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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905186

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the prevalence of people with disability, and the demand, service policies and service system for assistive technology (AT) services in Australia. Methods:Referring to policy recommendation and indicators in World Health Organizaion's Rehabilitation in Health Systems, Australia's assistive technology service policy framework, services development and trend of development were analyzed by the means of content analysis and development research. Results:There are about 4.4 million people with disability in Australia, of which 1.4 million (32%) with severe or profound disabilities. Federal, state and territorial governments have respectively issued legislation, policy and related service project, including the National Disability Strategy, National Disability Agreement, the National Disability Insurance Scheme, National Standards for Disability Services and others assistance programs to support disability services. There are about two million Australians with disabilities received AT services support from the mentioned programme and scheme. Australia provides more than ten thousands kinds of AT appliances per year, covering all kinds of products in WHO's Priority Assistive Products List. Conclusion:Australia has developed a federal National Disability Strategy, AT service policies and standards, and established federal and state AT insurance and financial support programs for people with disabilities based on the unmet needs of AT services, and federal and state networks for AT services have been established, and service coordination mechanisms at federal and state levels have been established through the National Disability Agreement, covering all types of people with demand of AT in Australia. It meets the requirements of the policy recommendations and assessment indicators in the WHO's Rehabilitation in Health Systems policy guidelines involving AT services. The future development areas in AT will focus on the fields of policy development, ICF implementation, service delivery system, upgrading of service quality and standard, and new technology application.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905169

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the policy framework and core content of assistive technology (AT) services, compare the current status of AT in countries with different levels of development, and discuss the future development of international policies and services of AT. Methods:Based on the policy and theoretical framework of AT of the United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO), the policy framework and main contents of international AT services were analyzed; the policies, assistive products and service development of AT services in countries with different levels of development worldwide were compared; and the policy and innovative technology development hotspots of international AT were explored. Results:AT service is an important component of rehabilitation services, and the development of AT services is a key step toward achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goal 3, "Ensure healthy lifestyles and promote the well-being of people of all ages". UN and WHO advocated AT services policy. The framework is based on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on articles related to AT, and WHO documents of AT and rehabilitation, such as World Report on Disability, the Global Plan of Action on Disability, Rehabilitation in the Health System, and Rehabilitation in the Health System: A Guide to Action, as well as WHA 71.8 on Assistive Technology, Improving Access to Assistive Technology. The core elements of the international AT policy aim to build integrated, people-centered health services, emphasize the integration of AT into the health system and rehabilitation services, establish and develop AT services in six building blocks of WHO health system, thereby improving access to quality AT to achieve universal health coverage. Further in the fields of technology and service innovation, it proposed to establish a 5P model. High-income countries and low- and middle-income countries are facing many difficulties and large differences in AT service policies, assistive product provision, and service coverage. In the future, adoption of the 5P model proposed by WHO for policy and service delivery and technological changes, and the innovation of assistive product development and AT service models will be the hot spots of AT development. Conclusion:The policy on AT at international level is centered on the concept of UN CRPD and is based on prospect of policy documents issued by the UN and WHO on AT services, with the core objective of developing AT services to provide timely, appropriate, and affordable to persons with disabilities, aging, and people needed to improve their health, quality of life and well-being. It proposes to integrate AT into universal health coverage and to deliver AT service through primary health care in order to achieve the UN SDG 3 goal with full coverage of AT. It proposes to integrate AT into rehabilitation services, i.e. leadership and governance, financing, AT professionals, AT delivery, medicine and technology, and health information system monitoring AT services. There are differneces in AT products and AT delivery due to the globel differneces in economic and social development levels and challenges in access to AT services. It is necessary to develop relevant policies, planning and innovations in assistive products and AT services. AT development in the future will focus on the 5P model of AT to implement reforms in the field of product and service delivery as well as technological innovation in order to improve the coverage, availability, accessibility and affordability, integrate AT into the health system within the framework of universal health coverage, achieve full coverage of universal AT services, and enhance the quality of AT and improve consumers' well-being.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 283-288, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-789015

ABSTRACT

Eight triterpenes were isolated from the methanol extract of Galbanum by various chromatographic methods including silica gel, ODS opening column, recrystallization and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and physicochemical properties as 3β,19α,21α-trihydroxyl-12-en-28-oic acid (1), sumaresinolic acid (2), 3β,19α-dihydroxyl-12-en-28-oic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), 3β,6β,19α-trihydroxyl-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 19α-hydroxy oleanonic acid (6), 6α-hydroxy oleanonic acid (7), and (11R,12R)-3α,6α-dihydroxy-epoxyolean-28α,13α-olide (8). Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, while compounds 2-8 were newly isolated from the Apiaceae family. The ability of compounds 1-8 to inhibit cholinesterase was determined with an improved Ellman method. Compound 1 showed strong inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase. The molecular docking results indicated that Trp82, His438, Phe329 and Ala328 played an important role in the binding of compound 1 to butyrylcholinesterase.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689859

ABSTRACT

Ten triterpenes compounds were isolated from the methanol extraction of the latex of Euphorbia resinifera by means of various chromatographic methods such as silica gel, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC, Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods and physicochemical properties. These isolated compounds were identified as 3-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinor eupha-8-ene-24-oate (1), iso-maticadienediol (2), 25,26,27-trinorTirucall-8-ene-3-ol-4-acid (3), dammarendiol Ⅱ (4), eupha-8,24-diene-3-ol-26-al (5), lnonotusane C (6), eupha-8,24-diene-3-ol-7,11-dione (7), inoterpene A (8), inoterpene B (9), and eupha-24-methylene-8-ene-3-ol-7,11-dione (10). Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product, compounds 2-4 were firstly isolated from the Euphorbiaceae and compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from the genus Euphorbia for the first time. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 1-10 against MCF-7, U937 and C6 cancer cell lines was evaluated, but none of the compounds was active.

5.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 443-445, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310064

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of sinusoidal endothelial cell in the development of liver fibrosis, and to dissect the relationship among hepatic microcirculation disorders, hepatic sinusoidal capilarization and liver fibrosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Liver biopsy was performed in fifty-six patients with chronic hepatitis B. The liver tissues were observed under light microscope and transmitted electronic microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of 56 cases, 39 cases were mild hepatitis, 10 were moderate hepatitis, and 7 were severe hepatitis. The morphology of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was similar to that of fibroblasts in the tissues of the patients with chronic hepatitis B. Collagenous fibers were deposited around the hepatic stellate cells. Electron-dense materials were deposited between sinusoidal endothelial cell and hepatic stellate cell. The size and amount of fenestraes of sinusoidal endothelial cells were reduced in 53 of 56 cases. The consecutive or inconsecutive membrane-like materials were observed along sinusoidal endothelial cells in 20 cases. Collagen fibers were observed in the space of Disse in 15 cases. Even in the patients with normal hepatic functions, red blood cells aggregation and microthrombi could be observed in the liver tissues.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Sinusoidal endothelial cells are involved in development of liver fibrosis by interacting with hepatic stellate cells. Hepatic microcirculation disorders and sinusoidal capillarization are important changes in the early stage of liver fibrosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Biopsy, Needle , Endothelial Cells , Pathology , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Pathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Pathology , Liver , Pathology , Liver Circulation , Liver Cirrhosis , Pathology , Microcirculation , Microscopy, Electron
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640915

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics,pathogen distribution and outcome of lower respiratory tract fungal infection in patients with mechanical ventilation in emergency intensive care unit(EICU). Methods The clinical data of patients with lower respiratory tract fungal infection treated with mechanical ventilation in EICU were retrospectively analysed. Results Eighty(64.5%) of the 124 patients with mechanical ventilation experienced lower respiratory tract infection,among whom 21(26.2%) were complicated with fungal infection.The predominant pathogen was Candida(Candida albicans,n=11;Candida tropicalis,n=5;Candida smooth,n=3;Candida parapsilosis,n=2).Compared with patients with non-fungal infection(n=59),those with fungal infection(n=21) had higher APACHE II score,longer mechanical ventilation time and longer ICU stay duration(P

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640523

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens from patients with hospital infection in intensive care unit(ICU),and to discuss the corresponding strategy of prevention and treatment. Methods Clinical data of 891 patients hospitalized in the ICU of our hospital between Jan 2002 and Dec 2005 were collected.All the specimens were analyzed for pathogen distribution and resistance to antibiotics. Results Of all the isolated 1 155 strains,Gram-negative(G-)bacteria were the most popular pathogen(57.84%),whereas Gram-positive(G+) bacteria and fungi accounted for 21.39% and 20.78%,respectively.Most G-bacteria were less sensitive to imipenem(0-10.16%),and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was least sesitive to amikacin(6.89%) and cefoperazone-sulbactam(33.97%).G+ bacteria were most sensitive to vancomycin.Most fungus were Candida albicans(42.92%) and yeast species(22.90%). Conclusion Epidemiological investigation of pathogens in ICU is of great importance to the rational use of anti-biotics and may help to reduce the emergence of resistant strains.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263784

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of STK15 gene amplification and overexpression to genesis and development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>STK15 gene amplification in 40 cases carcinoma tissues and normal tissues as control was detected by differential PCR approach. STK15 mRNA and protein levels were evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In 40 LSCC cases, STK15 gene amplification was found in 14 tumor tissues(35%), mRNA overexpression in 27 tumor tissues(67.5%), and protein upregulated in 29 tumor tissues(72.5%). Statistics analysis showed that STK15 gene amplification and mRNA overexpression were obviously associated to differentiation degree of LSCC, and protein overexpression was closely associated with both differentiation degree and pathological grades of LSCC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This research results suggest that STK15 gene amplification contributes to its mRNA and protein overexpression through affecting the exact replication of centrosome and separation of chromosomes. STK15 gene thus plays a role in LSCC oncogenesis and malignant progression.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Aurora Kinase A , Aurora Kinases , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Immunohistochemistry , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 205-210, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-334185

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) modified protein on the permeability of endothelium monolayers and morphological changes of actin cytoskeleton. The roles of receptor for AGEs (RAGE), oxidant stress and the activation of p38 MAPK pathway in this pathological procedure were elucidated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)-derived cell line (ECV304) were incubated with AGEs modified human serum albumin (AGE-HSA) in concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/ml respectively, for 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. As control, HSA of the same concentration was administered to cells. Then TRITC-albumin was added to evaluate Pa value that reflects the permeability of endothelial monolayer. Furthermore, to visualize the morphological changes of actin cytoskeleton, the treated cells were incubated with rhodamine-phalloidin to stain F-actin. The results showed that the trans-endothelial membrane flux of albumin was significantly increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner upon the stimulation of AGE-HSA, accompanying with actin reorganization. The blockage of AGE and RAGE binding with anti-RAGE IgG and the pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or p38 MAP kinase greatly attenuated the AGE-induced hyperpermeability response, respectively. These results indicate that RAGE, NADPH oxidase and p38 MAPK are possibly involved in the mediation of AGEs-induced barrier dysfunction and actin cytoskeleton reorganization in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actin Cytoskeleton , Physiology , Capillary Permeability , Physiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular , Cell Biology , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Physiology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Cell Biology , Oxidative Stress , Physiology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Receptors, Immunologic , Physiology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
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