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1.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 19-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907028

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the quantity of lung transplantation has been gradually increased in China along with the accumulation of surgical techniques and postoperative management experience of lung transplantation. Multiple lung allograft complications may occur after lung transplantation, mainly including primary graft dysfunction (PGD) caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the lung allograft, acute and chronic rejection, opportunistic infection or lymphoproliferative disorder of lymphoid tissues induced by the decrease of host immunity due to postoperative use of immunosuppressants, etc. The diagnosis of complications after lung transplantation mainly relies on biopsy of the lung allograft. In this article, the brief history of lung allograft pathology, main approaches and pathological processing techniques of lung allograft biopsy, major complications after lung transplantation and pathological diagnostic criteria were elucidated, aiming to provide reference for targeted management of these complications in clinical practice.

2.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 176-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920847

ABSTRACT

Pancreas transplantation and pancreas-kidney transplantation are the optimal treatment for renal failure caused by type 1 diabetes mellitus, partial type 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications. Pancreas transplantation mainly includes simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK), pancreas transplantation after kidney transplantation (PAK) and pancreas transplantation alone (PTA). Among all types of pancreas transplantation, biopsy of pancreas allograft remains the best method for definitively diagnosing rejection and differentiate it from other complications. In this article, biopsy methods of pancreas allograft and related research progress, diagnostic criteria and research progress on rejection of pancreas allograft biopsy, and main complications and pathological manifestations of pancreas allograft were illustrated, aiming to provide reference for guiding the clinical diagnosis of the above mentioned complications and ensuring the long-term survival of pancreas allografts and recipients.

3.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 325-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923577

ABSTRACT

Over the past 70 years, kidney transplantation has become not only the most mature but also the highest-success-rate surgery among all organ transplantation surgeries. However, the long-term survival of kidney transplant recipients is still challenged by such key factors as ischemia-reperfusion injury related to kidney transplantation, rejection, chronic renal allograft dysfunction, renal allograft fibrosis, immunosuppressive therapy, infections and others. Relevant fundamental and clinical studies have emerged endlessly. At the same time, the research related to kidney transplantation also becomes a new hot spot accordingly in the context of the normalization of novel coronavirus pneumonia. This article reviewed the cutting-edge hot spots in relation to the fundamental and clinical aspects of kidney transplantation together with relevant new techniques and new visions. The studies included in this article focused on the reports published by Chinese teams that are more applicable to the current situation of kidney transplantation in China, for the purpose of providing new thoughts and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney transplantation related issues in China.

4.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 303-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923574

ABSTRACT

In recent years, pediatric kidney transplantation has developed rapidly in China. However, clinical data related to the long-term survival of renal allografts are still lacking. The production of de novo donor specific antibody (dnDSA)and its mediated chronic rejection after adult kidney transplantation are pivotal risk factors affecting the long-term survival of renal allografts. Nevertheless, immune system in children has not fully developed. Hence, the production of dnDSA after kidney transplantation and its influence upon renal allografts and recipients might differ from those of adult. In this article, the characteristics of pediatric immune system, the production and influence of donor specific antibody (DSA) after pediatric kidney transplantation and the risk factors of the production of DSA after pediatric kidney transplantation were reviewed and certain suggestions were proposed for prevention strategies, aiming to provide reference for prolonging the long-term survival of renal allografts after pediatric kidney transplantation and promote the development of pediatric kidney transplantation in China.

5.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 134-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873723

ABSTRACT

T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is one of the main mechanisms of rejection in organ transplantation, which is also the most common type of acute rejection.Based on Banff classification on allograft pathology (Banff classification) in 2019, TCMR can be divided into acute TCMR (aTCMR) and chronic active TCMR (caTCMR) according to the characteristics of immune lesions.In this article, the basic definition of TCMR, the research progress on TCMR pathology according to Banff classification for renal allograft, and the basic pathological changes and diagnostic grading of TCMR were reviewed, aiming to provide evidence for early identification, diagnosis and treatment of TCMR and prevent the progression of TCMR into caTCMR, thereby guarantying the long-term survival of both the renal allograft and recipient.

6.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 23-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862771

ABSTRACT

The American Transplant Congress (ATC) is an annual international academic conference in the field of transplantation, which includes the latest achievements of scholars around the world in transplantation, and also leads the frontier direction of transplantation research. In this paper, the international forefront hotspots in basic and translational medicine research associated with renal transplantation in 2020 ATC were summarized, including the new discoveries of memory cell function and immune memory mechanism, the latest discovery in the mechanism of rejection and immune tolerance, the current research status of xenotransplantation, the potential solutions of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and the application of nanomedicine and single-cell RNA sequencing in renal transplantation, etc.

7.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 15-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862770

ABSTRACT

The Banff conference on allograft pathology (Banff conference) and the establishment of Banff classification on allograft pathology (Banff classification) are milestones in the development of international allograft pathology. At present, all organ transplantation centers around the world routinely perform pathological diagnosis by biopsy of the transplant kidney according to Banff classification. Subsequently, the consensus process and update mode of Banff classification for transplant kidney was quickly extended to transplant heart, lung, liver, pancreas, and small intestine, etc. The Banff conference has not only become a thematic meeting that includes the pathology study and discussion of various transplant organs, but also gradually developed unified diagnostic standard for the biopsy of each transplant organ, which better promoted the accurate diagnosis and treatment of complications after organ transplantation. This article summarized the history of international allograft pathology research, the Banff conference and Banff classification in promoting organ transplantation, which aimed to provide a reference for the smooth development of clinical organ transplantation.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 662-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904548

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of surgical technique of heart transplantation and clinical application of potent immunosuppressant, the quantity of heart transplantation and the survival time of heart allograft have been significantly improved. However, a series of complications, such as right ventricular failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute rejection, "Quilty lesion", infection and chronic rejection characterized by transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD) may still occur at different stages after heart transplantation. The application of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) makes it possible to observe and understand the pathological features of multiple complications of heart allograft including rejection, which has become the most accurate diagnostic tool for postoperative complications. In this article, the brief history of heart allograft pathology, main postoperative complications and pathological diagnostic criteria, and cutting edge research progress on diagnostic criteria of rejection were illustrated, aiming to bring clinical benefits to more recipients undergoing heart transplantation.

9.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 643-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904546

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation is the most efficacious treatment for end-stage renal failure. Although the shortterm survival and functional recovery of the kidney graft have been significantly improved, the long-term survival of the kidney graft remains to be enhanced. Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) caused by immune factors are still the most critical causes of kidney graft failure. In this article, the immune risk assessment and monitoring of kidney transplant recipients during the awaiting period, before and after kidney transplantation were reviewed. Through the evaluation of preexisting human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and non-HLA antibodies, HLA matching, lymphocytotoxicity cross-matching and immune memory cells in the recipients before kidney transplantation, programmed biopsy of the kidney graft of the recipients after kidney transplantation and monitoring of HLA antibodies, non-HLA antibodies and donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA), individualized immunosuppressive treatment and monitoring regimes could be established, and the incidence of rejection could be prevented, timely detected and diagnosed. According to the immune monitoring results, ineffective treatment or over-treatment could be avoided, thereby improving the long-term survival of kidney graft.

10.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 512-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886778

ABSTRACT

The pathology of liver allograft biopsy is not only essential for the evaluation of liver donor, but also for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of posttransplantation complications. With the development of liver transplantation in clinical practice, relevant studies of the pathological diagnosis of liver allograft complications have been deepened. Banff classification on liver allograft pathology have been gradually established within the international community. In China, pathological studies related to liver allograft pathology have been steadily carried out, and the pathological diagnostic basis of liver allograft pathology suitable for the clinical practice of liver transplantation in China has been gradually formed. This article reviews the history of Banff liver allograft pathology and major pathological lesions of liver allograft complications, aiming to provide reference for implementing pathological diagnosis of liver allograft pathology in China, assisting clinical diagnosis and targeted treatment of complications after liver transplantation, and further improving the survival of liver allograft and recipients.

11.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 391-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881522

ABSTRACT

With the development of organ transplantation in clinical practice, allograft pathology has been constantly developing and advancing. The convening of Banff conference on allograft pathology and the establishment of Banff classification on allograft pathology (Banff classification) are pivotal milestones in the development of international allograft pathology. Since then, Banff classification on pathological diagnosis of various transplant organs have been continually updated and improved. Ultrastructural pathological observation by electron microscope plays an irreplaceable role in the early diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection, recurrent disease and de novo disease of renal allograft. Early detection and rational treatment help to maintain the long-term survival of renal allograft and reduce the failure of renal allograft. In this article, the basic definition of electron microscope and the ultrastructural pathological diagnosis, the research history and main progress on electron microscope diagnosis on Banff classification for renal allograft pathology were introduced, and typical pathological changes, specific terminology and diagnostic criteria of electron microscope diagnosis on renal allograft biopsy were summarized, aiming to provide reference for clinical and basic research of organ transplantation.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922600

ABSTRACT

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is a rare and serious complication after lung transplantation, with no characteristic of pathological manifestation, no systematic standard treatment, and the poor efficacy and prognosis. We reported a case of early AMR after lung transplantation and the relevant literature has been reviewed. A male patient presented with symptoms of cold 99 days after transplantation and resolved after symptomatic treatment. He admitted to the hospital 14 days later because of a sudden dyspnea and fever. Anti-bacteria, anti-fungi, anti-virus, and anti-pneumocystis carinii treatment were ineffective, and a dose of 1 000 mg methylprednisolone did not work too. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and tracheal intubation was done to maintain breathing. Serum panel reactive antibody and donor specific antibody showed postive in humen leukocyte antigen (HLA) II antibody. Pathological examination after transbronchial transplantation lung biopsy showed acute rejection. Clinical AMR was diagnosed combined the donor-specific antibody with the pathological result. The patient was functionally recovered after combined treatment with thymoglobuline, rituximab, plasmapheresis, and immunoglobulin. No chronic lung allograft dysfunction was found after 3 years follow up. We should alert the occurrence of AMR in lung transplantation recipient who admitted to hospital with a sudden dyspnea and fever while showed no effect after common anti-infection and anti-rejection treatment. Transbronchial transplantation lung biopsy and the presence of serum donor-specific antibody are helpful to the diagnosis. The treatment should be preemptive and a comprehensive approach should be adopted.


Subject(s)
Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA Antigens , Humans , Isoantibodies , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Male
13.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 351-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876697

ABSTRACT

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) isolated from the plasma of healthy human, and its main component is IgG. The mechanism of IVIG is complex, which may play a role via multiple pathways. For example, the combination of Fc fragment of IgG with various Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) regulates inflammatory response and autoantibody metabolism, and Fab fragment of IgG neutralizes multiple antigens and other molecules. IVIG may also inhibit complement activation and affect the balance of anti-inflammation and proinflammation among immune cells. In the treatment of diseases, IVIG constantly plays a role through multiple mechanisms simultaneously, primarily via one certain mechanism in different diseases. IVIG is commonly applied in the desensitization treatment of sensitized patients, ABO incompatible renal transplantation, antibody-mediated rejection and several infectious diseases. In this article, the mechanism of IVIG and its application in renal transplantation were reviewed.

14.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 262-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876685

ABSTRACT

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), also known as humoral rejection, is an immune injury caused by rejection involved with multiple humoral immune effectors, such as antibodies and complements, etc. AMR plays a pivotal role in hyperacute, acute and chronic rejection. In this article, the basic definition of AMR, the research progress and major achievements on AMR pathology according to Banff classification on allograft pathology (Banff classification), and main pathological characteristics of AMR in renal allograft were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AMR, and guarantee the long-term survival of renal graft and recipients.

15.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 547-2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825569

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cell (Treg) is a subset of T cells that negatively regulates immunity and has the function of inhibiting rejection. The specific modification of Treg by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology can successfully chime donor-specific antigen onto the surface of Treg, thus regulating the immune function of the body in a real-time manner. It provides a novel and promising therapeutic option for inducing immune tolerance. In this article, research progresses on Treg in immune related diseases, main difficulties in the realization of CAR-Treg technology and its role in inducing transplantation immune tolerance were reviewed, and the opportunities and challenges of CAR-Treg application in the field of organ transplantation are prospected.

16.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 362-2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821543

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a mouse model of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in heart transplantation and to analyze its characteristics. Methods Mouse models of heart transplantation and skin transplantation were established. According to different treatment methods, all animals were divided into the homologous control group, non-sensitized group, pre-sensitized group and pre-sensitized+ ciclosporin group (9 donors and 9 recipients in each group). The graft survival time, donor-specific antibody (DSA) level and pathological manifestations of each group were observed, and the characteristics of rejection were analyzed. Results In the homologous control group, the cardiac grafts of the mice survived for a long period of time during the 3-month observation period. The survival time of the cardiac grafts in the non-sensitized group, pre-sensitized group and pre-sensitized+ciclosporin group was (7.0±0.7) d, (2.6±0.5) d and (5.0±0.7) d, respectively. The differences among the groups were statistically significant (all P < 0.01). The DSA level in the pre-sensitized group was significantly elevated than the baseline level at 3 d after heart transplantation, and that in the pre-sensitized+ciclosporin group was remarkably up-regulated at 5 d after heart transplantation, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The pathological manifestation of the non-sensitized group was the myocardial cell destruction, the formation of interstitial inflammation, mild C4d deposition and a large amount of CD3 cell infiltration. The pathological manifestations of the pre-sensitized group and the pre-sensitized+ciclosporin group showed myocardial cell destruction, capillary inflammation and a large amount of C4d deposition, whereas the amount of CD3 cell infiltration in the pre-sensitized group was more than that in the pre-sensitized+ciclosporin group. Conclusions The use of ciclosporin on the basis of heart transplantation and skin transplantation between different strains of mice can successfully establish a practical acute AMR model in mouse heart transplantation, which provides the basis for subsequent AMR pathogenesis and intervention research.

17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 316-2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817612

ABSTRACT

In the second half of 2019, the last four sessions of Transplant Cloud College jointly established by Chinese Research Hospital Association and Medical Neighbor Network were successfully held. During the courses in the second half of this year, the lecturers from each institution mainly focused upon four topics including management of hyperuricemia (HUA) after kidney transplantation, renal graft pathology, diagnosis and treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after kidney transplantation and pulmonary infection after liver transplantation. All participants delivered discussions and exchanges in kidney and liver transplantation from multiple perspectives.

18.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 222-2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817597

ABSTRACT

In this paper, forefront hotspots in clinical and applied basis of organ transplantation as well as translational medicine during 2019 American Transplant Congress (ATC) were summarized. It involved transplantation clinical priorities and difficulties which were concerned by transplant surgeons. These hot topics included the immunological mechanisms, risk factors, prognosis evaluation and important biological markers of donor specific antibody (DSA) and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), desensitization strategy in highly sensitized patients and progress of AMR prevention and treatment, current status and development direction of clinical immune tolerance, hotspots and prevention progress on transplantation-related infection, and brief evaluation of various donor organ mechanical perfusion methods, etc.

19.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 182-2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780512

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ABO incompatible living kidney transplantation(ABOi-KT). Methods Clinical data of 11 donors and recipients with ABOi-KT were retrospectively analyzed. All the recipients were treated with desensitization before operation. The recovery condition of renal function and blood type antibody titer of the ABOi-KT recipients were monitored after operation. The incidence of complications and clinical prognosis of ABOi-KT recipients were observed. Results The serum creatinine (Scr) of 11 recipients were well recovered after ABOi-KT. No delay in recovery of graft renal function. Among them, 2 recipients experienced a significant increase in the Scr level at postoperative 14 and 45 d respectively, 1 recipient showed criticality cellular rejection after operation and 1 recipient presented with elevated Scr level at postoperative 33 d, accompanied by an increase in blood type antibody titer. The condition became stable after corresponding treatment. The remaining 7 recipients obtained normal graft renal function and postoperative blood type antibody titer did not rebound. During postoperative follow-up until November 2018, no recipient died or graft renal failure occurred. The survival rate of the recipient and graft renal was 100%. Among them, 3 patients suffered from postoperative complications, including pulmonary infection, BK viruria and granulocytopenia, which were cured after symptomatic treatment. Conclusions ABOi-KT is safe, feasible and yields high long-term clinical efficacy, which can increase the source of living donor kidney and relieve the shortage of donor kidney.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-187300

ABSTRACT

Background: Kidney transplantation is the preferred mode of renal replacement therapy for the endstage renal disease, with dramatic improvements in patient and graft survival over the last 50 years. In the modern era of immunosuppression, 1-year patient survival is close to 98%, and 1-year allograft survival rates have improved to 90% for deceased donor kidney transplants and 95 % for living donor kidney transplants with some inter-center variability. The aim of the study: To elucidate the etiology of graft dysfunction among renal transplant recipients. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted among 155 patients who underwent both cadavers and live donor transplant from October 2009 to March 2011 at a tertiary care center in Chennai, South India. All the transplant recipients were regularly followed with serum urea and creatinine, urine routine, calcineurin inhibitor drug levels in the serum, USG Abdomen, urine culture depending on the graft status. Graft dysfunction defined by a rise in the creatinine more than 25% or 0.3 to 0.5 mg per dl from the baseline. Those who developed graft dysfunction were presented for graft biopsy and managed based on the report accordingly. S. Thirumavalavan, Krishna Kumar, S. A. K. Noor Mohamed, R Vijaya Kumar. Etiology of graft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. IAIM, 2019; 6(3): 313-318. Page 314 Results: Among the 155 transplant recipient patients, 66 (44%) patients developed graft dysfunction and underwent renal biopsy. The graft dysfunction was due to chronic allograft dysfunction (interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy) in 24 (15.4%) patients, acute cellular rejection in 13 (8.4%) patients, acute antibody-mediated rejection in 2 (1.3%) patients, acute tubular necrosis in 9 (5.8%) patients, calcineurin toxicity in 6 (3.9%) patients, thrombotic microangiopathy in 6 (3.9%) patients, IgA nephropathy in 3 (1.9%) patients and transplant renal artery stenosis in 1(0.6%) patient. Conclusion: Among the various causes, acute cellular, acute antibody rejection and chronic allograft nephropathy holds nearly 25% of the incidence of graft dysfunction. It indicates appropriate immunological evaluation, appropriate immunosuppression, use of induction agents in high-risk patients and protocol renal biopsy to identify early rejection in high-risk patient and appropriate early intervention is important to improve long-term term graft and patient survival.

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