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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942356

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2021. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2021. A total of 451 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China in 2021, with 27 571 endemic villages covering 73 250 600 people at risk of infections. Among the 451 endemic counties (cities, districts), 75.17% (339/451), 22.17% (100/451) and 2.66% (12/451) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2021, 29 037 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2021, 4 405 056 individuals received serological tests and 72 937 were sero-positive. A total of 220 629 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive. In 2021, snail survey was performed in 19 291 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 026 villages, accounting for 36.42% of all surveyed villages, with 12 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey was performed at an area of 686 574.46 hm2 and 191 159.91 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 063.08 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 5 113.87 hm2 reemerging snail habitats. In 2021, 525 878 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 115 437 received serological examinations, with 231 positives detected. Among the 128 719 bovines received stool examinations, no positives were identified. In 2021, there were 19 927 schistosomiasis patients receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 729 113 person-time individuals and 256 913 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2021, snail control with chemicals was performed in 117 372.74 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 65 640.50 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 244.25 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2021, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in China in 2021; however, the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination was slowed and the areas of snail habitats rebounded mildly. Strengthening researches on snail diffusion and control, and improving schistosomiasis surveillance and forecast are recommended to prevent reemerging schistosomiasis.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882025

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2020, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai Municipality, Zhejiang Province, Fujian Province, Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, and Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces maintained the criteria of transmission interruption, while Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces maintained the criteria of transmission control by the end of 2020. A total of 450 counties (cites, districts) were found to be endemic for schistosomiasis in China, with 28 376 endemic villages covering 71 370 400 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 74.89% (337/450), 21.87% (98/450) and 3.33% (15/450) achieved the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2020, 29 517 cases with advanced schistosomiasis were documented in China. In 2020, 11 117 655 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 798 580 were positive; 5 263 082 individuals received serological tests and 83 179 were sero-positive. A total of 273 712 individuals received stool examinations and 3 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2020, snail survey was performed in 19 733 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 309 villages, accounting for 37.04% of all surveyed villages, with 15 villages identified with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 736 984.13 hm2 and 206 125.22 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 1 174.67 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 1.96 hm2 habitats with infected snails. In 2020, 544 424 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China, and 147 887 received serological examinations, with 326 positives detected, while 130 673 bovines received stool examinations, with no positives identified. In 2020, there were 19 214 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 964 103 person-time individuals and 266 280 herd-time bovines were given expanded chemotherapy. In 2020, molluscicide treatment was performed in 136 141.92 hm2 snail habitats, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 71 980.22 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 1 464.03 hm2. Data from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections were both zero in humans and bovines in 2020, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic status of schistosomiasis remains at a low level in China and the goal of the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control was achieved as scheduled; however, the endemic situation of schistosomiasis rebounded in local areas. Precision schistosomiasis control and intensified monitoring of the endemic situation and transmission risk of schistosomiasis are required to be performed to facilitate the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis steadily.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837609

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2019, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption, Jiangsu newly achieved the standard of transmission interruption and 5 provinces of Yunnan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan maintained transmission control by the end of 2019. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) endemic for schistosomiasis, including 28 500 endemic villages covering 70 667 800 people at risk of infections. Among the 450 endemic counties (citis, districts), 66.89% (301/450), 28.44% (128/450) and 4.67% (21/450) kept the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control of schistosomiasis, respectively. By the end of 2019, a total of 30 170 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2019, a total of 12 090 712 individuals received inquiry examinations and 1 740 764 were positive; 5 158 369 individuals received serological tests and 89 753 were seropositive. A total of 327 475 individuals received stool examinations and 5 were positive, including one case of acute schistosomiasis. In 2019, snail survey was performed in 19 726 endemic villages in China and Oncomelania snails were found in 7 322 villages, accounting for 37.12% of all surveyed villages, with 6 villages with emerging snail habitats. Snail survey covered an area of 585 286.24 hm2 and 174 270.42 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 64.20 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2019, a total of 605 965 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 183 313 received serological examinations, with 1 176 positives detected, while 134 978 bovines received stool examinations, with 7 positives identified. In 2019, there were 28 557 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 008 083 person-times; there were 7 bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and 296 053 herd-times expanded chemotherapy was given to bovines. In 2019, snail habitats at an area of 128 754.26 hm2 were given chemical treatment, and the actual area of chemical treatment was 69 605.55 hm2, while environmental improvements were performed in snail habitats covering an area of 2 847.00 hm2. Data from the 455 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were both zero in humans and bovines in 2019, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis remains at a lower infection level in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. To achieve the target set in the National Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Schistosomiasis Control and consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control, precision control on schistosomiasis still needs to be reinforced in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819001

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818890

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the reporting situation of schistosomiasis cases in National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) in China from 2015 to 2017, and to seek current deficiencies on case reporting as well as to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases. Methods The data of schistosomiasis cases in China from 2015 to 2017 were collected from NNDRS, and the reporting situation and epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases were analyzed. Results From 2015 to 2017, totally 59 981 schistosomiasis cases were reported in China, among which, 1 460 cases were deleted, and 58 521 were censored cases. The statistics and analysis showed that a part of the case reporting had been carried out in nonstandard ways, mainly involving the random deletion of cases, reporting time not compliance with regulations, incorrect classification, and severe omission of cases. Among the 58 521 censored cases, the sex ratio of the male to the female was 1.83∶1, the average age of the cases was (51.91 ± 11.30) years, and farmers and fishermen accounted for 93.26% (54 577 cases) and 3.46% (2 022 cases), respectively. The reported cases mainly concentrated in Anhui, Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, accounting for 99.73% of the total number in China. During this period, Beijing, Zhejiang and other provinces (cities and regions) reported 11 imported schistosomiasis cases, all of them were schistosomiasis mansoni cases or schistosomiasis haematobia cases. Conclusions From 2015 to 2017, the reported cases of schistosomiasis are mainly clinically diagnosed cases. Compared with the annual report of the national schistosomiasis control, the number of confirmed cases in NNDRS is seriously missed. Therefore, the endemic provinces should strengthen the supervision on confirmed cases and reporting quality of schistosomiasis cases in accordance with the relevant law and regulation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818768

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the reporting situation of schistosomiasis cases in National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS) in China from 2015 to 2017, and to seek current deficiencies on case reporting as well as to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases. Methods The data of schistosomiasis cases in China from 2015 to 2017 were collected from NNDRS, and the reporting situation and epidemiological characteristics of schistosomiasis cases were analyzed. Results From 2015 to 2017, totally 59 981 schistosomiasis cases were reported in China, among which, 1 460 cases were deleted, and 58 521 were censored cases. The statistics and analysis showed that a part of the case reporting had been carried out in nonstandard ways, mainly involving the random deletion of cases, reporting time not compliance with regulations, incorrect classification, and severe omission of cases. Among the 58 521 censored cases, the sex ratio of the male to the female was 1.83∶1, the average age of the cases was (51.91 ± 11.30) years, and farmers and fishermen accounted for 93.26% (54 577 cases) and 3.46% (2 022 cases), respectively. The reported cases mainly concentrated in Anhui, Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, accounting for 99.73% of the total number in China. During this period, Beijing, Zhejiang and other provinces (cities and regions) reported 11 imported schistosomiasis cases, all of them were schistosomiasis mansoni cases or schistosomiasis haematobia cases. Conclusions From 2015 to 2017, the reported cases of schistosomiasis are mainly clinically diagnosed cases. Compared with the annual report of the national schistosomiasis control, the number of confirmed cases in NNDRS is seriously missed. Therefore, the endemic provinces should strengthen the supervision on confirmed cases and reporting quality of schistosomiasis cases in accordance with the relevant law and regulation.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818581

ABSTRACT

This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at a national level in 2018, and analyzed the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), including Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination, Sichuan Province achieved transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan achieved transmission control by the end of 2018. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 260 million people, specifically including 28 456 endemic villages covering 70.059 7 million people at risk of infection. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 58.44% (263/450), 27.56% (124/450) and 14.00% (63/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2018, a total of 29 214 advanced schistosomiasis cases were documented in China. In 2018, a total of 11.127 6 million individuals received inquiry examinations and 2.062 9 million were positive; 7.191 4 million individuals received serological tests and 138.5 thousand of them were positive, 532.2 thousand individuals received stool examinations and 8 were positive in China. In 2018, snail survey was performed in 19 821 endemic villages and Oncomehania snails were found in 7 321 villages, accounting for 36.94% of all surveyed villages, with 3 newly detected villages with snails in China. Snail survey covered an area of 590 241.01 hm2 and 168 319.41 hm2 snail habitats were found, including emerging snail habitats of 61.28 hm2; however, no infected snails were identified. In 2018, a total of 646 823 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas of China, and 225 258 received serological examinations, with 2 638 positives detected, while 164 803 bovines received stool examinations, with 2 positives identified. In 2018, there were 90 388 patients with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 1 490 594 person-times; there were two bovines with schistosomiasis receiving praziquantel chemotherapy, and expanded chemotherapy was given to 352 577 bovine-times; chemical treatment was conducted in an area of 141 660.87 hm2, including an actual mollusciciding area of 75 308.26 hm2, and environmental improvements were performed in an area of 4 738.37 hm2 in China. Data from the 453 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China showed that the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rates were 0.001 5% and zero in humans and bovines in 2018, respectively, and no infected snails were found. The results demonstrate that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a continuous decline in China; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission, and challenges remain in achieving the target set in the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020 in some regions.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818828

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 47.78% (215/450), 34.00% (153/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails.The snail survey covered an area of 622454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818706

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People’s Republic of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region), i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts), 47.78% (215/450), 34.00% (153/450) and 18.22% (82/450) reached the criteria of elimination, transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017, a total of 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 cases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails.The snail survey covered an area of 622454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environmental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites, the mean Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines, respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic examinations in all the surveillance sites, and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic acid positive were detected by loopmediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734006

ABSTRACT

This report presents the endemic status of' schistosomiasis in the People ' s Republic, of China at national level in 2017, and analyzes the data collected from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) being endemic of schistosomiasis japonica in P. R. China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) , i.e., Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, continued to consolidate the status of elimination of schistosomiasis. Sichuan Province achieved the transmission interruption and 6 provinces of Yunnan, Jiangsu, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan kept the transmission control by the end of 2017. There were 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) covering 259 million people, specifically including 28 544 endemic: villages of 70 324.5 thousand people at risk. Among the 450 endemic counties (cities, districts) , 50.89% (229/450) , 30.89% ( 139/450) and 18.22% ( 82/450) reached the criteria of elimination , transmission interruption and transmission control, respectively. By the end of 2017 , a total of' 8 401 113 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 14 individuals were parasitologically diagnosed, decreased by 97.67% compared with 600 cases in 2016. It was estimated of 37 601 c:ases of schistosome infection, decreased by 30.95% compared with 54 454 cases in 2016. One acute schistosomiasis case was reported in 2017. There were 29 407 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2017. Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys were performed in 19 784 endemic. villages and O. hupensis snails were found in 7 310 villages, accounting for 36.95% of' total villages, with 19 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 622 454.49 hm2 and snails were found in an area of 172 501.56 hm2, including a newly detected area of 208.54 hm2. No schistosome-infected snails were found in 2017. A total of 737 016 bovines were raised in the schistosomiasis endemic, areas. Of them, 454 830 bovines received the examinations for schistosome infection, and 1 bovine was stool examination positive. There were 119 326 schistosomiasis cases receiving chemotherapy in 2017, with 1 973 968 individuals undergoing expanded chemotherapy; one bovine with schistosomiasis receiving chemotherapy, with 418 925 bovines undergoing expanded chemotherapy. A total of 144 605.31 hm2 area with snail was controlled by using molluscicides, with actual molluscicide-treated area of 73 755.37 hm2; and 5 002.92 hm2 area with snail was treated by environ-mental modification. Based on the data from the 457 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites , the mean ,Schistosoma japonicum infection rate was 0.001 6% and 0 in humans and bovines , respectively. No schistosome-infected snails were found by microscopic, examinations in all the surveillance sites , and 7 snail samples with schistosome nucleic, acid positive were detected by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) among 6 surveillance sites. The results demonstrate a continuous decline trend on the endemic. Situation of schistosomiasis in P. R. China. However, the risk of epidemic, rebound still exists in some regions and it is still a challenge to achieve the target set by the Thirteenth Five-Year National Plan for Schistosomiasis Control in 2020.

11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3656-3661, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236194

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Alteration in the protein composition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed as a mechanism for the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In HDL, an increase in serum amyloid A protein (SAA) accompanying the decrease in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been found during the acute inflammation period. However, whether this phenomenon persists in CHD patients, a disease related to inflammation, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between SAA and apoA-I in HDL isolated from CHD patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Overall, 98 patients with confirmed stable CHD and 90 control subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled in this case-control study. Potassium bromide (KBr) density gradient ultracentrifugation was used to isolate HDL from plasma. The levels of SAA and apoA-I in the HDL samples were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Pearson's correlation and general linear models were used in the analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with controls, patients with CHD had a significant decrease in the amount of apoA-I ((14.21 ± 8.44) µg/ml vs. (10.95 ± 5.95) µg/ml, P = 0.003) in HDL and a significant increase in the amount of log SAA (1.21 ± 0.46 vs. 1.51 ± 0.55, P < 0.00001). Differences were independent of age, body mass index (BMI), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and other factors. An independently and statistically significant positive correlation between log SAA and apoA-I in HDL was observed only in the CHD group (β = 2.0, P = 0.026). In the general linear model, changes in log(SAA), age, age2, gender, BMI and HDL-C could explain a statistically significant 43% of the variance in apoA-I.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study provides direct evidence for the first time that there was an independent positive correlation between log SAA and apoA-I in the HDL of CHD patients, indicating the alteration of protein composition in HDL. However, the question of whether this alteration in HDL is associated with impairment of HDL functions requires further research.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Apolipoprotein A-I , Coronary Disease , Blood , Female , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Amyloid A Protein
12.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 38-43, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292029

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the imaging and clinical characteristics and related risk factors of patients with coronary artery stenosis located proximally to myocardial bridging.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study enrolled 603 patients with angiography evidenced myocardial bridging-mural coronary artery between May 2004 to May 2009. Angiographic and clinic data were collected according to uniform protocol and standard questionnaires were used to obtain patients' demographic and clinical information. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to explore related risk factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Chest pain was present in 247 cases (41.0%). Dynamic ST-T changes were found in 229 cases (38%). A total of 644 myocardial bridging-mural coronary arteries were detected including 382 (62.4%) segments located proximally to myocardial bridging. Diastolic vessel diameters in the myocardial bridging segment were significantly smaller than reference segments (all P < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that vascular bifurcation lesions, the degree of narrowing and the number of diseased coronary vessels of non- myocardial bridging-mural coronary arteries, age, LDL-C/HDL-C, male gender, diabetes, and systolic narrow rate of myocardial bridging-mural coronary arteries were positively related with the narrowing degree of the first coronary artery stenosis located proximally to myocardial bridging (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Vascular bifurcation lesions, the degree of narrowing and the number of diseased coronary vessels of non- myocardial bridging-mural coronary arteries, age, LDL-C/HDL-C, male, diabetes and dyslipidemia were positively related with the narrowing degree of the most severe coronary artery stenosis located proximally to myocardial bridging (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Myocardial ischemia is common in patients with myocardial bridging and the artery segments located proximally to myocardial bridging are prone to stenosis. Systolic narrow rate of myocardial bridging-mural coronary arteries is one of major determinants of coronary artery stenosis located proximally to myocardial bridging. Whereas the other coronary heart disease risk factors are likely to play more important roles.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Stenosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Bridging , Diagnostic Imaging , Pathology , Risk Factors
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-332585

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the value of deep small-bowel endoscopy (DSBE) in the diagnosis of Crohns disease (CD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The endoscopic and clinical data of 54 patients with CD receiving capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) between January, 2004 and December, 2008 were summarized and analyzed retrospectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The main indications for DSBE in our series were suspected CD (42.6%) and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (25.9%). DSBE was obviously superior to barium imaging. The detection rate of CD was significantly higher with DSBE (92.6%) than with ileocolonoscopy (75.9%, P=0.017), and DSBE provides much more detailed descriptions of specific endoscopic features such as segmental distribution and lumen changes. DSBE significantly improve the diagnostic efficiency, giving priority to offer a guide and raise suspected diagnosis for CD.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>DSBE is a valuable modality for detecting CD lesions in the jejunum and ileum and for evaluating lesion involvement and severity. The combination with a comprehensive analysis of routine imaging findings, gastro endoscopy, and clinical data can further enhance the diagnostic efficiency of DSBE.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Capsule Endoscopy , Crohn Disease , Diagnosis , Pathology , Double-Balloon Enteroscopy , Female , Humans , Intestine, Small , Pathology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 106-109, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244044

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of Chinese patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 188 patients with AHCM diagnosed at Fuwai Hospital were included in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics, mortality and cardiovascular morbidity were analyzed. A multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounding factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Males predominated with a number of 139 (73.9%) in this cohort. Patient's age ranged from 15 to 81 (51.9 ± 12.6) years. There were 120 patients (63.8%) with "pure" type and 68 patients (36.2%) with "mixed" type of AHCM, 171 patients were followed up for (5.0 ± 3.0) years, cardiovascular mortality was 1.2%, 28 patients (16.4%) experienced one or more cardiovascular events.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The prevalence of AHCM is high in Chinese HCM patients, pure type AHCM is more common, and AHCM patients have a benign clinical course.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1382-1386, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-241775

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Genetic factors can influence antihypertensive response to metoprolol, and many studies focused on the relationship between the genotype in beta1-adrenergic receptor and blood pressure (BP), little was known about the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotype with the therapeutic result of metoprolol. The present study aimed to investigate whether the ACE gene insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism is related to the response to metoprolol in Chinese Han hypertensive patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ninety-six patients with essential hypertension received metoprolol (100 mg once daily) as monotherapy for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and dynamic electrocardiogram were performed before and after treatment. Genotyping analysis was performed using PCR. The association of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism with variations in BP and heart rate (HR) was observed after the 8-week treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The patients with ACE gene II polymorphism showed greater reduction in 24-hour average HR than those with ID or DD polymorphisms (P = 0.045), no effect of this genotype on the reduction in seating HR or in BP was observed. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, BP and HR at baseline, the ACE gene I/D polymorphism was still an independent predictor for variations in 24-hour average HR.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The II polymorphism in ACE gene could be a candidate predictor for greater reduction in 24-hour average HR in Chinese Han hypertensive patients treated by metoprolol. Greater benefits would be obtained by patients with II polymorphism from the treatment with metoprolol. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Genotype , Heart Rate , Genetics , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Male , Metoprolol , Therapeutic Uses , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298686

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy of the monotherapy of 15 agents in treating essential hypertension.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>After 2-week wash-out, a total of 370 patients with seated diastolic blood pressure 95-114 mmHg and seated systolic blood pressure < 180 mmHg were randomized to different therapeutic groups. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed before medication and at the end of 8 weeks.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>All the agents significantly reduced the 24 hour mean blood pressures after treatment except doxazosin, terazosin, and torasemide.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The result suggested that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and long-acting calcium antagonists were effective in treating essential hypertension, while the low-dose doxazosin, terazosin and torasemide can be used for combination therapy but not for monotherapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Antihypertensive Agents , Classification , Therapeutic Uses , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Calcium Channel Blockers , Therapeutic Uses , Doxazosin , Therapeutic Uses , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Prazosin , Therapeutic Uses , Sulfonamides , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323288

ABSTRACT

A kind of real-time remote monitoring embedded terminal which is combined with mobile communication technology and GPS localization technology, has been developed. The results of preliminary experiments show that the terminal can transmit ECG signals and localization information in real time and continuously, supply a real-time monitoring of out-of-hospital cardiac patients and trace the patients.


Subject(s)
Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Telemedicine , Telemetry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351832

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of flavonoids from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides (FH) on the lipid metabolism and antioxidative activity in climacteric rats.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Menopausal rats with aging were used in this experiment. The rats were fed with FH by gastrogavage for 13 weeks. The effect of drug on the lipid metabolism and the antioxidative activity were observed after the rats were killed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Serum total cholesterol was decreased significantly in rats fed with FH, T-AOC and SOD in serum and liver were significantly higher than those in rats fed with water, and at the same time MDA was lower than that in rats fed with water.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>FH can improve the climacteric rats' lipid metabolism, and enhance the antioxidation in climacteric rats.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Cholesterol , Blood , Climacteric , Blood , Female , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Hippophae , Chemistry , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Metabolism , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seeds , Chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood , Metabolism , Triglycerides , Blood
19.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 28-32, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252988

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Heart failure is responsible for a huge burden in hospital care. Our goal was to evaluate the value of N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) on predicting death or hospital readmission after hospital discharge in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From March 2003 to April 2005, 135 consecutive patients (97 male and 38 female, mean age 60.7 years +/- 13.1 years) with chronic heart failure [dilated cardiomyopathy (44%) and coronary heart disease (35%)] were included in this study. Plasma concentrations of the Nt-proBNP were measured by ELISA on admission. All patients received conventional therapy and were followed up for 24 months. The primary end point was death or readmission.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) During the follow up period (640 days +/- 100 days), 11 patients died and 39 patients rehospitalized, the median Nt-proBNP level on admission was significantly higher in patients died during the follow up period (5908 ng/L) than that of rehospitalized patients (2768 ng/L, P = 0.038). Plasma Nt-proBNP level on admission were significantly higher in primary end point group (n = 50, 2947 ng/L) than that in non-primary end point group (n = 85, 917 ng/L, P < 0.01). (2) Variables associated with an increased hazard of death and/or rehospitalization were Nt-proBNP and NYHA degree when analyzed by logistic regression models. Increased Log Nt-proBNP was the strongest independent predictor of an adverse outcome of CHF (odds ratio 13.8, 95% confidence interval 2.29 to 2.78, P < 0.01). (3) Area under the curve for Nt-proBNP in evaluating prognosis of CHF patients was 0.885 (positive predictive value 88.5%, negative predictive value 11.5%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Nt-proBNP level on admission is a strong predictor of rehospitalization and death within 24 months after hospital discharge in patients with chronic heart failure.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Output, Low , Chronic Disease , Female , Heart Failure , Blood , Diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Blood , Peptide Fragments , Blood , Prognosis , Ventricular Function , Young Adult
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 277-280, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295333

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the present status of pulmonary embolism (PE) misdiagnosis in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Documents on PE misdiagnosis published in Chinese-language journals between 2001 and 2004 were identified by searching the China Hospital Knowledge Database in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Web (CNKI-CHKD). Retrospective review items include: patient symptoms, medical examination tools, treatments and prognosis, causes of death, hospitals involved. The recent situation on PE misdiagnosis was also compared to that in year between 1980 to 2000. The number of published literatures on PE and PE misdiagnosis from 1994 to 2004 was also searched.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) A total of 110 documents with 1540 misdiagnosed PE patients were found. The misdiagnosis time varies from 0.5 hour to 16 years and was 1.86 years on average. (2) Once the misdiagnosis be corrected, the prognosis could be improved by antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapies compared with those without antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapies (OR 11.67, 95% CI 5.861-23.249). The major causes of death were sudden death, resistant shock in patients without antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapies while the causes were sudden death, cerebral hemorrhage and resistant shock in PE patients received antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapies. (3) Literatures on PE misdiagnosis were most from provincial hospitals [37 papers with 547 cases (33.6%, 35.5%)] and municipal hospitals [43 papers with 671 cases (39.1%, 43.6%)]. (4) The number of papers published on PE and PE misdiagnosis from 1994 to 2004 increased steadily by an average of 26.6% and 9.1%, respectively. (5) PE was misdiagnosed to more than 70 kinds of diseases and the top 4 were coronary heart disease in 449 cases (26.8%), pneumonia in 217 cases (12.9%), congestive heart failure in 142 cases (8.5%) and pleurisy in 114 cases (6.8%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>(1) PE misdiagnosis is still a critical issue now in China and early diagnosis and effective treatment is essential for a better prognosis. (2) The differential diagnosis among PE and coronary heart disease and pneumonia need to be emphasized to avoid the PE misdiagnosis. (3) Efforts should be made through continuing education on clinical professionals to improve their knowledge on PE in China.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Diagnosis, Differential , Diagnostic Errors , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism , Diagnosis , Young Adult
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