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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006277

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo prepare oral nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil from Alpinia zerumbet fructus(EOFAZ) and to investigate its pro-absorption effect in vitro and distribution in vivo. MethodThe proteoglycan conjugate polysaccharides of vinegar-processed Bupleuri Radix-bovine serum albumin(VBCP-BSA) was prepared by Maillard reaction of VBCP and BSA. Taking VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, vitamin B12(VB12) as absorption enhancer, and medium chain triglycerides mixed with EOFAZ as oil phase, the nanoemulsions loaded with EOFAZ was prepared by high energy emulsification method. The particle size, particle size distribution, surface Zeta potential, EOFAZ content and appearance and morphology of the nanoemulsions were characterized, and fluorescein tracer method was used to investigate the absorption effect of fluorescein-labeled EOFAZ nanoemulsions in vitro and their distribution in vivo. ResultVBCP-BSA was formed by Maillard reaction for 48 h with high grafting rate. Using VBCP-BSA as emulsifier, the homogeneous pink nanoemulsions was prepared and denoted as EOFAZ@VBCP-BSA/VB12. The particle size of the nanoemulsions was less than 100 nm and the particle size distribution was uniform. The surface of the nanoemulsions was a weak negative charge, and the shape was spherical. The encapsulation rate of the nanoemulsions for EOFAZ was greater than 80%, which had a good absorption effect in vitro and could enhance liver accumulation after oral administration. ConclusionThe designed proteoglycan nanoemulsions can effectively load EOFAZ, promote oral absorption and enhance liver distribution, which can provide experimental basis for the development of oral EOFAZ liver protection preparations.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003772

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five representative components in Wujiwan, and to illustrate the difference of metabolism and tissue distribution before and after compatibility. MethodHealthy male SD rats were divided into four groups, including Wujiwan group(A group, 62.96 g·L-1), Coptidis Rhizoma group(B group, 38.4 g·L-1), processed Euodiae Fructus group(C group, 5.88 g·L-1) and fried Paeoniae Radix Alba group(D group, 18.68 g·L-1), with 65 rats in each group, and were administered the drugs according to the clinical dose of decoction pieces converted into the dose of the extracts. Then plasma, liver, small intestine and brain were taken at pharmacokinetic set time in each group after administration. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the quantitative analysis of five representative components[berberine(Ber), palmatine(Pal), evodiamine(Evo), rutecarpine(Rut) and paeoniflorin(Pae)] in Wujiwan, their concentrations in plasma, liver, small intestine and brain were detected at different time, plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation, and tissue samples were pretreated by protein precipitation plus liquid-liquid extraction. Non-atrioventricular model was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of each component, and the parameters of each group were compared. ResultPharmacokinetic results of A group showed that area under the curve(AUC0-t) of the five representative components were ranked as follows:Ber and Pal were small intestine>liver>blood, Evo and Rut were liver>small intestine>plasma, Pae was small intestine>plasma, which was not detected in the liver, no other components were detected in brain except for Ber. In comparison with plasma and other tissues, peak concentration(Cmax) of Ber, Pal, Evo, and Rut were the highest and time to peak(tmax) were the lowest in the liver of A group. In plasma, the AUC0-t and Cmax of Evo and Rut were increased in A group compared with C group, tmax of Pea was elevated and its Cmax was decreased in A group compared with D group. In the liver, compared with B-D groups, Cmax values of 5 representative components except Pae were elevated, AUC0-t of Pae was decreased and AUC0-t of Evo and Rut were increased in the A group. In the small intestine, half-life(t1/2) of each representative components in A group was elevated and tmax was decreased, and Cmax of each representative ingredient except Pal was decreased, AUC0-t values of Ber and Pal were increased, whereas the AUC0-t values of Evo and Rut were decreased. ConclusionThe small intestine, as the effector organ, is the most distributed, followed by the liver. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the representative components in Wujiwan are changed before and after compatibility, which is more favorable to the exertion of its pharmacodynamic effects.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003422

ABSTRACT

By combing the application and funding situation of general, young scholar and regional scholar programs from National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC) in field of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine in 2023, this paper summarizes the distribution of supporting units, application and funding hotspots, and the problems of application and funding projects in this discipline, in order to provide a reference for applicants and supporting organizations to understand the hotspot dynamics and reporting requirements of the discipline. In 2023, the discipline of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine received a total of 2 793 applications, and there were 1 254 applications for general programs, 1 278 applications for young scholar programs, and 261 applications for regional scholar programs. The amounts of project funding obtained by the three were 145, 164 and 35, respectively, and the funding rates were 11.56%, 12.83% and 13.41% in that order. From the situation of obtaining funding, the age distribution of the project leaders who obtained funding for the general, young scholar and regional scholar programs were mainly distributed in the age of 40-46, 30-34, 38-44 years, respectively. Within the supported programs, the Chinese medicine affiliations accounted for 55.52%. With respect to research subjects, the proportion of one single Chinese herbs, or monomers, or extracts accounted for 29.4%, but the proportion of Chinese herb pairs or prescriptions accounted for 47.1%. Research hotspots included ferroptosis, bile acid metabolism, macrophages, mitochondria, microglia, exosomes, intestinal flora, microecology and so on. The current research mainly focused on the common key problems of the advantageous diseases of Chinese and western integrative medicine, but still need to be improved in the basic theories of Chinese and western medicine and multidisciplinary cross-disciplinary research.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2559-2571, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982864

ABSTRACT

Existing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-related databases are still insufficient in data standardization, integrity and precision, and need to be updated urgently. Herein, an Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine version 2.0 (ETCM v2.0, http://www.tcmip.cn/ETCM2/front/#/) was constructed as the latest curated database hosting 48,442 TCM formulas recorded by ancient Chinese medical books, 9872 Chinese patent drugs, 2079 Chinese medicinal materials and 38,298 ingredients. To facilitate the mechanistic research and new drug discovery, we improved the target identification method based on a two-dimensional ligand similarity search module, which provides the confirmed and/or potential targets of each ingredient, as well as their binding activities. Importantly, five TCM formulas/Chinese patent drugs/herbs/ingredients with the highest Jaccard similarity scores to the submitted drugs are offered in ETCM v2.0, which may be of significance to identify prescriptions/herbs/ingredients with similar clinical efficacy, to summarize the rules of prescription use, and to find alternative drugs for endangered Chinese medicinal materials. Moreover, ETCM v2.0 provides an enhanced JavaScript-based network visualization tool for creating, modifying and exploring multi-scale biological networks. ETCM v2.0 may be a major data warehouse for the quality marker identification of TCMs, the TCM-derived drug discovery and repurposing, and the pharmacological mechanism investigation of TCMs against various human diseases.

5.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1165-1171, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To identify an d analyze chemical cons tituents of Pleione yunnanensis with origin of Pleione yunnanensis. METHODS UPLC-Q-Exactive-Plus-Orbitrap-MS was adopted. The determination was performed on Hyperdil GOLD column with mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid solution-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 40 ℃,and sample size was 2 µL. The electrospray ion source was adopted,and the scanning range was m/z 100-1 500,and the scanning mode was positive and negative ion exchange mode of full scan+ddMS2. The structure of chemical constituents were determined by using Compound Discoverer 3.1 software,comparing with mzCloud,PubChem network database and OTCML ,on the basis of reference substance and published literatures. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS A total of 42 chemical constituents were identified (positive ion mode has 24,negative ion mode has 27), including 13 benzyl succinate glycosides (such as dactylorhin C ,coelovirin A ,militarine),4 phenol glycosides (such as adenosine , guanosine,gastrodin),3 alkaloids(choline,betaine,berberine),and one flavonoid (nobiletin),7 aromatics(such as DL-lysine , DL-arginine,DL-glutamine),one sugar (sucrose),3 benzenes(shancigusin H ,shancigusin H isomer ,batatasin Ⅲ)and 10 others (such as p-methoxybenzoic acid ,monomethyl dodecanedioate ,diphenylamine). Glucose oxybenzyl and some small mole cules are easy to be lost in the cleavage of benzyl succinate glycosides;glycosyl is easy to be lost in the cleavage of phenol glycosides;the cleavage of alkaloids mainly manifest as the cleavage and loss of small molecular substituents ;demethyla- tion reaction is occurred in most flavonoids.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1683-1690, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-823043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To explore the metabolic charact eristics of Miao medicine Laportea bulbifera extract in isolated human intestinal flora. METHODS :L. bulbifera was extracted with 70% ethanol reflux extraction. After concentration,extraction with n-butanol and drying ,L. bulbifera extract was obtained. Taking 0.05 g/mL L. bulbifera extract 1 mL mixed with isolated human intestinal flora fluid 10 mL and cultured for 36 h in anaerobic environment (setting up blank control without drugs or human intestinal bacterial solution ),so as to simulate the metabolic process of the extract in human intestine. The metabolites were detected by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The determination was performed on Agilent Eclipse Plus C 18 RRHD column with mobile phase consisted of 0.01% formic acid water solution- 0.01% formic acid acetonitrile solution (gradient eluetion )at the flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The column temperature was set at 40 ℃,and the sample size was 1 µL. ESI detection was adopted and scanned by negative ion mode (ESI-);the capillary voltage was 4.5 kV,the ion source temperature was 120 ℃,the collision energy was 15-32 V,and the scanning range was m/z 50-1 000. The “Strip”module of MassLynx V 4.1 software was used to analyze the differential chromatograms between the reaction solution and the blank control of L. bulbifera extract. Mass spectrum data and UNIFI so ftware were used to predict relative molecular weight and formula ;based on the information of substance control and related literature reports , the structure and biotransformation pathway of L. bulbifera metabolites in isolated human intestinal flora were predicted and analyzed. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS : A total of 3 prototype : products(rutin,quercetin,kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside)and 22metabolites (mainly the metabolites of quercetin ,mono- caffeoylquinic acid ,isoquercitrin,etc.) were detected after metabolized in isolated human intestinal flora. Itsbiotransformation pathway is phase Ⅰ reaction,which mainly consisted of reduction ,oxidation and hydrolysis.

7.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2481-2486, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To estab lish a method that can comprehensively and rapidly analyze the chemical compositions of Miao medicine Caesalpinia decapetala,and to providing reference for quality control and pharmacodynamic material basis study of C. decapetala . METHODS :UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was adopted . The determination was performed on Agilent SB-C 18 column with mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid solution- 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The column temperature was 30 ℃,and sample size was 2 µL. ESI source was applied in negative and positive scanning ion mode and data collection range of m/z 50-1 500. The capillary voltage was 4.5 kV,the atomizing gas (nitrogen)pressure was 1.2 Bar, the solvent removal gas was nitrogen ,the flow rate of solvent removal gas was 8 L/min and the solvent removal gas temperature was 200 ℃. Data Analysis 4.2 software was adopted to analyze fragment ion information of each peak ,and identify chemica l compositions on the basis of relevant literature and mass spectograms of reference substance. RESULTS :Under positive ion mode , 9 chemical compounds were identified ;peak 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 were catechin ,protohematoxylin B ,epicatechin,ethyl gallate,quercetin,luteolin,3-deoxy-hematoxylin chalcone , isoliquiritigenin and linoleic acid. Under negative ion mode , U1812403), totally 21 peaks were confirmed and 13 compounds were identified;peak 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,15, 21 were catechins , brevifolin carboxylic acid , proto- hematoxylin B ,epicatechin,ethyl gallate ,epicatechin gallate , quercetin,resveratrol,hematoxylin,luteolin,3-deoxy-hema- toxylin, isoliquiritigenin, linoleic acid. CONCLUSIONS UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method is established successfully for analysis of chemical compositions in C. decapetala .

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 413-422, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To compar e the absorpt ion characteristics of gastrodin ,parishin A ,parishin B and parishin C of Gastrodia elata powder,and to explore the effect of particle size on intestinal absorption of above components. METHODS :Based on everted intestinal sac model ,using accumulative absorption amount (Q)and absorption rate constant (Ka)as indexes ,UPLC-MS/MS method was used to determine the absorption of gastrodin ,parishin A ,parishin B and parishin C from different doses (2.5,5,10 g/L) of G. elata powder with different particle sizes (fine powder 146 μm,superfine powder 52 μm,ultrafine powder 37 μm)in different segments(duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon ). RESULTS :Q and Ka of gastrodin and parishin B (intestinal segment ),Q(colon) and Ka(ileum and colon )of parishin C in 2.5 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Q and Ka of gastrodin (intestinal segment ),Q and Ka of parishin B (duodenum,jejunum,ileum)and Ka of parishin C (colon)in 2.5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Q of gastrodin (duodenum),Q of parishin A and parishin B (intestinal segment )and Q of parishin C (duodenum,jejunum)in 5 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Q(duodenum jejunum ,colon)and Ka(intestinal segment )of gastrodin ,Q of parishin B (duodenum,ileum and colon)and Q of parishin C (duodenum,ileum)in 5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Q and Ka of parishin B (jejunum,ileum),Q of parishin C (jejunum,ileum)in 10 g/L G. elata superfine powder as well as Q(colon)and Ka(duodenum)of gastrodin ,Q (duodenum,ileum,colon)and Ka(duodenum,colon)of parishin B ,Q(duodenum,ileum)and Ka(duodenum)of parishin C in 10 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder were all increased significantly ,compared with the same dose of G. elata fine powder (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Ka of parishin A (jejunum)and Q of parishin C (duodenum)in 2.5 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Ka of parishin A (jejunum,ileum), Q and Ka of parishin C (duodenum,jejunum)in 2.5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Ka of gastrodin (jejunum,ileum and colon ),Ka of parishin A (colon),Ka of parishin B (ileum)and Ka of parishin C (jejunum,ileum)in 5 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Ka of gastrodin and parishin C (jejunum,ileum and colon ),Q(jejunum,colon)and Ka(colon)of parishin A ,Ka of parishin B (jejunum,ileum)in 5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Q and Ka of parishin A (ileum)in 10 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Q(duodenum)and Ka(jejunum) of parishin A ,Ka of parishin C (jejunum)in 10 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder were decreased significantly ,compared with the same dose of G. elata fine powder (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Q of gastrodin (colon),Q(colon)and Ka(ileum,colon)of parishin A ,Q and Ka of parishin B (jejunum,colon),Q and Ka of parishin C (ileum,colon)in 2.5 g/L G. elata fine powder ;Q and Ka of gastrodin (colon),Q(ileum,colon)and Ka(jejunum,ileum,colon)of parishin A ,Ka of parishin C (colon)in 2.5 g/L G. elata superfine powder;Q(colon)and Ka(jejunum,ileum,colon)of parishin A and C ,Q and Ka(ileum,colon)of parishin B in 2.5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Q and Ka of gastrodin ,parishin A and C (colon),Ka of parishin B (colon)in 5 g/L G. elata fine powder ;Q and Ka of gastrodin and parishin A (colon),Q and Ka of parishin C (jejunum,ileum,colon)in 5 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Q and Ka of gastrodin(ileum,colon),Q of parishin A (jejunum,ileum,colon),Q and Ka of parishin B (jejunum,colon),Q(jejunum,colon) and Ka(jejunum,ileum,colon)of parishin C in 5 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder ;Q of gastrodin (colon),Q and Ka of parishin A ,B and C (jejunum,ileum,colon)in 10 g/L G. el ata fine powder ;Q of gastrodin (colon),Q and Ka of parishin A and C (jejunum, ileum,colon),Q and Ka of parishin B (colon)in 10 g/L G. elata superfine powder ;Q(colon)and Ka(jejunum,ileum,colon)of gastrodin,Q and Ka of parishin A and C (jejunum,ileum,colon),Q(jejunum,ileum,colon)and Ka(ileum,colon)of parishin B in 10 g/L G. elata ultrafine powder were decreased significantly ,compared with duodeum of the same group (P<0.05). Q and Ka of gastrodin(jejunum)in 2.5 g/L G. elata superfine pow

9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 757-764, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate absorption kinetic characteristics of main active components as 4-(glucoseoxy)- glucoseoxybenzyl cinnamate (A1), 2-isobutyl malic acid (A2), 1,4-bis [4-(glucoxy) benzyl]-2-isobutyl malic acid ester (A3), dihydrophenanthrenes 1 (A4) and 1,4-bis [4-(glucosoxy) benzyl]-2-isobutyl malic acid ester-2-(4-O-cinnamoyl-6-O-acetyl) glucoside (A5) from ethanol extract of Bletilla striata in the intestines of rats. METHODS: Using puerarin as internal standard, UPLC-MS/MS was used to determined the concentration of A1-A5 in intestinal circulation fluid. The determination was performed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid)-water (containing 0.1% formic acid) (gradient elution) at the flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. The column temperature was 45 ℃, and sample size was 3 μL. The positive ion and negative ion scanning were carried out in the multiple reaction monitoring mode by electrospray ion source. The ion pairs for quantitative analysis were m/z 593.2→431.1 (A1), m/z 189.0→129.0 (A2), m/z 725.3→457.2 (A3), m/z 347.1→332.1 (A4), m/z 1 059.3→793.1 (A5), m/z 417.0→267.0 (internal standard). In the in vivo intestinal circulation perfusion model, using accumulative absorption transfer rate (A) and absorption and transformation rate constant (Ka) as indexes, the effects of different doses of ethanol extract from B. striata (low-, medium-, high-dose were 166, 333,667 μg/mL,respectively), bile, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors (verapamil) and different intestinal segments on the absorption of above 5 components were investigated. RESULTS: The linear range of A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 were 0.22-14.00, 0.34-21.75, 1.99-127.16, 0.15-9.75, 0.16-10.00 μg/mL(r>0.99). The limits of quantitation were 0.22, 0.34, 1.99, 0.15, 0.16 μg/mL, respectively. The lowest detection limits were 0.028, 0.085, 0.251, 0.035 and 0.010 μg/mL. RSDs of inter-day and intra-day were all lower than 10%. The recoveries ranged 83.60%-106.91%. Matrix effect did not affect the determination of the substance to be measured. A and Ka values of A1 in B. striata ethanol extract low-dose and medium-dose groups were significantly higher than high-dose group; A value of A3 in low-dose group was significantly higher than medium-dose and high-dose groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). A and Ka values of A1 and A3 in non-ligation group were significantly lower than control group, while A and Ka values of A4 were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). A and Ka values of A1 and A3 in P-gp inhibitor group were significantly lower than control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). A values of A1 in jejunum group, ileum group and colon group, Ka value of A1 in colon group, A and Ka values of A2 in colon group, A value of A3 in ileum group, A and Ka values of A4 in ileum group and colon group, A values of A5 in jejunum group and ileum group as well as Ka value of A5 in jejunum group were all significantly lower than duodenum group. Ka values of A3 in jejunum group, ileum group and colon group were significantly higher than duodenum group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Established UPLC-MS/MS method is specific, sensitive and simple, and it can be used for quantitative analysis and pharmacokinetic study of A1-A5. The 5 active components in B. striata ethanol extract are absorbed by the whole intestine, and the intestinal segments are different. A1 and A3 are absorbed more in intestinal tract and may be saturated. Bile can inhibit intestinal absorption of A1 and A2, but promoted intestinal absorption of A4. A1-A5 may not be the substrate of P-gp.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1316-1320, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study in vitro metabolism pathway of effective component of Bletilla striata as Militarine in liver microsomes and kinetics characteristics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. METHODS: The in vitro incubation system of rat and human liver microsomes was established, and incubation reaction of Militarine was performed. UPLC-QTOF-MS was used to identify the structure of its metabolites in combination with UNIFI database and references. Using puerarin as internal standard, UPLC-Triple Quad-MS was used to quantitatively analyze metabolic transformation of Militarine in rat liver microsomes. The kinetic parameters (vmax, km, CLint) of Militarine enzyme-catalyzed reactions with/without reducing coenzyme Ⅱ (NADPH) were calculated by fitting the curves with GraphPad Prism 5.0 software. RESULTS: After incubation in rat and human liver microsomes, Militarine produced a chemical formula C21H29O11, which was presumed to be a metabolite of Militarine ester bond hydrolysis. The kinetic study of enzyme-catalyzed reactions showed that vmax of Militarine enzyme-catalyzed reactions with/without NADPH were 1.955, 2.129 nmol/(h·mg); km were 8.601, 9.854 nmol/mL; CLint were 0.227 3, 0.216 1 mL/(h·mg); there was no significant difference between with NADPH and without NADPH. CONCLUSIONS: The main metabolic pathway of Militarine in liver microsomes is the hydrolysis of C1 and C4 ester bonds. Its metabolism does not depend on the pathway of cytochrome P450 enzymes initiated by NADPH.

11.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 131-135, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-462504

ABSTRACT

Aim To determine the plasma protein binding rate of five components of Eucommia ulmoides extract. Methods The equilibrium dialysis method was used to study the plasma protein binding rate. The plasma samples were extracted by protein precipitation with methanol. With the use of puerarin as the internal standard, UPLC-MS/MS was carried out to determine the concentration of the five compounds in and out of the dialysis membrane. Results The average plasma protein binding rates of five compounds on the area of the concentration which was determinate were as fol-lows, respectively: geniposidic acid was ( 25. 77 ± 2. 68 )%, protocatechuic acid was ( 57. 54 ± 3. 79)%, chlorogenic acid was (53. 91 ± 3. 00)%, pinoresinol diglucoside was (24. 15 ± 4. 92)%, and pinoresinol singleglucoside was (49. 78 ± 3. 61)%. Conclusions The results show that the binding percentage of geniposidic acid and pinoresinol diglucoside is relatively low, but the binding rate of the others with rat plasma protein is moderate.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-451235

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis (As) is an important pathological basis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The pathogenesis studies of As have been a hot topic in the field of vascular biology research. The inflammation is known as a major participant in the development process of As. And monocyte-macrophage plays a central role in inflam-mation. In recent years, with the deepening research on inflammatory mechanisms, the As macrophage polarization is attracting researchers' attention. Under different environmental inductions, macrophages develop into M1 and M2 phenotypes. M1 macrophages (classical type), which can stimulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is generally considered as pro-inflammatory subtypes and can facilitate the progress of As. Whereas, M2 macrophages (alternative type), which can inhibit pro-inflammatory factor production, function as anti-inflammatory subtypes and likely to inhibit the progression of As. The mechanisms of As, macrophage polarization in As, and opportunities for herbal medicines will be summarized in this review.

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