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Medical Education ; : 157-162, 2002.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-369797


We investigated causes of interrater disagreements in the observational assessment of clinical training for first-year postgraduate trainees. In 1998 25 first-year postgraduates rotated through the Second Department of Surgery for 3 months, including 1 month in cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery, and upper-gastrointestinal surgery. Each trainee cared for several patients at most with a senior resident under the supervision of senior staff members. Nine attending physicians (staff members), 3 doctor-course graduates, and 2 chief residents assessed the trainees at the end of the rotation with special reference to clinical, social, and supervisory abilities. Trainees were given scores of “Good, ” “Fair, ” “Pass, ” or “Fail” for each ability. Interrater disagreements often involved responsibility and activeness, which reflected social abilities, and rapid patient consultations, orderly arrangement of laboratory examinations and procedures, and avoiding ordering of unnecessary laboratory examinations and medications, which reflected supervisory abilities. Assessments of poorly performing trainees often disagreed. Some interrater disagreements were seen among 4 of 14 attending physicians, but disagreements were fewer among the 3 doctor-course graduates and 2 chief residents who were graduates of the college. Both the proper training of assessors and a good relationship between assessors and rotators are necessary to make appropriate evaluations that might affect the career of postgraduates trainees.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-373739


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic evaluation of the breast was performed in 61 patients who visted the Breast Clinic of our hospital and were suspected to have malignant tumors by physical examination and mammography between January and December 1999. In 58 patients undergoing histological diagnostic tests (8 with benignancy and 50 with breast cancer), we compared the imaging characteristics and the time-signal intensity curves acquired by dynamic imaging between benign and malignant lesions, and evaluated the usefulness of analyzing enhancement patterns on contrast MRI. Contrast MRI revealed strong tumor enhancement in all patients; the mean time required for the signal intensity to reach a peak was about 7 min in patients with benign tumors and about 2 min in those with breast cancer. Peripheral ring enhancement was observed in 40 of the 50 patients with breast cancer (80.0%), while such enhancement was not noted in any of the patients with benign tumors.<BR>Although diagnosis of breast disease by imaging has primarily relied on mammography and ultrasonography, the pattern of contrast enhancement on dynamic MRI also appears to be useful for determining the treatment method of breast tumors.