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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883246

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the learning curve of laparoscopic transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer operated by one or two surgery teams.Methods:The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Based on the concept of real-world research, the clinical data of 1 458 patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from 44 medical centers who were registered in the Chinese taTME registry collaborative (CTRC) database from May 2010 to May 2020 were collected. The 1 458 patients were divided into cohorts with one surgery team or two surgery teams according to the operation method. Patients with one surgery team underwent taTME by transabdominal operation and then by transanal operation. Patients with two surgery teams underwent taTME by transabdominal and transanal operation simultaneously with duration of the simutaneous operation time ≥30 minutes. The entire surgical process of patients with two surgery teams is not required to be performed by two surgery teams simutaneously. The clinical data were collected from the medical centers with similar operation amount according to the operation time sequence to analyze the difference between different operation stages and explore the learning curve. The operation time was taken as the parameter to carry out cumulative sum analysis and draw the learning curve of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME in each medical center. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients from two medical centers with the largest difference in learning curves were analyzed. Observation indicators: (1) screening results of clinical data; (2) clinical data collection of patients with one surgery team; (3) surgical situations of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from the one surgery team in different operation stages; (4) learning curve of the one surgery team; (5) clinical data collection of patients with two surgery teams; (6) surgical situations of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from the two surgery teams; (7) learning curve of the two surgery teams. The cumulative sum was calculated by the CUSUM=∑i=1nXi-U, where Xi represented the operation time of each taTME, U represented the average operation time of all cases, and n represented the operation number. Fitting process was conducted on scatter plot of learning curves. Taking the apex of learning curve as the boundary, the learning curve was divided into two stages. The abscissa corresponding to the apex of learning curve was the number of operations that needed to be performed to cross the learning curve. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean±SD. Comparison between two groups was conducted using the t test and comparison between multiple groups was conducted using the ANOVA. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M( P25,P75), and comparison between groups was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test. Comparison of ordinal data was analyzed using the rank sum test. Count data were analyzed using the chi-square test or Fisher exact probability. Results:(1) Screening results of clinical data:the clinical data of 661 patients from 7 medical centers with one surgery team and two surgery teams were collected. (2) Clinical data collection of patients with one surgery team: the clinical data of 312 patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from 5 medical centers were collected including 42 cases in the number 2 medical center, 97 cases in the number 20 medical center, 82 cases in the number 33 medical center, 35 cases in the number 37 medical center and 56 cases in the number 39 medical center, respectively. (3) Surgical situations of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from the one surgery team in different operation stages: three medical centers including the number 2, number 37 and number 39 medical center with close operation volume provided the clinical data of cases distributed in five operation stages. Among the five operation stages, the proportion of high-quality operation of total mesorectal excision (TME) was ≥17/18, the incidence of postoperative complications was ≤13.3%(4/30) and the incidence of anastomotic leakage was ≤10.0%(3/30). There was no significant difference in the TME quality, postoperative complications or anastomotic leakage among the five operation stages ( P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the operation time among the five operation stages ( χ2=6.950, P>0.05). (4) Learning curve of the one surgery team: the number of operations corresponding to the turning point of learning curve in number 2 and number 20 medical center was 22 and 39, respectively. The number of operations corresponding to the turning points of learning curve in number 33 and number 37 medical center was 15, 66 and 10, 28, respectively. The number of operations corresponding to the turning point of learning curve in number 39 medical center was 20. The overall curve of number 20 medical center was in line with the trend of learning curve and 39 cases of operations was the minimum number needed to cross the learning curve. The biggest difference in learning curve was shown between the number 20 and number 33 medical center. Cases with the gender of male or female, age, body mass index, cases classified as stage 1, stage 2, stage 3 or stage 4 of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Classification, cases with neoadjuvant therapy, duration of postoperative hospital stay of the number 20 medical center were 77, 20, (60±10)years, 24 kg/m 2(22 kg/m 2, 26 kg/m 2), 1, 88, 8, 0, 8, 8, 11 days (9 days, 13 days), respectively, versus 51, 31, (64±11)years, 23 kg/m 2(21 kg/m 2, 26 kg/m 2), 0, 35, 43, 1, 31, 16 days (13 day, 21 day) of number 33 medical center, showing significant differences in the above indicators between the two medical centers ( χ2 =6.442, t=-2.265, Z=-2.032, -6.870, χ2 =22.120, Z=-8.408, P<0.05). (5) Clinical data collection of the two surgery teams: the clinical data of 259 patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from 5 medical centers were collected, including 46 cases in the number 2 medical center, 47 cases in the number 8 medical center, 78 cases in the number 18 medical center, 43 cases in the number 33 medical center and 45 cases in the number 44 medical center, respectively. (6) Surgical situations of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME from the two surgery teams: four medical centers including the number 2, number 8, number 33 and number 44 medical center with close operation volume provided the clinical data of cases distributed in four operation stages. Among the four operation stages, the proportion of high-quality operation of TME was ≥50.0%(13/26), the incidence of postoperative complications was ≤35.0%(14/40) and the incidence of anastomotic leakage was ≤22.5%(9/40). There was no significant difference in the TME quality, postoperative complications or operation time among the four operation stages ( χ2 =3.252, 4.733, 8.848, P>0.05). There was a significant difference in the incidence of anastomotic leakage among the four operation stages ( P<0.05). (7) Learning curve of the two surgery teams: the number of operations corresponding to the turning point of learning curve in number 2 and number 8 medical center was 28 and 16, respectively. The number of operations corresponding to the turning points of learning curve in number 18, number 33 and number 44 medical center was 12 and 58, 10 and 36, 14 and 36, respectively. The overall curve of number 2 medical center was in line with the trend of learning curve and 28 cases of operations was the minimum number needed to cross the learning curve. The biggest difference in learning curve was shown between the number 2 and number 33 medical center. The age and cases with tumor in stage T0 and (or) Tis, stage T1, stage T2, stage T3 or stage T4 of the T staging of the number 2 and number 33 medical center were (60±12)years, 3, 1, 9, 11, 20 and (65±10)years, 2, 3, 22, 15, 0, respectively, showing significant differences in the above indicators between the two medical centers ( t=-2.280, Z=-4.033, P<0.05). Conclusion:Thirty-nine cases of operations was the minimum number for the one surgery team to cross the learning curve of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME and 28 cases of operations was the minimum number for the two surgery teams to cross the learning curve of laparoscopic rectal cancer taTME.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883242

ABSTRACT

Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is a hot topic surgical approach in the field of colorectal surgery. However, the therapeutic effect of this surgical approach is controversial. Based on the accumulated experience and evidence, the domestic and international consensus and guidelines on taTME have been updated and improved. The importance of taTME registry study is emphasized again in the 'International expert consensus guidance on indications, implementation and quality measures for transanal total mesorectal excision' published in 2020. The implementation of prospective case registration is the fundamental premise to ensure the quality of data and the advancing data collection methods and online platform construction can further improve the quality of data. Based on the latest taTME international consensus, the authors discuss the importance of case registry study to improve the data quality of taTME registry study and provide reliable and timeliness evidence based medicine in the field of colorectal surgery.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883237

ABSTRACT

Intracorporeal anastomosis in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy of colon cancer is becoming a hot spot in colorectal surgery. A number of retrospective studies have suggested that intracorporeal anastomosis has potential advantages in promoting postoperative recovery and reducing postoperative complications compared with conventional extracorporeal anastomosis. Several randomized controlled trials published recently have also confirmed that intracorporeal anastomosis can promote postoperative gastrointestinal function recovery and reduce postoperative pain, but there is still insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion about the incidence of complications, especially the anastomotic leakage rate. Heterogeneity of surgical techniques and unclear definition of anastomotic leakage are the main difficulties in current studies. Several high-quality prospective randomized controlled trials are currently under way, and high level of evidence is needed to objectively evaluate the laparoscopic right hemicolectomy of colon cancer. The authors review the relevant literatures at home and abroad, systematically elaborate the research status and prospects of digestive tract reconstruction after laparoscopic right hemicolectomy of colon cancer, in order to explore a new direction for the clinical research of colorectal surgery in China.

4.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 316-323, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882491

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effect of age on clinical outcome of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in the obese patients.Methods:A total of 113 patients who underwent LSG due to obesity and metabolic disorders between 2013 and 2018 at Fudan University Pudong Hospital, and completed the scheduled follow-up (1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery) were included for the retrospective analysis. The patients were divided into three groups based upon pre-operative age, including 15 to 30 year-old group ( n=58), 31 to 45 year-old group ( n=32), and 45 to 65 year-old group ( n=23). The body weight related parameters, glycemic and metabolic related parameters, lipid panel as well as arterial blood pressure were compared at pre-operative baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The quantitative data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA, and the P value was corrected by Bonferroni method. And the categorical variables were analyzed by chi square test. Results:The preoperative baseline data showed that with the increase of age, the preoperative body mass index gradually decreased, which were (40.1±5.9) kg/m 2, (37.1±6.6) kg/m 2 and (35.3±7.4) kg/m 2 in 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 65 year-old groups, respectively. Otherwise, other metabolic related parameters were comparable. At 12 months after LSG, there was no significant difference in the amount of weight loss among the groups, but the percentage of total weight loss (% TWL) and the percentage of total BMI loss (%TBMIL) decreased significantly with age increasing. The %TBMIL in 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 65 year-old groups were 32.3±7.5%, 28.4±8.4% ( P<005 compared with 16 to 30 year-old group) and 25.7±8.2% (compared with 16 to 30 year-old group P<0.001), respectively. In the patients with preoperative HbA1c>7%, HbA1c reduction in the three groups at 12 months after operation were 3.20% (compared with 46-65 year-old group P<0.001), 2.64% (compared with 46-65 year-old group P<0.05) and 1.34%, respectively. The proportions of patients with HbA1c < 6.5% were 95.8%, 88.9% and 50.0%, respectively. LDL, triglyceride and arterial blood pressure in all groups decreased and HDL increased rapidly within 3 months after operation, but there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusions:The improvement of blood glucose metabolism and the remission rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the patients with older age were worse than those in the younger patients, and the T2DM in the younger patients tends to obtain better clinical remission after LSG; in terms of weight loss, with the increase of age, %TWL and %TBMIL also showed a decreasing trend; however, the improvement of blood lipid and blood pressure after LSG was not affected by the factor of age. This study implies that patients who meet the indications of metabolic and bariatric surgery should be suggested to receive surgical treatment early in order to achieve better clinical outcomes.

5.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 305-310,F3, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882489

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the incidence and occurrence time of gallstone disease after bariatric surgery.Methods:Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 187 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery in the Department of General Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from Dec. 2017 to Aug. 2019. All patients did not receive prophylactic ursodeoxycholic acid. All patients were underwent abdominal ultrasound and MRI examination preoperatively, and at least one abdominal ultrasound, MRI examination postoperatively. The incidence and occurrence time of gallstones and biliary sludge in patients with different bariatric surgery were analyzed respectively. Measurement data conforming to the normal distribution were described as mean ± standard deviation ( Mean± SD). Measurement data consistent with skewed distribution were described as median (lower quartile, upper quartile). Counting data were described as a percentage (%). Kruskal-Wallis test was used for comparison among groups, and then Bonferroni correction was used for pairwise comparison. Results:The follow-up time was up to Dec. 31, 2020, with a median follow-up time of 27.0 (22.0, 31.0) months. Thirty-four patients (18.2%, 34/187) developed gallstones after bariatric surgery. Individually, it was 18.0%(30/167) in LSG group, 22.2%(2/9) in LRYGB group, 11.1%(1/9) in LOAGB group and 50.0%(1/2) in LOAGB revisional surgery group. Eighteen patients (9.6%, 18/187) were found biliary sludge formation, among which 8.4% (14/167), 22.2% (2/9), and 22.2% (2/9) underwent LSG, LRYGB, and LOAGB, respectively. The rates of weight loss and BMI loss in patients with postoperative gallstone-formation were 21.4 (18.7, 23.6)% and 21.4 (18.6, 23.5) %, respectively. Three patients (1.6%, 3/187) had newly developed symptomatic gallstones, and all of them underwent LSG. The mean occurrence time for biliary sludge and gallstone was 85.5 (28.8, 98.8) and 103.5 (93.0, 179.3) days, respectively. Statistical difference in occurrence time was only found between postoperative gallstone and biliary sludge formation ( P=0.009). Conclusion:Without drug intervention, the incidence of gallstone after bariatric surgery was about 18.2% (34/187), which requires close clinical attention. Abdominal ultrasonography and the T2WI sequence of upper abdominal MRI can help to diagnose gallstone and monitor its changes.

6.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 269-273,F4, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882482

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder(GB-NET) are rare, and it lacks early clinical manifestations and has no specific tumor markers, it is difficult to distinguish GB-NET from gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis of GB-NET is based on histopathology of the tumor and the assessment of proliferation fraction, which makes it difficult to achieve early diagnosis. GB-NET has a high degree of malignancy, 32.39% of patients have liver metastases at diagnosis, and 51.60% of patients have lymph node metastases, the median survival time is 9 to 10 months.There are currently no specific guidelines or consensus for the treatment of GB-NET. The treatment strategies are choosen mainly by the principles of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We reviews the clinical and basic researches of GB-NET and case reports from China and across the world, as well as the data from SEER database, and we discuss the research progress on the classification, clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment advances and the prognosis.

7.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 226-232,F3, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882474

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the safety and efficacy of continuous transversus abdominis plane (CTAP) block and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) in abdominal surgery postoperatively.Methods:PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and other English and Chinese databases were searched since their establishment to February 2021 with "continuous/modified, transversus/transverse abdominis plane block, TAP block, patient controlled analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, patient controlled intravenous analgesia, patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, PCA/PCIA/IV-PCA" as the search keywords. According to the analgesia treatment methods, patients were divided into continuous transversus abdominis plane block group (CTAP group) and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia group (PCIA group). Review Manager 5.4 software was used to conduct a Meta-analysis on outcome indicators such as postoperative nausea and (or) vomiting (PONV), dizziness, pain score and recovery status after abdominal surgery. Risk ratio ( RR) was calculated for counting data, Mean ± SD was calculated for measurement data. Heterogeneity was measured by I2, and related data were analyzed by using either a fixed effects model or a random effects model. Results:(1) The results of literature search: A total of 6 randomized controlled trials, including 2 published in English and 4 published in Chinese were analyzed, involving 479 patients. The results of the Meta-analysis: Compared with PCIA, CTAP block had lower incidence of PONV ( RR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.62, P<0.01), lower incidence of dizziness ( RR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.09-0.79, P=0.02), lower pain scores on movement at 24 h ( MD=-0.75, 95% CI: -1.42--0.08, P=0.03) and 48 h ( MD=-0.68, 95% CI: -1.05--0.31, P<0.001) postoperatively, and earlier time of first mobilization ( MD=-0.49, 95% CI: -0.69--0.30, P<0.001) and first exhaust ( MD=-10.47, 95% CI: -13.53--7.41, P<0.001), with statistically significant differences. However, there were no statistically significant differences in pain scores at rest at 24 h ( MD=-0.25, 95% CI: -0.57-0.08, P=0.14) and 48 h ( MD=-0.15, 95% CI: -0.39-0.09, P=0.22) postoperatively and postoperative length of hospital stay ( MD=-1.01, 95% CI: -2.28-0.26, P=0.12). Conclusion:CTAP block is a relatively safe and effective analgesic method, and it′s more consistent with the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and can be recommended as an alternative method of PCIA.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882444

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore whether the protective ileostomy can reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage after neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer and the relationship between protective ileostomy and anastomotic leakage.Methods:From May 2011 to August 2020, a total of 108 patients who underwent rectal cancer neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy and then received anterior resection in Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were selected. Sixty-three cases were treated with protective ileostomy (Treatment group), while 45 cases were not (Control group). The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of anastomotic leakage between the two groups. At the same time, Logistic regression was used to analyze the related factors of anastomotic leakage, and the rate of permanent stoma was calculated. SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical analysis.Results:The total incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage in the Treatment group and Control group was 9.52% (6/63) and 6.66% (3/45) ( P=0.59). Among them, 2 cases of anastomotic leakage occurred in the Treatmentgroup, no A-grade anastomotic leakage occurred in the Control group, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (33.33% vs. 0, P=0.77). There were 4 cases of grade B anastomotic leakage occurred in the Treatment group, 2 cases in the Control group, there was no significant difference between the two groups (66.67% vs. 66.67%, P=0.45). There was no grade C anastomotic leakage in the Treatment group, and one case of grade C anastomotic leakage occurred in the Control group, there was no significant difference between the two groups (0 to 33.33%, P=0.70). Logistic regression analysis showed that whether protective stoma was implemented or not was not statistically related to the occurrence of anastomotic leakage ( P=0.26). The distance between the tumor and the anal margin ( P=0.01) affected the occurrence of anastomotic leakage. The permanent stoma rate in the Treatment group was 9/63 (16.67%). Conclusion:Protective ileostomy has no significant advantage in reducing the incidence of anastomotic leakage in patients with rectal cancer neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and may lead to permanent stoma.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908481

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between systematic immune-inflamma-tion index(SII) and clinicopathological characteristics for colorectal cancer.Methods:The retrospec-tive cohort study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 513 patients with colorectal cancer who were admitted to the Beijing Friendship Hospital of Capital Medical University from February 2019 to May 2021 were collected. There were 311 males and 202 females, aged (64±12)years. Observation indicators: (1) SII of colorectal cancer and relationship between SII and clinicopatholo-gical characteristics; (2) influencing factors for SII in colorectal cancer patients. According to the median of SII as the cutoff value, the patients were divided into high SII and low SII patients. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the t test. Count data were represented as absolute numbers or percen-tages, and comparison between groups was conducted using the chi-square test. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M( P25, P75), and comparison between groups was analyzed using the non-parameter rank sum test. Comparison of ordinal data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U non-parameter test. Variables with statistically significant differences between groups were included for further analysis. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used for continuous data, and Wilcoxon or Kruskal-Willas analysis was used for categorical data and Bonferroni correction was performed. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. Results:(1) SII of colorectal cancer and relationship between SII and clinicopathological charac-teristics: the SII of 513 patients was 355(253,507). Taking the median SII 355 as the cutoff value, 257 of 513 patients with SII>355 had high SII and 256 cases with SII≤355 had low SII. Of high SII patients, the Karnofsky performance status(KPS) score, preoperative albumin(Alb), CA125, cases with tumor located at left or right hemicolon, tumor diameter, cases with laparoscopic assisted surgery or laparotomy (surgical approach), cases in stage T0, T1, T2, T3, T4 (pathological T staging), cases in stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ (pathological TNM staging) were 87±17, (37±5)g/L, 8.80 U/mL(5.90 U/mL, 14.15 U/mL), 174, 83, (5.2±2.8)cm, 208, 44, 5, 19, 25, 131, 63, 34, 98, 94, 14. The above indicators of low SII patients were 91±13, (38±4)g/L, 7.20 U/mL(5.40 U/mL, 10.03 U/mL), 200, 56, (4.0±1.9)cm, 221, 24, 8, 39, 35, 118, 45, 61, 84, 79, 12. There were significant differences in above indicators between the two groups ( t=-2.770, -3.211, Z=-3.799, χ2=7.050, t=5.324, χ2=6.179, Z=-3.390, -2.227, P<0.05). Results of Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that SII was positively correlated with the tumor diameter ( r=0.390, P<0.05), and negatively correlated with preoperative Alb ( r=-0.200, P<0.05). Results of Wilcoxon analysis showed that SII was 447(311,720), 352(251,493) in patients with tumor located at right hemicolon and left hemicolon, 439(284,640), 345(243,481) in patients undergoing laparotomy and laparoscopic assisted surgery, respectively. There were signi-ficant differences in SII between patients with tumor located at right and left hemicolon,between patients undergoing laparotomy and laparoscopic assisted surgery ( P<0.05). Results of Kruskal-Willas analy-sis showed that SII was 289(201,463), 296(210,398), 329(252,446), 369(265,505), 434(274,631) in patients with pathological T staging as stage T0, stage T1, stage T2, stage T3, stage T4, respectively, and 307(226,400), 380(260,503), 381(272,563), 376(273,634) in patients with patho-logical TNM staging as stage Ⅰ, stage Ⅱ, stage Ⅲ, stage Ⅳ, respectively. There were significant differences in SII between patients with different pathological T staging and between patients with different pathological TNM staging ( P<0.05). (2) Influencing factors for SII in colorectal cancer patients: results of univariate analysis showed that KPS score, preoperative Alb, CA125, tumor location, tumor diameter, patholo-gical N staging, pathological TNM staging were related factors for SII in colorectal cancer patients ( Beta=-3.5, -15.8, 3.7, 106.3, 51.8, 115.1, 104.7, 141.2,95% confidence interval as -5.7 to -1.3, -22.6 to -9.1, 1.8 to 5.5,34.6 to 177.9, 38.5 to 65.2, 40.5 to 189.7, 11.2 to 198.2, 46.9 to 235.9, P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor location and tumor diameter were independent influencing factors for SII in colorectal cancer patients ( Beta=79.5, 42.5, 95% confidence interval as 8.4 to 150.7, 26.6 to 58.4, P<0.05). Conclusions:The SII is correlated with tumor location, tumor diameter, preoperative Alb, pathological T staging, pathological TNM staging. Preoperative hypoproteinemia indicates a high SII score. The longer of tumor diameter, right hemicolon tumor and high TNM staging indicate the more serious immune-inflammatory imbalance. Tumor location and tumor diameter are independent influencing factors for SII in colorectal cancer patients.

10.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 774-777, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907522

ABSTRACT

Protein ubiquitination is one of the important mechanisms regulating protein stability and activity under physiological condition. Among them, E1/E2/E3 ligases and deubiquitination enzyme play an important regulatory role in the process of protein ubiquitination, while deubiquitination may induce the occurrence of tumors, asthma and other diseases. Ubiquitin-specific peptidases, as the main members of the deubiquitination enzyme family, have been proved to be closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors, among which some ubiquitin-specific peptidases have been used as new targets for anti-tumor therapy. Therefore, this study aims to briefly review the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin-specific peptidases in the process of tumor genesis and development, which will provide more research directions for tumor therapy.

11.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 764-768,f4, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907520

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the feasibility of wait and watch treatment for patients with high-risk pathology factors after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early colorectal cancer.Methods:From December 2012 to June 2020, 104 patients, including 62 males and 42 females, aged from 31 to 89 years old, with the average of (59.5±10.8) years with early colorectal cancer after ESD operation were selected from the Department of General Surgery, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University. According to the follow-up treatment, the patients were divided into two groups: the additional surgical resection group and the wait and watch group. The measurement data of normal distribution were shown by mean standard deviation, the comparison between groups adopted t test, and the comparison of counting data between groups adopted χ2 test. The types of pathological high-risk factors after ESD were compared between the two groups, and the overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) of the two groups were compared by Log-Rank test. Results:The median follow-up time was(40.6±15.3) months. The OS and PFS of the additional surgical resection group and the wait and watch group were 100.0% vs 98.4% and 90.7% vs 90.2%, respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (OS: χ2=0.875, P=0.35; PFS: χ2=0.017, P=0.80). Conclusion:The wait and watch strategy is expected to be one of the follow-up choices for some patients with high risk factors after ESD operation for early colorectal cancer.

12.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 560-564, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907481

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the prognostic factors of Krukenberg tumors derived from the gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, so as to guide comprehensive treatment; looking for objective and sensitive indicators of ovarian metastasis during the follow-up after the surgery for gastric and colorectal cancer, which provides a basis for early diagnosis.Methods:Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 75 patients diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor admitted to Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from June 2007 to February 2020. Log-rank method and COX regression analysis were used to find independent prognostic factors. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the dynamic changes of ovarian imaging and tumor markers and to find the more sensitive indicators in the follow-up of patients with metachronous metastasis.Results:In the 75 cases, the univariate analysis suggested that CA19-9≥123.5 U/mL ( P=0.001), CA12-5≥37.9 U/mL ( P=0.018), Krukenberg tumor of stomach origin ( P=0.037), extra-ovary metastasis ( P=0.014), and without cytoreductive surgery (CRS) ( P<0.001)were poor prognostic factors. Among them, cytoreductive surgery could significantly improve the prognosis, even if with visible residual lesions, the overall survival was still significantly longer than those who have not undergone cytoreductive surgery ( P=0.004). Multivariate analysis results showed that CA19-9 and cytoreductive surgery ( P=0.001) were independent prognostic factors for patients with Krukenberg tumor; during the postoperative follow-up, ultrasound and CT imaging changes were more sensitive to ovarian metastasis ( P=0.006). Conclusions:CRS can prolong significantly the overall survival (OS) of patients with krukenberg tumor. Patients with simultaneous metastases should not give up the opportunity for surgery, and patients with metachronous metastases should also receive ovary resection procedure, even if with visible residual lesions, the patients can still benefit from the procedure. In the follow-up for gastric and colorectal cancer, attention should be paid to the ovarian ultrasound and CT imaging changes to facilitate early detection of ovarian metastases.

13.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 553-559, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907480

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the negative effect of prolonged postoperative ileus on postoperative recovery in patients underwent open alimentary tract surgery.Methods:This study was a retrospective cohort study. The subjects of the study were patients who underwent open gastrointestinal surgery at the General Surgery Department of Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University from October 2016 to November 2018. According to the PPOI diagnostic criteria proposed by the University of Auckland, the included patients were classified as PPOI Group ( n=14) and non-PPOI group ( n=112). The postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and medical expenses during hospitalization were selected as the study endpoint indicators. T-test or Fisher′s exact test were performed to compare the differences between the two groups, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the independent effects of PPOI on hospital stay and medical expenses. Results:The incidence of PPOI in this study cohort was 11.1%. The total postoperative complications occurred more frequent in PPOI group (64.29% vs 38.39%, P=0.08). The average postoperative hospital stay of patients in the PPOI group was longer than that in non-PPOI group [(21.21±14.83) d vs (13.98±14.21) d, P=0.070]. Adjusting for various possible confounding factors, the PPOI regression coefficient beta (95% CI) that affects the length of hospital stay was [-0.43 (-7.16, 6.3), P=0.90]. The average medical cost of patients in the PPOI group was more than that in non-PPOI group [(104 389.64±52 427.66)元比(79 111.41±50 832.29)元, P=0.070]. Adjusting for various possible confounding factors, the PPOI regression coefficient beta (95% CI) that affects medical expenditure was [-134.12 (-21656.85, 21388.62), P=0.99]. Conclusions:Prolonged postoperative ileus leads to delayed postoperative recovery, which is related to increased postoperative complications, hospital stay duration and medical cost. But it needs further confirmation from large sample data.

14.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 526-531, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907475

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the effect of layer dissection and traditional management in total thyroidectomy by comparing the levels of parathyroid hormone and calcium after operation.Methods:From January 2019 to June 2019, a total of 120 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were retrospectively analyzed, in including 96 females and 24 males, aged from 24 to 72 years old, with the average of 52 years. There were 63 cases in layer dissection group and 57 cases in traditional management group. The main index was the level of parathyroid hormone and blood calciumon the 1st day after operation. The measurement data of non normal distribution were described by quartile [ M( P25, P75)]. T-test or nonparametric test were used for comparison between groups. The chi-square was used to conduct comparison between count data of groups. Results:On the first day after operation, the serum calcium level in the layer dissection group was significantly higher than that in the traditional management group, with a median of 2.15 mmol/L and 2.10 mmol/L, respectively ( Z=-2.019, P=0.043). The level of parathyroid hormone in layer dissection group was significantly higher than that in traditional management group [23.8 (16.2~34.8) pg/mL vs 15.3 (8.9~29.0) pg/mL, Z=-3.646, P<0.001]. The incidence of postoperative complications in the layer dissection group was lower than that in the traditional management group (6.3% vs 21.1%, χ2=5.599, P=0.018). One month after operation, the results of blood calcium and parathyroid hormone were both normal [blood calcium 2.31 (2.23~2.41) mmol/L vs 2.32 (2.26~2.37) mmol/L, Z=-0.657, P=0.648 and parathyroid hormone 37.6 (32.3~51.1) pg/m vs 35.8 (27.7~48.9) pg/mL, Z=-0.674, P=0.499], and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion:The layer dissection method for the superior pole thyroid capsule, compared with traditional management, can reduce the incidence rate of postoperative hypocalcemia and the incidence rate of postoperative complications, can improve the quality of patients′ life.

15.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 478-483, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907466

ABSTRACT

Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a series of rare malignancies with poor overall prognosis. Radical surgery the preferred treatment option, but most patients have lost the opportunity of surgery at the time of diagnosis. At present, there are limited systematical treatment options for biliary tract cancers, and such treatments have poor efficacy and short duration of responses. In the past few years, immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has been established as an effective systemic therapy option for many solid tumors and hematological tumors. The research for biliary tract cancer treated by of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been continuously carried out and demonstrated the anti-tumor efficacy and safety. However, in view of the low incidence and high heterogeneity of BTC more large number of clinical trials and practices need to be carried out, and the effective combination regimens and predictive biomarkers are urgent to be explored. This article reviews the recent clinical studies on immune checkpoint inhibitors for biliary tract cancer, and summarizes the ongoing clinical studies. At the same time, the predictive biomarkers of immune checkpoint inhibitors proposed by domestic and foreign researches in recent years are summarized.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870447

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods:The clinicopathologic characteristics and progression free survival (PFS) of 181 CRC patients treated from Mar 2015 to Dec 2017 was collected for analysis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to screen for prognostic factors affecting prognosis.Results:Univariate analysis found that age(χ 2=12.192, P=0.002), AJCC staging(χ 2=17.038, P=0.001), surgical approach(χ 2=6.105, P=0.047), postoperative carcinoembryonic antigen ( χ 2=10.081, P=0.001 ) and perioperative adverse events (χ 2=6.736, P=0.009)were significantly associated with prognosis. Multivariate analysis found that AJCC staging(Wald =8.104, P=0.044) and perioperative adverse events(Wald=7.656, P=0.006) were independent risk factors for prognosis. Conclusions:AJCC staging and perioperative adverse events can be used as independent risk factors for predicting prognosis in CRC patients.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865174

ABSTRACT

Along with over half a century′s evolution of bariatric and metabolic surgery in the world, a variety of surgical procedures have emerged. The design concepts of bariatric and metabolic surgical procedure include shortening the effective length of small intestine to reduce nutrient absorption, reducing gastric volume to limit food intake, or the combination of shortening the length of small intestine and reducing gastric volume. However, majority of historic surgical procedures have become obsolete due to irrational design or poor clinical outcomes, for instance, procedures that simply shorten the length of small intestine. In order to become a standard surgical procedure, the assessment of a new surgical procedure usually need four phases including preclinical validation with animal experiments, clinical research and trial, clinical promotion, as well as official recommendation. During each phase, it is vital to collect the experimental and clinical data in order to establish an objective evaluation. Of all available bariatric and metabolic surgical procedures, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy (SG), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS), single-anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S/SIPS) and intragastric balloon have satisfied all four phases mentioned above and therefore were recommended by most national professional associations in the world. In addition, mini gastric bypass /one anastomosis gastric bypass (MGB/OAGB) has also been recognized by the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO). According to the actual situation in China, the views of professional associations in western countries and the existing clinical evidences, the authors suggest that the SG and RYGB should be classified as strongly recommended surgical procedures, SADI-S/SIPS be moderately recommended, and MGB/OAGB, sleeve gastrectomy and BPD-DS be recommended with caution in China. Currently, intragastric balloon products and endoscopic suture products have not been approved in China yet, and the other unmentioned bariatric and metabolic surgical procedures are either obsolete or with limited clinical evidences, therefore, they are not evaluated in this article.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865055

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the incidence and influencing factors of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer.Methods:The retrospective case-control study was conducted. The clinicopathological data of 1 243 patients with rectal cancer who were admitted to 3 medical centers between August 2008 and July 2017 were collected, including 512 in the Beijing Friendship Hospital of Capital Medical University, 480 in the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 251 in the Peking University People′s Hospital. There were 734 males and 509 females, aged from 25 to 89 years, with an average age of 65 years. All patients underwent AR for rectal cancer. Observation indicators: (1) surgical situations and incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage; (2) influencing factors for postoperative anastomotic leakage. Measurement data with skewed distribution were represented as M (range). Count data were represented as absolute numbers or percentages, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the chi-square test or Fisher exact probability. Univariate analysis was conducted using the chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Logistic regression model based on factors with P<0.10 in the univariate analysis. Results:(1) Surgical situations and incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage: all the 1 243 patients with rectal cancer underwent successfully AR including 219 undergoing defunctioning stoma and 1 024 undergoing non-defunctioning stoma, of which 70 patients had postoperative anastomotic leakage, with a total incidence rate of 5.632%(70/1 243). The incidence rates of grade A anastomotic leakage, grade B anastomotic leakage, and grade C anastomotic leakage were 27.1%(19/70), 21.4%(15/70), 51.4%(36/70), respectively. (2) Influencing factors for postoperative anastomotic leakage: results of univariate analysis showed that gender, surgical procedure, volume of intra-operative blood loss, and pathological metastasis staging were related factors for anastomotic leakage after AR ( χ2=8.518, 6.548, 10.834, 4.501, P<0.05). Results of multivariate analysis based on factors with P<0.10 in the univariate analysis showed that male and volume of intraoperative blood loss≥100 mL were independent risk factors for anastomotic leakage after AR [ odds ratio ( OR)=2.250, 1.949, 95% confidence interval ( CI): 1.281-3.952, 1.142-3.324, P<0.05)]; defunctioning stoma was an independent protective factor for anastomotic leakage after AR ( OR=0.449, 95% CI: 0.201-1.001, P<0.05). Subgroup analysis on effects of defunctioning stoma versus non-defunctioning stoma on grade of anastomotic leakage showed that percentage of grade C anastomotic leakage for defunctioning stoma group was 14.3%(1/7), versus 55.6%(35/63) for non-defunctioning stoma group, with a significant difference between the two groups ( χ2=9.570, P<0.05). Conclusions:Male and volume of intraoperative blood loss≥100 mL are independent risk factors for anastomotic leakage after AR. Defunctioning stoma is an independent protective factor for anastomotic leakage after AR. For male patients and patients with large volume of intraoperative blood loss, defunctioning stoma is recommended to reduce the incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-865013

ABSTRACT

China has the largest group of patients with colorectal cancer in the world,however,there are few international guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer from China,or research of high-level evidence in China.In recent years,colorectal surgery has developed rapidly in China,and great progress has been made both in clinical practice and in clinical research.But there are still many imbalances and under-regulations.In 2018,Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgery led the establishment of Chinese Colorectal Cancer Surgery Database (CCCD).The retrospective and prospective data collection coming from CCCD showed that the standardization of colorectal cancer surgery and data management needed to be improved,and the awareness of clinical research needed to be further improved.Therefore,how to carry out good clinical research and obtain high-level evidence based upon CCCD will be the great challenge for colorectal surgery in China.

20.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 673-678,f3, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863408

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the risk factors of lymph node metastasis and prognosis in Siewert Ⅱ/Ⅲ adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG) patients.Methods:A total of 134 patients who underwent surgical operation between June 2013 and December 2019 at the Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were retrospectively reviewed, including 112 males and 22 females, with a male to female ratio of 5.5∶1 and an average age of 62.1(27-82 years old). The primary outcomes were lymph node metastasis risk and 3-years overall survival. The secondary outcomes were the rate and pattern of lymph node metastasis. Follow-up methods mainly include outpatient and telephone. During the follow-up period, the patient needs to receive physical examination, laboratory examinations, chest and abdominal CT scan and gastroscopy to evaluate the status of disease. The patients were followed up until January 2020. Chi-square test or Fisher test was used for the comparison between count data group, and rank sum test was used for the comparison between grade data group. Stepwise Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis, and COX regression risk model was used for survival analysis.Results:Multivariate analysis revealed that the parameters infiltration depth ( OR=4.341, 95% CI: 2.498-7.545, P=0.000), gross type ( OR=3.626, 95% CI: 1.425-9.228, P=0.007) and intravascular cancer embolus ( OR=2.888, 95% CI: 1.106-7.544, P=0.030) correlated with lymph node metastasis. For all patients, the lymph nodes No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11 indicated higher lymph node metastatic rate in the abdominal cavity. However, No.5 and No. 6 indicated different tendency, which was higher in Siewert Ⅲ AEG and lower in Siewert Ⅱ AEG patients. Mediastinal lymph node metastasis of Siewert Ⅱ AEG mainly occurred in No. 110 and No. 111 cases corresponding to 7.1 and 3.0%, respectively, compared with those noted in Siewert Ⅲ AEG patients. The 3-year overall survival analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (82.1% vs 46.1%, P=0.046) and chemotherapy (60.6% vs 39.4%, P=0.007) exhibited significant differences. Conclusions:The infiltration depth, gross type and intravascular cancer embolus are independent risk factors of lymph node metastasis. In addition, patients with lymph node metastasis exhibite worse long-term prognosis. The data indicate that perioperative chemotherapy could improve the prognosis of AEG patients.

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