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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1574-1578, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421819

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cadmium is a highly toxic metal and affects the respiratory mucosa. The aim of the study is to show the inflammation and degenerative effect of cadmium on the olfactory mucosa. In this study, eight-week-old Wistar rats with an average weight of 170-190 g were divided into two groups (control and experiment) with 20 animals in each group and used in the experiments. The rats in the experimental group were given 2 mg/kg/day powdered cadmium chloride dissolved in water intraperitoneally every day for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the nasal cavity was completely removed with anesthesia. Concha nasalis superior was separated, fixed with zinc-Formalin solution and decalcified with 5 % EDTA (Ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid). After routine histopathological procedure, APAF-1 antibody was used for expression of Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination revealed interruptions in the basement membrane structure due to cadmium and degenerative changes in stem cells, degeneration in sensory cells and pycnosis in nuclei, dilatation in blood vessels and increased inflammation in connective tissue. APAF-1 expression was found to increase in epithelial cells and olfactory glands (Bowman gland) cells. It has been thought that cadmium toxicity increases cell degeneration and inflammation in the olfactory mucosa and may significantly affect cell death and olfactory metabolism by inducing the pro-apoptotic process.


El cadmio es un metal altamente tóxico que afecta la mucosa respiratoria. El objetivo fue mostrar el efecto inflamatorio y degenerativo del cadmio sobre la mucosa olfativa. En este estudio, ratas Wistar de ocho semanas de edad con un peso promedio de 170-190 g se dividieron en dos grupos (control y experimental) con 20 animales en cada grupo. Las ratas del grupo experimental recibieron 2 mg/kg/día de cloruro de cadmio en polvo disuelto en agua por vía intraperitoneal todos los días durante dos semanas. En los animales se exirpó la cavidad nasal bajo anestesia. Se separó la concha nasal superior, se fijó con solución de zinc-Formalina y se descalcificó con EDTA (ácido etilendiaminotetraacético) al 5 %. Después del procedimiento histopatológico de rutina, Hematoxilina- Eosina (HE) e inmunohistoquímica, se utilizó el anticuerpo APAF-1. El examen histopatológico reveló interrupciones en la estructura de la membrana basal debido al cadmio y cambios degenerativos en las células madre, degeneración en las células sensoriales y picnosis en los núcleos, dilatación de los vasos sanguíneos y aumento de la inflamación en el tejido conjuntivo. Se encontró que la expresión de APAF-1 aumenta en las células epiteliales y en las células de las glándulas olfatorias (glándulas de Bowman). Se ha pensado que la toxicidad del cadmio aumenta la degeneración celular y la inflamación en la mucosa olfativa y puede afectar significativamente la muerte celular y el metabolismo olfativo al inducir el proceso proapoptótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Olfactory Mucosa/drug effects , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Administration, Intranasal , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38085, Jan.-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397168

ABSTRACT

The development of anthropogenic activities such as industry, mining, agriculture, urban waste discard has been, the main actions that result in increased contamination by heavy metals in soil, water and air. One of the most harmful metals made available by these activities is cadmium, and even at low concentrations it is very toxic mainly in plant structures. The objective of this work was to verify the biochemical behavior of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in young plants of paricá when submitted to increasing cadmium application. For this, a completely randomized experiment was carried out with five treatments (control, CdCl2 178 µM, CdCl2 356 µM, CdCl2 534 µM, CdCl2 712 µM), with seven replicates, totaling 35 experimental units. The sensitivity of this vegetable to the increasing concentrations of cadmium was evident. The root system it presents'' saw where the most toxic element accumulated, solutes such as carbohydrates, sucrose were affected in their concentrations, mainly in the leaves. The root system saw in its concentrations of glycine betaine a possibility of osmoprotection, but this did not reflect an increase in the concentration of nitrate in both leaf and roots. In the other hand, this fact not observed by the concentration of ammonium that increased in the root system. The results showed that the cadmium was transported to aerial part, however, concentrated mainly in the root system characterizing as a phytoextractor species.

3.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 41: e42174, 20190000. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460851

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been a growing concern related to soil and water contamination due to the constant dispersal of toxic metals. In addition to their ecotoxicological potential, these elements exhibit a cumulative character that favors their permanence in soil and passage to living organisms, which can lead to an ecological imbalance. Among toxic metals, cadmium (Cd) is an obstacle to agriculture because it can adversely affect food quality and human health, as well as diminish plant growth and productivity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of cadmium on seed germination and initial growth of chia. The ecotoxicological effects of four Cd concentrations (15; 30; 45; and 60 mg L-1) were evaluated. The response variables were germination percentage, first count, germination speed index, total length, shoot length, root length, seedling dry mass, and tolerance index. It is concluded that the presence and accumulation of Cd in the culture substrate played an inhibitory role in seed germination and initial seedling growth of chia starting at 15 mg L-1. On the other hand, no significant effect was observed for the treatments in relation to dry mass of the chia seedlings.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/toxicity , Germination , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/toxicity
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038113

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. Methods: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. Results: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. Conclusion: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cadmium Chloride/toxicity , Pyracantha/chemistry , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Kidney/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Catalase/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Fruit/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Kidney/pathology
5.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 331-334, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of rhubarb and licorice( Rhubarb licorice root decoction) on liver and kidney injury in rats exposed to cadmium. METHODS: Healthy male specific pathogen-free grade SD rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,licorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group by random number table. Except the control group,the other 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected with 1. 00 g/L cadmium chloride solution at the dose of 1 mg/kg body mass,once every other day for 6 times. After 7 days,the rats in the licorice group and the Rhubarb licorice root decoction were given licorice soup and Rhubarb licorice root decoction,respectively. The dose was 50 mg/kg body mass,once per day for 30 days. At 24 hours after the last gavage,rats were secrificed and the liver and kidney were isolated. Liver and kidney organ coefficients were calculated and the pathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues were observed. The fully automatic biochemical analyser was conducted to detect the activity of aspartate aminotransferase( AST) and alanine aminotransferase( ALT) in liver tissue and the activity of superoxide dismutase( SOD) and level of malondialdehyde( MDA) in liver and kidney tissues. RESULTS: Large area of necrosis were found in the liver and kidney in the model group. In the ticorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group,the necrosis in the liver and kidney decreased,and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group improved more obviously than ticorice group.The coefficient of liver and kidney,the activity of AST and ALT in liver tissue,and MDA level in liver and kidney tissues of the model group increased( P < 0. 05),meanwhile the activity of SOD in liver and kidney tissues decreased( P < 0. 05)when compared with the control group. The above indexes in licorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group had improvement than that of model group( P < 0. 05). The improvement of above indexes in the Rhubarb licorice root decoction group was better than that in the licorice group( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Rhubarb licorice root decoction has protective effect on liver and kidney damage caused by cadmium exposure.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806591

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To establish the immortalized mouse brain microvascular pericytes model and to apply to the cerebrovascular toxicants screening study.@*Methods@#Brain pericytes were isolated from 3 weeks of mice by tissue digestion. Immortalized pericyte cell line was constructed by infecting with LT retrovirus. Monoclone was selected to purify the immortalized pericyte cell line. The pericyte characteristics and purity were explored by immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation was measured by using the Pomega MTS cell Proliferation Colorimetric Assay Kit. Pericytes were treated with 0, 160, 320, 640, 1 280, 2 560 μmol/L lead acetate, 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μmol/L cadmium chloride and 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 μmol/L sodium arsenite in 24 hours. Cell toxicity of each group was determined by MTS assay, median lethal dose (LD50) was calculated in linear regression.@*Results@#Mouse brain pericytes were successfully isolated by tissue separation and enzyme digestion method. After immortalized by LT retroviruses, monoclone was selected and expanded to establish pericyte cell line. The brain pericytes exhibited typical long spindle morphology and positive staining for α-SMA and Vimentin. The proliferation of brain pericytes cell lines was very slowly, and the doubling time was about 48 hours. The proliferation of immortalized brain pericytes cell lines was very quickly, and the doubling time was about 24 hours. After lead acetate, cadmium chloride and sodium arsenite treatment for 24 hours respectively, gradual declines in cell viability were observed. The LD50 of lead acetate was 2 025.0 μmol/L, the LD50 of cadmium chloride was 36.6 μmol/L, and the LD50 of sodium arsenite was 33.2 μmol/L.@*Conclusion@#The immortalized mouse brain microvascular pericyte model is established successfully by infecting with LT retrovirus, and can be applied to screen cerebrovascular toxicants. The toxicity of these toxicants to immortalized mouse brain microvascular pericyte is in sequence: sodium arsenite,cadmium chloride, lead acetate.

7.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 30-34, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of cadmium on the expression of estrogen receptor( ER) and miRAN-155,miRAN-200 c in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. METHODS: MCF-7cells in logarithmic growth phase were randomly divided into fulvestrant( ICI182780,ICI) group and non-ICI group. The non-ICI group was treated with cadmium chloride(Cd Cl2) at the final concentrations of 0. 0,2. 5,5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol/L for 24 hours. The ICI group was pretreated at a concentration of 1. 0 μmol/L for 12 hours,and then treated with Cd Cl2 at the final concentrations 0. 0,2. 5,5. 0 and 10. 0μmol/L for 24 hours. The cell proliferation activity was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Flow cytometry was used to measured cell apoptosis. Western blot was applied to measure the relative expression of ERα and ERβ protein,and the relative expression of miRNA-155 and miRNA-200 c were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The proliferation rates of MCF-7 cells in 2. 5,5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol/L Cd Cl2 groups were significantly decreased than the 0. 0 μmol/L Cd Cl2 group( P < 0. 05). The proliferation rate in ICI group was lower than that of the non-ICI group( P < 0. 05). When Cd Cl2 concentration was 2. 5,5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol/L,the apoptosis rate of MCF-7 cells in non-ICI group increased compared with those cells without exposure to Cd Cl2( P < 0. 05). The relative expression of ERα,ERβ,miRNA-155 and miRNA-200 c increased( P < 0. 05). The proliferation of MCF-7 cells in ICI group decreased( P < 0. 05),and the relative apoptosis rate increased( P < 0. 05); and the relative expression of ERαand ERβ increased( P < 0. 05),the relative expression of miRNA-155 and miRNA-200 c decreased( P < 0. 05). When treated without Cd Cl2,the apoptosis rate of the ICI group increased compared with non-ICI group(P < 0. 05),the relative expression of ERα and ERβ decreased( P < 0. 05),and the relative expression of miRNA-155 and miRNA-200 c were increased( P < 0. 05). When Cd Cl2 concentration was 2. 5,5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol/L,the apoptosis rate and the relative expression of ERα,ERβ,miRNA-155 and miRNA-200 c decreased compared with the non-ICI group treated with same dose Cd Cl2(P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Cadmium can induce cell apoptosis and increase expression of miRNAs through the ER signaling pathway.

8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 920-924, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-842820

ABSTRACT

β-cryptoxanthin (CRY), a major carotenoid of potential interest for health, is obtained naturally from orange vegetables and fruits. A few research studies have reported that CRY could decrease oxidative stress and germ cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CRY on acute cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. For this study, 24 rats were divided into four groups, one of which serves as a control group that received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of corn oil and physiological saline. The other rats were i.p. injected with CRY (10 μg kg-1 ) every 8 h, beginning 8 h before CdCl 2 (2.0 mg kg-1 ) treatment. The pathological and TUNEL findings revealed that CRY ameliorated the Cd-induced testicular histological changes and germ cell apoptosis in the rats. Furthermore, the Cd-induced decrease in the testicular testosterone (T) level was attenuated after CRY administration (P < 0.05). The administration of CRY significantly reversed the Cd-induced increases in the lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (P < 0.01). The testicular antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) were decreased by treatment with Cd alone but were restored by CRY co-treatment. These results demonstrated that the application of CRY can enhance the tolerance of rats to Cd-induced oxidative damage and suggest that it has promised as a pharmacological agent to protect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity.

9.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 424-428, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of cadmium chloride( CdCl_2) on DNA single strand breaks and the production of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine( 8-OHdG) in human embryonic kidney epithelial cells( HEK cells). METHODS: HEK cells in logarithm growth phase were divided into 5 groups and incubated with the different concentrations of CdCl_2( 0. 0,2. 5,5. 0,10. 0 and 20. 0 μmol/L) for 24,48 and 72 hours in vitro. After harvesting the cells,DNA single strand breaks was tested by single cell gel electrophoresis,and the level of 8-OHdG was measured using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The Olive tail moment was statistically significant in the main effect of CdCl_2 exposed HEK cells( P < 0. 01). Among them,when HEK cells were exposed to 5. 0 μmol / L of CdCl_2,the Olive tail moment began to have a statistical significant increasing trend compared with the 0. 0 μmol / L group( P < 0. 05); when CdCl_2 concentration was 2. 5-10. 0 μmol / L,the Olive tail moment lengthened with the increasing dose of cadmium exposure,showing a doseeffect relationship( P < 0. 05). The tail DNA% was statistically significant in the interaction between exposure treatment and exposure time in HEK cells( P < 0. 01). Among them,when CdCl_2 concentration was at 2. 5-10. 0 μmol / L at 24 hours time point and 5. 0-20. 0 μmol / L at 48 hours time point,the tail DNA% raised with the increasing dose of cadmium exposure,showing a dose-effect relationship( P < 0. 05). The tail DNA% at 3 time points of 24,48 and 72 hours after exposure to 20. 0 μmol / L of CdCl_2 in HEK cells increased with the increasing time of cadmium exposure,showing a timeeffect relationship( P < 0. 05). The level of 8-OHdG had statistical significance in the main effect of CdCl_2 exposure treatment in HEK cells( P < 0. 05). Among them,the level of 8-OHdG was first significantly increased only after exposure to 10. 0 μmol / L CdCl_2 compared with the 0. 0 μmol / L group( P < 0. 05). After treatment with Ca Cl2,there was no doseeffect relationship and time-effect relationship found between the cadmium chloride exposure and tail length as well as the tail / head length ratio and 8-OHdG level. CONCLUSION: To a certain extent,CdCl_2 exposure may cause both DNA single strand breaks and 8-OHdG production in HEK cells. Compared with 8-OHdG,the DNA single strand breaks show more significant change with a lower dose of cadmium treatment,which may be related to its higher sensitivity to cadmium toxicity than 8-OHdG.

10.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 37-41, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cadmium chloride on the expression of kidney injury molecule-1( KIM-1)in human renal tubular epithelial cells( HK-2 cells). METHODS: HK-2 cells at logarithmic phase were divided into a control group and 5 treatment groups that were treated with 5. 0,10. 0,20. 0,50. 0 and 100. 0 μmol / L of cadmium chloride dissolved in phosphate buffer solution. Cell pathology observation was carried out after 24 hours of cultivation. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to calculate the survival rate of HK-2 cells. The expression of KIM-1 mRNA and protein were detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis respectively.RESULTS: There were no cellular morphologic change in HK-2 cells in the control group,the 5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol / L groups;the HK-2 cells showed different degree of swellings or vacuoles in the 20. 0 and 50. 0 μmol / L groups; a large number of cells were found dead in the 100. 0 μmol / L group. The cell survival rates of HK-2 cells in the 20. 0,50. 0 and 100. 0μmol /L groups were lower than those of control group,the 5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol /L groups( P < 0. 05). The pairwise comparison among survival rates of the 20. 0,50. 0 and 100. 0 μmol / L groups showed significant difference( P < 0. 05).The expression levels of KIM-1 mRNA and protein in the 20. 0 and 50. 0 μmol / L groups were higher than those of control group,the 5. 0 and 10. 0 μmol / L groups( P < 0. 05). The levels of KIM-1 mRNA and protein in the 50. 0 μmol / L group were higher than those of the 20. 0 μmol / L group( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Cadmium chloride at certain concentration can increase the expression of KIM-1 mRNA and protein in HK-2 cells. Therefore,the expression of KIM-1 could be used as one of the effect biomarkers for cadmium induced kidney tubule injury.

11.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 2014 Apr-June; 5(2): 76-79
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-173538

ABSTRACT

Ayurveda, one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports that the seeds of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Linn. (Tilaceae) can be used for the treatment of hypertension. The main aim is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus (Rudraksha) seeds. Powdered seeds were extracted by maceration, overnight, using water, in copper (E1) and glass vessel (E2) and analyzed for antihypertensive activity in cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, for a period of 15 days) induced hypertensive male Wistar rats at three dose levels. E1 was administered at the dose of 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg and E2 at dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg. All the data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. E1 and E2 did not show any toxicity at the dose of 5 g/kg in rats. It was found that 15 mg/kg of E1 and 30 mg/kg of E2 decreases the blood pressure by 30.20 mmHg and 28.96 mmHg, respectively, in hypertensive rats. Thus, it can be said that 15 mg/kg of E1 produced similar decrease in blood pressure as was observed with 30 mg/kg of E2. Copper ions in E1 might be additively affecting the reduction in blood pressure with the usage of Elaeocarpus ganitrus extracts.

12.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2014 Jan; 4(1): 451-467
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-174923

ABSTRACT

Aims: The present study investigates in a mouse model the extent of immunomodulatory effects after exposure to cadmium chloride (in vivo) in the testes. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India; between may 2010 and march 2012. Methodology: LD50 was determined and the percent mortality of mice was plotted against their respective decreasing levels of cadmium chloride. To elucidate the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium chloride, Swiss albino mice were divided into two groups: the 1st group was intraperitonially injected with cadmium chloride (0.35 mg/kg b.w.) and the 2nd group with isotonic saline solution for 15 days. The isolated testicular macrophages were used to determine the morphological alteration as well as cell function studies such as phagocytosis, intracellular killing capacity, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide release and TNF-α release assay from cadmium chloride -treated and control group of adult male Swiss albino mice. Results: The present work shows that cadmium chloride is responsible for a significant alteration in morphology from 22.2 ± 0.05% to 60.1 ± 1.19% (P**), degenerative changes in scanning electron microscopy and reduced cell function such as phagocytosis (from 21000 ± 577.35 to 7100 ± 115.47; P**), myeloperoxidase release (from 46.8 ± 0.872 μM to 30.23 ± 1.041 μM; P*), nitric oxide release (from 11 ± 1.53 to 5 ± 1.2; P*) and the intracellular killing capacity was also reduced significantly (P**) in testicular macrophages probably by increasing oxidative damage. It also shows that TNF-α increases with cadmium chloride treatment (from 164 ± 4.62 to 235 ± 5.2; P*). Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that the toxic potential of cadmium chloride causes morphological changes as well as alterations in cell function in macrophages, rendering the animals more prone to infection, all of which may bear particular significance in heavy metal induced infertility.

13.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-6, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites are possess several biological activities such as anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, etc. Cell suspension culture is one of the most effective systems to produce secondary metabolites. It is possible to increase the phenolic compounds and tocopherols by using cell suspensions. Studies on tocopherols production by cell suspension cultures are seldom and generally focused on seed oil plants. Although fresh grape, grape seed, pomace and grape seed oil had tocopherols, with our best knowledge, there is no research on tocopherol accumulation in the grape cell suspension cultures. In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of cadmium chloride treatments on secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures of grapevine. Cell suspensions initiated from callus belonging to petiole tissue was used as a plant material. Cadmium chloride was applied to cell suspension cultures in different concentration (1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) to enhance secondary metabolite (total phenolics, total flavanols, total flavonols, trans-resveratrol, and α-, ß-, γ- δ-tocopherols) production. Cells were harvested at two days intervals until the 6th day of cultures. Amounts of total phenolics, total flavanols and total flavonols; trans-resveratrol and tocopherols (α-, ß-, γ- and δ-tocopherols) and dry cell weights were determined in the harvested cells. RESULTS: Phenolic contents were significantly affected by the sampling time and cadmium concentrations. The highest values of total phenolic (168.82 mg/100 g), total flavanol (15.94 mg/100 g), total flavonol (14.73 mg/100 g) and trans-resveratrol (490.76 µg/100 g) were found in cells treated with 1.0 mM CdCl2 and harvested at day 2. Contents of tocopherols in the cells cultured in the presence of 1.0 mM CdCl2 gradually increased during the culture period and the highest values of α, ß and γ tocopherols (145.61, 25.52 and 18.56 µg/100 g) were detected in the cell cultures collected at day 6. CONCLUSIONS: As a conclusion, secondary metabolite contents were increased by cadmium chloride application and sampling time, while dry cell weights was reduced by cadmium chloride treatments.


Subject(s)
Cadmium Chloride/pharmacology , Vitis/drug effects , Primary Cell Culture/methods , Secondary Metabolism/drug effects , Phenols/analysis , Stilbenes/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitis/growth & development , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/chemistry , Tocopherols/analysis , Flavonols/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Resveratrol
14.
Br J Med Med Res ; 2013 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 2031-2041
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163086

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently there has been an increased association between environmental factors and male infertility. Aims: In the present study, the effect of changes in testicular biometric parameters (weight and volume) and testicular function (Sperm count, morphology, testosterone level) in Cadmium chloride administered Wistar rats was studied. Methodology: Twenty male albino Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=5). Group A (control) received rat chow and water, while Group B, C and D received 15mg/L, 20mg/L and 25mg/L of Cadmium chloride respectively for 6 weeks. Result: There was a significant (P=.05) and dose dependent decrease in testicular function parameters in the rats and a significant (P=.05) and positive correlation between the biometric parameters and testicular function. Conclusion: The findings showed that Cadmium chloride has a deleterious effect on testicular function and biometric parameters of the testes may be important in the assessment of testicular function.

15.
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 615-617, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687112

ABSTRACT

Cadmium, hazardous heavy metal, is recognized to produce severe toxic effects in humans. In this study, intestinal wall surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes, based on the cadmium to be mainly lymphocytes and plasma cells, granulocytes eozinofil examined effects on the immune system were investigated by histochemical and electron microscope. Electron microscope examination of the cross section of cadmium, mitochondria cristae in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes was observed deterioration in the structure and degenerative changes in dilated endoplasmic reticulum,were seen together with elongation, that a small number of multi-focal granular lymphocytes, but plasma cells and eosinophilic granulocytes of the structures of multi-focal granular structures of various sizes, and their numbers were much higher.


El cadmio, es un peligroso metal pesado, reconocido como causante de graves efectos tóxicos en los humanos. En este estudio, se examinaron los efectos del cadmio sobre el sistema inmune en la pared intestinal que rodea a los nódulos linfáticos mesentéricos, principalmente linfocitos, células plasmáticas y granulocitos eosinófilos, mediante técnicas histoquímicas y microscopía electrónica. En el examen mediante microscopía electrónica de la sección transversal de la pared intestinal sometida al cadmio, se observó un deterioro estructural de las crestas mitocondriales en el citoplasma de los linfocitos y cambios degenerativos en el retículo endoplásmico, además fueron vistos con un pequeño número de linfocitos granulares, células plasmáticas y granulocitos eosinófilos con estructuras granulares multifocales de diversos tamaños y más altos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Cadmium Chloride/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar
16.
J Environ Biol ; 2012 Nov; 33(6): 1057-1061
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148470

ABSTRACT

Effects of three sub lethal concentrations of cadmium chloride (0.636, 0.063 and 0.006 mg l-1) on oxygen consumption and gill morphology in Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), a teleost fish, were studied. When compared to control, 0.636 mg l-1 of cadmium chloride after 7, 14, 21 and 28 day exposure showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 32.98, 28.40, 23.88 and 21.69 ml hr-1 100g-1 of tissue, respectively; while, 0.063 mg l-1 of cadmium chloride for the same exposure durations showed a significant decline in rates of oxygen consumption at 34.28, 29.30, 28.05 and 26.47 ml hr-1 100g-1 of tissue, respectively. However, significant decline in the rate of oxygen consumption at 0.006 mg l-1 of cadmium chloride could be observed from 21st day of exposure. Gill tissue showed various histopathological changes including epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, mucous secretion, marked leucocyte infiltration in the epithelium after 28 days of cadmium chloride exposure.

17.
J Environ Biol ; 2012 May; 33(3): 663-666
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146753

ABSTRACT

The aim of present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of heavy metal in Channa punctatus through the micronucleus test, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange. The fish were kept separately in 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 ppm cadmium chloride for 3 days. For micronucleus test blood was collected from caudal vein and smeared on clean slides fixed in methanol and stained with 2% Giemsa. Mean frequency of micronuclei observed was 0.10, 0.15, 0.24, 0.34 and 0.39 in control, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 ppm CdCl2 respectively. In vivo chromosome preparation from kidney tissues was carried out. The mean frequency of cells with aberrations observed was 0.13, 0.20, 0.34, 0.60 and 0.95 in control, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 ppm CdCl2 respectively. Likewise the mean frequency of SCE observed was 0.05, 0.16, 0.36, 0.44 and 0.52 in control, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 ppm CdCl2 respectively. It has been revealed from the results of this study that cadmium produced genotoxic effects in fish.

18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150927

ABSTRACT

Salt stress as a major adverse factor can lower leaf water potential, leading to reduced torgor and some other responses, and ultimately lower crop productivity in arid and semi arid zone. Plant responses to salt stress have much in common. Salt stress reduces the ability of plants to take up water and this quickly causes reductions in growth rate. The initial reduction in shoot growth is probably due to salt effects. If excessive amounts of salt enter into the plant, salt will eventually rise to toxic levels and reduce the photosynthetic leaf area of the plant that cannot sustain growth. In order to understand the processes that give rise to tolerance of salt and to identify the salt stress proteins in the salt stress effect of on plant growth was studied using different salt solutions like Copper sulphate, Cadmium chloride and zinc sulphate with different concentrations like 200μM, 150μM, 100μM.

19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162204

ABSTRACT

Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and potential for human exposure has generally increased with increase in industrial usage of this element. The purpose of the present study was to determine anti-oxidative role of vitamin C against cadmium chloride induced oxidative stress on rat testis. Adult male rats(n=6/group) were divided into five groups ,one control (Gr.I- 0.9% Saline treated) & two untreated experimental & two pretreated experimental groups. The untreated groups were injected with single dose of 0.5 & 1 mg /kg bw cadmium chloride (Gr.II &Gr.III) intraperitoneally. Vitamin C (30mg/kg bw,ip) was orally administered for 30 days prior to the exposure to 0.5 and 1mg/kg bw(Gr,IIa &Gr.IIIA) of cadmium chloride. In all the groups, rats were sacrificed 15 days after the final cadmium chloride or saline administration and the changes in the testicular weight and testicular level of Melonaldehyde , glutathione & superoxide dismutase were studied. Exposure to cadmium chloride lead to significant decrease in the testicular weight& level of GSH & SOD and increase in the level of testicular MDA compared to normal control. Pretreatment with vitamin C (30mg/kg bw) significantly prevented the increase in MDA level of the testis & ameliorated the fall in GSH & SOD as well as testicular weight compared to 0.5mg/kg bw cadmium chloride group. But pretreatment with vitamin C did not show any beneficial effect with 1mg/kg bw cadmium treated group. The study reports the antioxidative role of vitamin C in ameliorating lower doses of cadmium chloride induced testicular damage.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303649

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the total phenolic content, DNA protecting and radical scavenging activity of ethanolic leaf extracts of three Lamiaceae plants, i.e. Anisomelos malabarica (A. malabarica), Leucas aspera (L. aspera) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The total polyphenols and flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanolic leaf extracts of the lamiaceae plants. To determine the DNA protecting activity, various concentrations of the plant extracts were prepared and treated on cultured HepG2 human lung cancer cells. The pretreated cells were exposed to H2O2 to induce DNA damage through oxidative stress. Comet assay was done and the tail length of individual comets was measured. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion scavenging activities of lamiaceae plants were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the three plant extracts, the highest amount of total phenolic content was found in O. basilicum (189.33 mg/g), whereas A. malabarica showed high levels of flavonoids (10.66 mg/g). O. basilicum also showed high levels of DNA protecting (85%) and radical scavenging activity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The results of this study shows that bioactive phenols present in lamiaceae plants may prevent carcinogenesis through scavenging free radicals and inhibiting DNA damage.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium Chloride , Toxicity , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Free Radical Scavengers , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells , Lamiaceae , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Protective Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology
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