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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although long maternal working hours are reported to have a negative effect on children's dietary habits, few studies have investigated this issue in Japan. Healthy dietary habits in childhood are important because they may reduce the risk of future disease. Here, we examined the relationship between maternal employment status and children's dietary intake in 1693 pairs of Japanese primary school 5th and 6th graders and their mothers.@*METHODS@#The survey was conducted using two questionnaires, a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire and a lifestyle questionnaire. The analysis also considered mothers' and children's nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward diet, and some aspects of family environment.@*RESULTS@#Longer maternal working hours were associated with children's higher intake of white rice (g/1000kcal) (β 11.4, 95%CI [1.0, 21.9]; working ≥8h vs. not working), lower intake of confectioneries (g/1000kcal) (β -4.0 [-7.6, -0.4]), and higher body mass index (BMI) (kg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#Longer maternal working hours were significantly associated with higher intake of white rice and lower intake of confectioneries, as well as higher BMI among children. Even when a mother works, however, it may be possible to improve her child's dietary intake by other means such as nutrition education for children or enhancement of food environment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Child Health/standards , Diet/standards , Diet Surveys , Employment , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Japan , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Mothers , Nutritional Status , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Studies on the adverse effects of Asian dust (AD) on respiratory function in children are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the association between AD and respiratory function by measuring peak expiratory flow rates (PEFRs) in asthmatic children.@*METHODS@#The study was carried out from March to May from 2014 through 2016. One hundred ten children with bronchial asthma were recruited from four hospitals in the Goto Islands and south Nagasaki area in Nagasaki prefecture. The parents were asked to record their children's PEFRs every morning/evening and clinical symptoms in an asthma diary. AD was assessed from light detection and ranging data, and a linear mixed-effects model was used to estimate the effects of AD on daily PEFR. Time-stratified case-crossover analyses were performed to examine the association between AD and asthma attacks defined by reduction levels in PEFR.@*RESULTS@#AD was detected on 11 days in the Goto Islands, and on 23 days in the south Nagasaki area. After adjusting for age, sex, temperature, and daily oxidants, we found a consistent association between AD and a 1.1% to 1.7% decrease in PEFR in the mornings and a 0.7% to 1.3% decrease in the evenings at a lag of 0 to 5 days. AD was not associated with the number of asthma attacks, respiratory symptoms, or other symptoms at any lag days examined.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exposure to AD was associated with reduced PEFR, although the effects were not large enough to induce clinically apparent symptoms, in clinically well-controlled asthmatic children.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The living arrangement has been suggested as an important factor affecting health. Recent studies have also suggested that there was a risk among elderly persons who were not alone. This study examined whether the detailed living arrangement was associated with a future decline in functional capacity in the elderly, by gender, in a Japanese suburban city.@*METHODS@#A 3-year longitudinal questionnaire survey (baseline: 2011; follow-up: 2014) for aged 65 years or older was conducted in Kurihara city, Japan. Of the respondents in the baseline survey, we analyzed those who scored 13 points (a perfect score which indicates the highest functional capacity; n = 2627) on the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence at the baseline. The exposure was living arrangement at baseline, divided into five categories: "with spouse only," "living alone," "with child and his/her spouse," "with child without his/her spouse," and "with other family/person." The outcome was the decline in functional capacity at the follow-up survey (score decreased to 10 points or less from 13 points).@*RESULTS@#Of the 2627 analyzed population, 1199 (45.6%) were men. The incidence of the decline was 5.8% in men and 5.9% in women. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, educational attainment, and health behavior and condition revealed that in women, the odds ratio of the decline was higher in living with child and his/her spouse (2.41, 95% confidence interval; 1.10-5.28) referring to living with spouse only. When adjusting activities inside and outside the home such as housework additionally, the association was attenuated to marginal significance (2.25, 0.98-5.18). No statistical significance was observed in men.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggested that living with child and spouse of a child was associated with the future decline in women's functional capacity.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Self Report
5.
Intestinal Research ; : 139-145, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs (anti-TNF) and thiopurines are important treatment options in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including during pregnancy. However, there are limited data on the benefit/risk profile of anti-TNF and thiopurines during pregnancy in Asia. The aim of this study was to analyze pregnancy outcomes of female Japanese IBD patients treated with anti-TNF and/or thiopurines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed pregnancy outcomes in 72 women with IBD. Pregnancy outcomes were compared among 31 pregnancies without exposure to infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA), or thiopurines; 24 pregnancies with exposure to anti-TNF treatment (23 IFX, 1 ADA); 7 pregnancies with exposure to thiopurines alone; and 10 pregnancies with exposure to both IFX and thiopurines. RESULTS: Thirty-five of the 41 pregnancies (85.3%) that were exposed to anti-TNF treatment and/or thiopurines resulted in live births after a median gestational period of 38 weeks. Of the 35 live births, 3 involved premature deliveries; 7, low birth weight; and 1, a congenital abnormality. There were 6 spontaneous abortions in pregnancies that were exposed to anti-TNF treatment (17.7%). Pregnancy outcomes among the 4 groups were similar, except for the rate of spontaneous abortions (P =0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to anti-TNF treatment or thiopurines during pregnancy was not related to a higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Japanese IBD patients except for spontaneous abortion.


Subject(s)
Adalimumab , Abortion, Spontaneous , Asia , Asians , Congenital Abnormalities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infliximab , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Japan , Live Birth , Necrosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy
6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-361345

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The prevalence of thoracic kyphosis is considered to increase as the population is ageing in Japan. However, little is known about the clinical and preventive significance of kyphosis. The purpose of the study is to assess the association of kyphosis with subjective poor health and functional activity in the community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The relation of kyphosis with blood pressure, as a subclinical indicator of arteriosclerosis, is also examined. Methods: The subjects consisted of 536 (male 241, female 295) elderly persons aged 65 years old and older. Trained examiners measured thoracic kyphosis using a flexicurve, and kyphosis index was calculated. Information on the subjects’ subjective poor health and functional activity were collected through a face-to-face interview, and blood pressure was measured by a conventional method. Results: In females, their kyphosis index increased with age increased, whereas in males, there was no clear age-related change. An increased kyphosis index was associated with subjective poor health only among females. Compared with the lowest kyphosis index tertile, adjusted odds ratios for being in poor health were 5.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.1–27.4) in the middle tertile, and 6.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.3–32.1) in the highest tertile. Kyphosis index did not seem to be associated with functional activity score and blood pressure both in males and females even after adjustment. Conclusions: Kyphosis is associated with subjective poor health in the community-dwelling female elderly in this study population, but not with functional activity and blood pressure both in males and females.


Subject(s)
Aged , Residence Characteristics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359835

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>The prevalence of thoracic kyphosis is considered to increase as the population is ageing in Japan. However, little is known about the clinical and preventive significance of kyphosis. The purpose of the study is to assess the association of kyphosis with subjective poor health and functional activity in the community-dwelling Japanese elderly. The relation of kyphosis with blood pressure, as a subclinical indicator of arteriosclerosis, is also examined.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The subjects consisted of 536 (male 241, female 295) elderly persons aged 65 years old and older. Trained examiners measured thoracic kyphosis using a flexicurve, and kyphosis index was calculated. Information on the subjects' subjective poor health and functional activity were collected through a face-to-face interview, and blood pressure was measured by a conventional method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In females, their kyphosis index increased with age increased, whereas in males, there was no clear age-related change. An increased kyphosis index was associated with subjective poor health only among females. Compared with the lowest kyphosis index tertile, adjusted odds ratios for being in poor health were 5.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.1-27.4) in the middle tertile, and 6.4 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-32.1) in the highest tertile. Kyphosis index did not seem to be associated with functional activity score and blood pressure both in males and females even after adjustment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Kyphosis is associated with subjective poor health in the community-dwelling female elderly in this study population, but not with functional activity and blood pressure both in males and females.</p>

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