (with F values from 0.012 to 0.195, P values above 0.05). At POH 1, the rectilinear movement speed of cells in hypoxia for 1 h group was (22 ± 11) µm/h, which was obviously higher than that of control group [(15 ± 10) µm/h, t = 2.697, P < 0.01]. At POH 1, 2, 3, rectilinear movement speeds of cells in hypoxia for 3 and 6 h groups were respectively (19 ± 14), (12 ± 8), (10 ± 6) µm/h; (32 ± 19), (21 ± 13), (17 ± 12) µm/h. They were significantly higher than those of control group [(9 ± 7) and (6 ± 5) µm/h at POH 2 and 3, with t values from 1.990 to 8.231, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01]. The rectilinear movement speed of cells in hypoxia for 6 h group was obviously higher than that of hypoxia for 1 or 3 h group (with t values from 3.394 to 6.008, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The rectilinear movement speed of cells in each group decreased at POH 2 or 3 in comparison with POH 1 (with t values from -8.208 to -4.232, P values below 0.01). The rectilinear movement speed of cells in control group at POH 3 was significantly different from that at POH 2 (t = -1.967, P < 0.05). (2) The proliferation levels of cells in control group and hypoxia for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 h groups were respectively 1.11 ± 0.08, 1.36 ± 0.10, 1.39 ± 0.05, 1.38 ± 0.05, 1.10 ± 0.14, 1.06 ± 0.09, 0.99 ± 0.06 (F = 39.19, P < 0.01). Compared with that of control group, the rate of proliferation of cells was obviously increased in hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups (with t values respectively 6.639, 7.403, 7.195, P values below 0.01), but obviously decreased in hypoxia for 24 h group (t = -3.136, P < 0.05). The proliferation of cells decreased in hypoxia for 9, 12, 24 h groups in comparison with hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups (with t values from -10.538 to -6.775, P values below 0.01). (3) The protein expressions of PCNA of cells in control group and hypoxia for 1, 3, 6, 24 h groups were respectively 0.93 ± 0.12, 0.97 ± 0.14, 1.62 ± 0.18, 0.95 ± 0.09, 0.66 ± 0.21 (F = 20.11, P < 0.01). Compared with that of control group, the expression of PCNA was obviously increased in hypoxia for 1, 3, 6 h groups (with t values respectively 2.339, 5.783, 2.235, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but obviously decreased in hypoxia for 24 h group (t = -1.998, P < 0.05). The protein expression of PCNA was higher in hypoxia for 3 h group than in hypoxia for 1 or 6 h group (with t values respectively 4.312 and 3.947, P values below 0.01), and it was increased in the 3 groups in comparison with that of hypoxia for 24 h group (with t values respectively 2.011, 6.193, 3.287, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Short-time hypoxia (1, 3, 6 h) treatment can promote the movement and proliferation of HaCaT cells. Hypoxia for 6 h is the best condition to promote their movement, while hypoxia for 3 or 6 h is better for their proliferation.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbon Dioxide , Pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Physiology , Cell Proliferation , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Hypoxia , Nitric Oxide , Pharmacology , Oxygen , Pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Signal Transduction
20.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 191-193, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311971

ABSTRACT

Burn wound repair is an eternal issue for burn treatment. Ischemia and hypoxia caused by stress and wound inflammatory reactions to burn injuries are key factors of sepsis and organ complications. Therefore, the treatment of burn wound is not only relevant to repair of burn wound itself; early extensive escharectomy and wound coverage are also important measures for prevention and treatment of complications, such as sepsis and organ dysfunction. Besides the good vital supportive treatment such as circulation maintenance, coverage of open wounds with reliable skin substitutes is also the key point to ensure success of early extensive escharectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Burns , General Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Therapeutics , Sepsis , Therapeutics , Skin Transplantation , Skin, Artificial , Treatment Outcome , Wound Healing , Physiology
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