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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 55: e11857, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364549

ABSTRACT

Genome-wide analysis using microarrays has revolutionized breast cancer (BC) research. A substantial body of evidence supports the clinical utility of the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX) and 70-gene assay (MammaPrint) to predict BC recurrence and the magnitude of benefit from chemotherapy. However, there is currently no genetic tool able to predict chemosensitivity and chemoresistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) during BC treatment. In this study, we explored the predictive value of DNA repair gene expression in the neoadjuvant setting. We selected 98 patients with BC treated with NACT. We assessed DNA repair expression in 98 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsy fragments used at diagnosis and in 32 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded post-NACT residual tumors using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The following genes were selected: BRCA1, PALB2, RAD51C, BRCA2, ATM, FANCA, MSH2, XPA, ERCC1, PARP1, and SNM1. Of 98 patients, 33 (33.7%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). The DNA expression of 2 genes assessed in pre-NACT biopsies (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR than in non-pCR patients (P=0.005 and P=0.009, respectively). There was no correlation between molecular subtype and expression of DNA repair genes. The genes BRCA2 (P=0.009), ATM (P=0.004), FANCA (P=0.001), and PARP1 (P=0.011) showed a lower expression in post-NACT residual tumor samples (n=32) than in pre-NACT biopsy samples (n=98). The expression of 2 genes (PALB2 and ERCC1) was lower in pCR patients. These alterations in DNA repair could be considered suitable targets for cancer therapy.

3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210379, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360601

ABSTRACT

The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are etiological agents of important neglected tropical diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide, and the drugs available for these diseases present several limitations. Novel efficient and nontoxic drugs are necessary as an alternative to the current chemotherapy. The unique mitochondrion of trypanosomatids and its peculiar features turn this organelle a potential drug target. Several phenotypic studies describe the damage in the parasite mitochondrial ultrastructure, but the molecular target is unknown. Few reports demonstrated the electron transport system (ETS) as a target due to the high similarities to mammalian orthologues, hence ETS is not a good candidate for drug intervention. On the other hand, antioxidant enzymes, such as trypanothione reductase, and an alternative oxidase (AOX) seem to be interesting targets; however no high active inhibitors were developed up to now. Finally, due to the remarkable differences to mammalian machinery, together with the high biological importance for the parasite survival, the mitochondrial import system stands out as a very promising target in trypanosomatids. Archaic translocase of the outer membrane (ATOM) and translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes, which mediate both protein and tRNA import, composed by specific subunits of these parasites, could be excellent candidates, deserving studies focused on the development of specific drugs.

4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210386, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365150

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD) is an old neglected problem that affects more than 6 million people through 21 endemic countries in Latin America. Despite being responsible for more than 12 thousand deaths per year, the disease disposes basically of two drugs for its treatment, the nitroimidazole benznidazole and the nitrofuran nifurtimox. However, these drugs have innumerous limitations that greatly reduce the chances of cure. In Brazil, for example, only benznidazole is available to treat CD patients. Therefore, some proof-of-concept phase II clinical trials focused on improving the current treatment with benznidazole, also comparing it with repositioned drugs or combining them. Indeed, repositioning already marketed drugs in view of combating neglected tropical diseases is a very interesting approach in the context of decreased time for approval, better treatment options and low cost for development and implementation. After the introduction of human immunodeficiency virus aspartyl peptidase inhibitors (HIV-PIs) in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the prevalence and incidence of parasitic, fungal and bacterial co-infections suffered a marked reduction, making these HIV-PIs attractive for drug repositioning. In this line, the present perspective presents the promising and beneficial data concerning the effects of HIV-PIs on the clinically relevant forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (i.e., trypomastigotes and amastigotes) and also highlights the ultrastructural and physiological targets for the HIV-PIs on this parasite. Therefore, we raise the possibility that HIV-PIs could be considered as alternative treatment options in the struggle against CD.

5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220004, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365152

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD), a neglected tropical illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects more than 6 million people mostly in poor areas of Latin America. CD has two phases: an acute, short phase mainly oligosymptomatic followed to the chronic phase, a long-lasting stage that may trigger cardiac and/or digestive disorders and death. Only two old drugs are available and both present low efficacy in the chronic stage, display side effects and are inactive against parasite strains naturally resistant to these nitroderivatives. These shortcomings justify the search for novel therapeutic options considering the target product profile for CD that will be presently reviewed besides briefly revisiting the data on phosphodiesterase inhibitors upon T. cruzi.

6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210401, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365153

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are neglected tropical diseases caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively. They are among the most important parasitic diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide, being a considerable global challenge. However, there is no human vaccine available against T. cruzi and Leishmania infections, and their control is based mainly on chemotherapy. Treatments for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis have multiple limitations, mainly due to the high toxicity of the available drugs, long-term treatment protocols, and the occurrence of drug-resistant parasite strains. In the case of Chagas disease, there is still the problem of low cure rates in the chronic stage of the disease. Therefore, new therapeutic agents and novel targets for drug development are urgently needed. Antioxidant defence in Trypanosomatidae is a potential target for chemotherapy because the organisms present a unique mechanism for trypanothione-dependent detoxification of peroxides, which differs from that found in vertebrates. Cellular thiol redox homeostasis is maintained by the biosynthesis and reduction of trypanothione, involving different enzymes that act in concert. This study provides an overview of the antioxidant defence focusing on iron superoxide dismutase A, tryparedoxin peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase and how the enzymes play an important role in the defence against oxidative stress and their involvement in drug resistance mechanisms in T. cruzi and Leishmania spp.

7.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE003542, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364224

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Mapear as medidas de segurança ocupacional recomendadas aos profissionais envolvidos no atendimento transoperatório de pacientes submetidos à Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica. Métodos Estudo qualitativo com ênfase em scoping review, fundamentado no Instituto Joanna Briggs. Realizou-se buscas nas bases de dados Pubmed, BVS, ScIELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, The Chocrane Library e literatura cinzenta. Pergunta de pesquisa utilizou o acrônimo PCC: quais medidas de segurança ocupacional são necessárias no Centro Cirúrgico para profissionais que atuam, direta ou indiretamente, no transoperatório da HIPEC? A Busca de artigos ocorreu entre 2015 a 2019. Resultados Evidenciou-se escassa literatura sobre a temática. Selecionados dez artigos: uma revisão sistemática; dois casos-controle; dois estudos descritivos; quatro estudos de revisão bibliográfica; um relato de experiência. Análise dos artigos evidenciou as medidas de segurança recomendadas para profissionais que atuam direta ou indiretamente nesse procedimento cirúrgico, a saber: educação e capacitação da equipe envolvida; utilização de equipamentos de proteção individual e coletiva; oferecer infraestrutura e orientações gerais. Conclusão Medidas de segurança recomendadas para os profissionais envolvidos no atendimento transoperatório do paciente submetido à Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica são: capacitação da equipe; utilização de equipamentos específicos de proteção individual e coletiva; infraestrutura necessária como ajuste do ar condicionado com pressão maior dentro da sala cirúrgica; e orientações gerais em relação à organização da sala cirúrgica, descarte dos resíduos, limpeza da sala/materiais utilizados e acompanhamento da saúde ocupacional da equipe envolvida em procedimento cirúrgico.


Resumen Objetivo Mapear las medidas de seguridad ocupacional recomendadas a los profesionales involucrados en la atención transoperatoria de pacientes sometidos a Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica. Métodos Estudio cualitativo con énfasis en el scoping review, fundamentado en el Instituto Joanna Briggs. Se realizaron búsquedas en las bases de datos Pubmed, BVS, ScIELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, The Chocrane Library y literatura gris. Pregunta de encuesta utilizó el acrónimo PCC: ¿qué medidas de seguridad ocupacional se hacen necesarias en el Quirófano para profesionales que actúan, directa o indirectamente, en el transoperatorio de la HIPEC? La búsqueda de los artículos ocurrió entre el 2015 y el 2019. Resultados Se puso en evidencia una escasa literatura sobre la temática. Seleccionados diez artículos: una revisión sistemática; dos casos-control; dos estudios descriptivos; cuatro estudios de revisión bibliográfica; un relato de experiencia. Análisis de los artículos evidenció las medidas de seguridad recomendadas para profesionales que actúan directa o indirectamente en ese procedimiento quirúrgico, a saber: educación y capacitación del equipo involucrado; utilización de equipos de protección individual y colectiva; brindar infraestructura y orientaciones generales. Conclusión Representan medidas de seguridad recomendadas para los profesionales involucrados en la atención transoperatoria del paciente sometido a Quimioterapia Intraperitoneal Hipertérmica: capacitación del equipo; utilización de equipos específicos de protección individual y colectiva; infraestructura necesaria como ajuste del aire acondicionado con una presión más alta dentro del quirófano; y orientaciones generales con relación a la organización del quirófano, descarte de los deshechos, limpieza de la sala/materiales utilizados y acompañamiento de la salud ocupacional por el equipo involucrado en el procedimiento quirúrgico.


Abstract Objective To map the occupational safety measures recommended to professionals involved in the intraoperative care of patients undergoing Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Methods Qualitative scoping review based on the Joanna Briggs Institute. Searches were performed in Pubmed, VHL, ScIELO, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, The Chocrane Library databases and gray literature. The PCC acronym was used in the research question: what occupational safety measures are necessary in the operating room for professionals working directly or indirectly in the intraoperative period of HIPEC? A search for articles published between 2015 and 2019 was performed. Results Literature on the subject was scarce. Ten articles were selected: a systematic review; two control cases; two descriptive studies; four literature review studies; an experience report. In the analysis of articles, the recommended safety measures for professionals who work directly or indirectly in this surgical procedure was evidenced, namely: education and training of the staff involved; use of individual and collective protective equipment; provision of infrastructure and general guidelines. Conclusion Recommended safety measures for professionals involved in the intraoperative care of patients undergoing Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy are: team training; use of specific individual and collective protection equipment; necessary infrastructure, such as adjusting the air conditioning to higher pressure inside the operating room; and general guidelines regarding the organization of the operating room, waste disposal, cleaning of the room/materials used, and monitoring of the occupational health of the team involved in the surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peritoneal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Security Measures , Surgicenters , Occupational Health , Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy , Evaluation Studies as Topic
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 233-241, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913175

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to develop folic acid-modified paclitaxel nanocrystals (PTX NC@FA) with good stability, high drug loading and tumor cell targeting for endoscopic injection for preoperative local chemotherapy of gastric cancer. PTX NC@FA was prepared by the "bottom-up" followed by ultrasonic to study its morphology, particle size, ζ-potential, drug loading, folic acid-modified phospholipid (FA-DSPE-PEG2000) content, crystalline characteristics, stability, in vitro release, cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, and anti-tumor effect in two different tumor sizes (tumor volume 100 mm3 or 300 mm3) after single peri-tumor injection in a murine subcutaneous SGC-7901 tumor model. Animal experiments were approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of the School of Pharmacy, Fudan University. The resulting PTX NC@FA was of short rod-like shape, average particle size 175.3 ± 2.5 nm (PDI 0.17 ± 0.02), ζ- potential -2.5 ± 0.2 mV, PTX loading (28.23 ± 0.74) % (w/w) and FA-DSPE-PEG2000 content (4.40 ± 0.60) % (w/w). The size of the PTX NC@FA remained unchanged for 4 days in phosphate buffer with or without serum. Cellular growth inhibition effect on SGC-7901 showed the superiority of PTX NC@FA over nanocrystals without FA modification. PTX NC@FA inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than both nanocrystals without FA modification and commercially available paclitaxel injection (Taxol) 12 days after peri-tumor injection. For model tumor with the volume of 100 mm3, tumors of all animals in the PTX NC@FA group disappeared completely. For model tumor with the volume of 300 mm3, tumors of 3 animals in the PTX NC@FA group completely disappeared and tumors of the rest 4 animals also became significantly smaller with a tumor volume inhibition rate of 90%. PTX NC@FA showed good potential for preoperative chemotherapy of increase the chances of function preserving gastrectomy and improve the quality of life of patients.

9.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 758-763, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923015

ABSTRACT

The re gulators of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) include renin inhibitors ,angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors,angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers ,angiotensin Ⅱ receptor agonists and angiotensin 1-7. This paper summarizes and analyzes the adjuvant effects of RAS regulators on antitumor drugs by searching the literature published from January 1992 to June 2021. The regulators of RAS can reduce the cardiotoxicity ,hematological toxicity and peripheral neurotoxicity of antitumor drugs , and has renal protective effect ;the regulators of RAS combined with other chemotherapy drugs show favorable effects on promoting chemotherapeutic drugs delivery ,improving anti-angiogenesis and bypass activation of targeted drugs ,enhancing tumor immune response of immune checkpoint inhibitors ,so as to improve therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs. The combination of RAS regulators with antitumor drugs is expected to reduce the side effects of antitumor drugs ,enhance its efficacy and improve the prognosis of patients.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 622-628, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922965

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical effect of simultaneous surgical resection of hepatic and pancreatic lesions versus systemic chemotherapy in treatment of resectable pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis (PCLM). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for related data of the patients with PCLM who were admitted to Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2013 to May 2020, and the patients with resectable PCLM were screened out and then divided into surgery group and chemotherapy group. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was used to reduce the impact of data bias and confounding factors. The independent samples t -test or the Mann- Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival time, and the log-rank test was used for evaluation. The univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to investigate the independent risk factors for survival. Results A total of 56 patients with resectable PCLM were screened out, with 33 patients in the surgery group and 23 patients in the chemotherapy group, and there were 15 patients in each group after PSM. The surgery group had a significantly shorter median overall survival time than the chemotherapy group before PSM (6.6 months vs 10.4 months, χ 2 =4.476, P =0.034) and after PSM (6.4 months vs 10.5 months, χ 2 =4.309, P =0.038). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that poorly differentiated tumor (hazard ratio [ HR ]=4.945, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 1.980-12.348, P =0.001) and absence of postoperative chemotherapy ( HR =3.670, 95% CI : 1.437-9.376, P =0.007) were independent risk factors for poor prognosis in patients with PCLM. Conclusion Compared with chemotherapy, simultaneous surgical resection of hepatic and pancreatic lesions fails to prolong the overall survival time of patients with resectable PCLM. Patients with poorly differentiated tumor and those without postoperative chemotherapy tend to have poor prognosis.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 321-330, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922933

ABSTRACT

Nrf2 is a multi-effect transcription factor, which plays a crucial role in cytoprotective system. With the deepening of research on new regulatory modes and biologic functions of Nrf2, the oncogenic role of Nrf2 in malignant transformed tumors is increasingly obvious. More and more evidences show that Nrf2 is involved in the whole process of tumor occurrence, development, metastasis and prognosis, and inhibiting Nrf2 may be a promising strategy in tumor therapy. However, the development of Nrf2 inhibitors is still in early stage. In this paper, the biological function of Nrf2 and its dual role in tumor are briefly introduced, and representative Nrf2 inhibitors are reviewed according to their structure types, so as to provide reference and ideas for the development of anti-tumor drugs centering on the regulation of Nrf2.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 681-694, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922895

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria is involved in many important physiological activities such as energy supply, signal transduction, cell differentiation, etc., and plays an significant role in the occurrence and development of diseases. Using mitochondria as a target is a new strategy for cancer treatment. The use of nanotechnology to construct a mitochondrial targeted nano-drug delivery system can improve the solubility of traditional drugs, prolong the half-life of drugs in the body, increase the bioavailability and concentration of drugs at the tumor site, and reduce the toxic and side effects of drugs. It is expected to solve the resistance in the process of tumor treatment. This review focuses on the field of cancer treatment. Firstly, it introduces the mechanism of mitochondrial targeted nano-drug delivery system for cancer treatment. Secondly, it outlines the design ideas, classification and application research of mitochondrial targeted nano-drug delivery systems in the past five years. Finally, it expands the analysis of other studies that target mitochondria, such as bionic vectors, and presents its advantages and disadvantages, which provide a basis for in-depth research on drug delivery systems in the future.

13.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 617-621, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin inductive chemotherapy followed by concurrent radiochemotherapy in the treatment of loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS The clinical data of 45 patients (observation group ) with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma(Ⅲ/Ⅳa stage )who received albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin inductive chemotherapy in our hospital from August 2017 to July 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Propensity score was used to match 45 patients(control group )with loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma who received docetaxel combined with cisplatin and fluorouracil inductive chemotherapy. After inductive chemotherapy ,both groups received intensity-modulated radiochemotherapy (IMRT);observation group was additionally given concurrent nedaplatin chemotherapy ,and control groups was given concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy. Clinical efficacy and the incidence of ADR were compared between 2 groups. RESULTS All patients completed treatment and 3-year follow-up. After inductive chemotherapy and 1,3 months after concurrent radiochemotherapy ,there was no statistical significance in short-term response between 2 groups(P>0.05). There was no significantly difference in 3-years local control rate and 3-years free from distant metastasis between 2 groups(P>0.05). The incidences of leucopenia (grade 3 or above )in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group ,and the incidence of peripheral neuropathy in observation group was higher than that in control group (P<0.05). The incidences of thrombocytopenia (grade 2 or above ),rash and vomiting (grade 2 or above )in the observation group were lower than those in the control group ,but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of other ADR between 2 groups(P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with nedaplatin inductive chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is effective and tolerable .

14.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 21(38): 21-33, nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1348583

ABSTRACT

La quimioterapia oral comenzó a surgir entre 1940 y 1950, se estima que al menos el 25% de los agentes neoplásicos existentes, están previstos para ser orales y de este modo se espera que su administración aumente en los próximos años. El uso de estas drogas oncológicas oral trae ventajas para el paciente como mayor comodidad, participación activa en su tratamiento, menor interferencia con la vida laboral y social y aumento de la calidad de vida. Objetivo: diseñar un programa educativo sobre el autocuidado en el tratamiento de quimioterapia oral en los pacientes adultos oncológicos en su hogar. diseño metodológico: se realizó una búsqueda de diferentes bases de datos como PUBMED, BVS, SCIELO, obteniendo como resultados 104 artículos de los cuales se seleccionan 10 que respondían a la pregunta de investigación. Resultados: tras el análisis de los artículos seleccionados podemos asegurar que educar a los pacientes y sus familias sobre quimioterapia oral, es un gran desafío que necesita de ajustes y mejoras permanentemente. La educación al paciente debe ser constante y permanente[AU]


Oral chemotherapy began to emerge between 1940 and 1950, it is estimated that at least 25% of existing neoplastic agents are expected to be oral and thus its administration is expected to increase in the coming years. The use of these oral cancer drugs brings advantages for the patient such as greater comfort, active participation in their treatment, less interference with work and social life and increased quality of life. Objective: To design an educational program on self-care in the treatment of oral chemotherapy in adult cancer patients at home. Methodological Design: A search of different databases such as Pubmed, BVS, Scielo was carried out, obtaining as results 104 articles of which 10 were selected that responded to the research question. Results: After analyzing the selected articles, we can ensure that educating patients and their families about oral chemotherapy is a great challenge that needs permanent adjustments and improvements. Patient education must be constant and permanent[AU]


A quimioterapia oral começou a surgir entre 1940 e 1950, estima-se que pelo menos 25% dos agentes neoplásicos existentes sejam orais e, portanto, sua administração deverá aumentar nos próximos anos. O uso desses medicamentos para o câncer oral NE | 22Plan educativo a pacientes adultos que reciben citostáticos orales en el hogar / Paola Natalia Oyola / Trabajo recibido: 2 de febrero 2021 · Trabajo aprobado: 29 de abril 2021traz vantagens para o paciente como maior conforto, participação ativa no seu tratamento, menor interferência no trabalho e na vida social e aumento da qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Elaborar um programa educacional sobre autocuidado no tratamento da quimioterapia oral em pacientes adultos com câncer no domicílio. Delineamento metodológico: Foi realizada uma busca em diferentes bases de dados como Pubmed, BVS, Scielo, obtendo-se como resultados 104 artigos dos quais 10 foram selecionados que responderam à questão de pesquisa. Resultados: Após a análise dos artigos selecionados, podemos assegurar que educar os pacientes e seus familiares sobre a quimioterapia oral é um grande desafio que necessita de ajustes e melhorias permanentes. A educação do paciente deve ser constante e permanente[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Care , Patient Education as Topic , Drug Therapy , Cytostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cytostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
15.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1150, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347387

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La metástasis hepática del cáncer de colon es una entidad frecuente. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la supervivencia en pacientes intervenidos de cáncer de colon con metástasis hepática sincrónica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal a 34 pacientes operados con este diagnóstico, en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, desde 2010 hasta 2019. Fue estimada la supervivencia global y por diferentes periodos de tiempo en la cohorte, según el método de Kaplan-Meier. La comparación de las curvas de supervivencia para las covariables seleccionadas se realizó mediante la prueba de igualdad de distribuciones (Log-Rank de Mantel y Cox). Resultados: La supervivencia global a los seis meses y al año del diagnóstico fue de 66,5 por ciento y 66,2 por ciento, respectivamente, con mediana de dos años (IC 95 por ciento: 0,97-3,02). La supervivencia fue superior si el paciente presentó una metástasis versus dos o más, así como la de ambos lóbulos marca la menor probabilidad de supervivencia. Los tumores bien y moderadamente diferenciados mostraron mayor probabilidad de supervivencia al año que los pocos diferenciados, sin diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: La cirugía permite mejorar la sobrevida global y libre de enfermedad, aunque el uso de las distintas opciones terapéuticas para el cáncer colónico con metástasis hepática sincrónica continúa controvertido. La supervivencia de estos enfermos está condicionada por la estadificación, diferenciación histológica del tumor, localización y número de metástasis, entre otros factores(AU)


Introduction: Liver metastasis from colon cancer is a frequent entity. Objective: To identify the factors associated with survival in patients operated on for colon cancer with synchronic liver metastasis. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, from 2010 to 2019, with 34 patients with this diagnosis operated on in the general surgery service of Saturnino Lora Provincial Teaching Hospital of Santiago de Cuba. Overall survival was estimated, as well as by different time periods in the cohort, using the Kaplan-Meier method. The comparison of the survival curves for the selected covariates was carried out using the test of equality of distributions (log-rank or Mantel-Cox test). Results: Overall survival six months and one year after diagnosis was 66.5 percent and 66.2 percent, respectively, with a median of two years (95 percent CI: 0.97-3.02). Survival was higher if the patient had one metastasis versus two or more, while metastasis in both lobules represents the lowest probability of survival. Well and moderately differentiated tumors showed higher probability of survival at one year than the little differentiated ones, without significant differences. Conclusions: Surgery improves overall and disease-free survival, although the use of different therapeutic options for colon cancer with synchronic liver metastases remains controversial. The survival of these patients is conditioned by staging, histological differentiation of the tumor, location and number of metastases, among other factors(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Survivorship , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 229-234, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248790

ABSTRACT

Resumen Hoy una de las principales causas de mortalidad es el cáncer. La supervivencia en pacientes con cáncer ha incrementado de 1970 (25%) a la actualidad (80%). A raíz de la introducción de las antraciclinas como tratamiento de cáncer desde 1960-1970, más del 60% de los pacientes son tratados con estos agentes; sin embargo, la exposición de quimioterápicos conlleva las enfermedades cardiovasculares como la principal causa de mortalidad en enfermos supervivientes de cáncer en el s. XXI. Hay múltiples factores que incrementan la sensibilidad de cardiotoxicidad inducida por antracíclicos. En 1970 el estándar de oro para la detección de disfunción ventricular era la biopsia endomiocárdica, en forma posterior la detección y manejo de la cardiotoxicidad fue guiada por los síntomas, en 1981 la detección de cardiotoxicidad fue reportada con la determinación de la fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) por ecocardiografía 2D. En la actualidad el ecocardiograma 3D para FEVI y volúmenes sistólico y diastólico han presentado una alta correlación de los valores obtenidos por resonancia magnética para la evaluación de la función cardiaca. Hoy en día la ecocardiografía strain, strain-rate y speckle tracking se utilizan para determinar la función miocárdica regional y global. Para una valoración integral estos resultados se pueden complementar con biomarcadores cardiacos (troponinas y propéptido natriurético tipo B) y cambios electrocardiográficos. De esta forma se puede detectar insuficiencia cardiaca subclínica y dar un tratamiento oportuno.


Abstract Today one of the main causes of mortality is cancer. Survival in cancer patients has increased from 1970 (25%) to the present (80%). Following the introduction of anthracyclines as a cancer treatment since 1960-70, more than 60% of patients are treated with these agents, although chemotherapeutic exposure leads to cardiovascular diseases as the main cause of mortality in surviving patients. of cancer in the 21st Century. There are multiple factors that increase the sensitivity of anthracyclic-induced cardiotoxicity. In 1970 the gold standard for the detection of ventricular dysfunction was endomyocardial biopsy, subsequently the detection and management of cardiotoxicity was guided by symptoms, in 1981 the detection of cardiotoxicity was reported with the determination of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LVEF), by 2D echocardiography. Currently, the 3D echocardiogram for LVEF and systolic and diastolic volumes have presented a high correlation of the values obtained by magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of cardiac function. Today strain, strain-rate and speckle tracking echocardiography are used to determine regional and global myocardial function. For a comprehensive assessment, these results can be complemented with cardiac biomarkers (troponins) and electrocardiographic changes. In this way, subclinical heart failure can be detected and timely treatment can be given.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Cardiotoxicity/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Heart Failure/etiology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 14-26, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339330

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study investigated the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the development of oral mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing chemotherapy involving methotrexate. A longitudinal study was conducted with 64 patients, and oral mucositis was evaluated by the modified Oral Assessment Guide, which aims to diagnose and classify oral mucositis. Epithelial cells were obtained by mouthwash and DNA was extracted. The polymorphisms MTHFR (rs1801133), DNMT3B (rs2424913), ABCC2 (rs717620), ABCG2 (rs2231137) and ABCG2 (rs2231142) were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Demographic, hematological and biochemical data were collected from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software adopting a p-value of 0.05. Male sex predominated (56.2%), and the mean age was 10.8 years (± 4.9). Oral mucositis affected 65.6% of the patients, of which 61.9% developed the severe form of the disease. For the ABCG2 gene (rs2231142), the rare A allele and CA genotype were more frequent in individuals with mucositis (p= 0.02; RR = 0.60; CI = 0.387 - 0.813). The severity of the disease was mainly observed in younger patients (median = 9 years; p=0.02). Patients with severe oral mucositis presented lower leukocytes count (median = 2.150 mm3) compared to patients with the mild/moderate form (median = 4.200 mm3; p=0.03). Female patients and each 10,000-platelet increase were protective factors against the onset of oral mucositis (p=0.02). It is concluded that rs2231142 polymorphism increases the likelihood of oral mucositis and younger patients and patients with low leukocytes counts are more likely to develop severe form.


Resumo O presente estudo investigou a relação entre cinco polimorfismos genéticos e o desenvolvimento de mucosite oral em pacientes pediátricos recebendo quimioterapia com metrotexato. O estudo longitudinal foi conduzido com 64 pacientes e a mucosite oral avaliada pelo Oral Assessment Guide modificado, que tem como objetivo diagnosticar e classificar a mucosite oral. Células epiteliais bucais foram obtidas por bochecho e o DNA foi extraído. Os polimorfismos MTHFR (rs1801133), DNMT3B (rs2424913), ABCC2 (rs717620), ABCG2 (rs2231137) e ABCG2 (rs2231142), foram analisados pela técnica de PCR-RFLP. Dados demográficos, hematológicos e bioquímicos foram coletados a partir de registros médicos. Análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o software SPSS adotando um valor de p=0,05. Observou-se que, o sexo masculino foi predominante (56,2%), e a idade média foi de 10,8 anos (± 4.9). A mucosite oral acometeu 65,6% dos pacientes, dos quais, 61,9% desenvolveram a forma grave da doença. Para o gene ABCG2 (rs2231142), o alelo raro A e o genótipo CA foram mais frequentes em indivíduos com mucosite (p= 0.02; RR = 0.60; CI = 0.387 - 0.813). A gravidade da doença foi observada principalmente em pacientes mais jovens (mediana = 9 anos; p=0.02). Além disso, os pacientes com mucosite oral grave apresentaram menor contagem de leucócitos (mediana = 2150 mm3) em comparação aos pacientes com a forma leve/moderada (mediana = 4200 mm3; p=0.03). Pacientes do sexo feminino e aumento a cada 10.000 plaquetas foram fatores de proteção contra o aparecimento de mucosite oral (p=0.02). Concluiu-se que a presença do polimorfismo rs2231142 aumenta o risco de o paciente desenvolver a mucosite oral, bem como pacientes mais jovens e menor contagem de leucócitos contribui com a severidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Stomatitis/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Longitudinal Studies , Leukocyte Count , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics
18.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36107, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1252372

ABSTRACT

Las nuevas terapias oncológicas han logrado aumentar la sobrevida del paciente con cáncer, observando, sin embargo, un incremento de la morbilidad y mortalidad vinculadas a sus efectos secundarios. El desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares adversos impacta negativamente en el pronóstico durante el tratamiento del cáncer, pero también en los supervivientes al cáncer, donde las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y las segundas neoplasias son la principal causa de muerte1-5. La cardiotoxicidad inducida por el tratamiento del cáncer se define como el conjunto de ECV derivadas de los tratamientos oncológicos. Su manifestación es variada e incluye el desarrollo de disfunción ventricular, insuficiencia cardíaca (IC), isquemia miocárdica, hipertensión arterial y arritmias, entre otras. Puede ser consecuencia tanto del efecto directo del tratamiento sobre la estructura y función cardíacas, como del desarrollo acelerado de ECV6-9. Frecuentemente se utiliza el término cardiotoxicidad como sinónimo de disfunción ventricular por quimioterapia (DV-QT). Dado que la cardiotoxicidad abarca un espectro más amplio de afectación cardiovascular, creemos conveniente hablar de DV-QT para referirnos a la afectación de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo. La DV-QT y el desarrollo de IC representan una de las complicaciones más temidas por su impacto pronóstico en la esfera cardiovascular y oncológica, dado que limitan el arsenal terapéutico para el tratamiento del cáncer5,10. Han sido creadas diversas sociedades de cardio-onco-hematología con el fin de generar recomendaciones de práctica clínica y formar profesionales capacitados para el manejo de las complicaciones cardiovasculares del tratamiento del cáncer11. La cardio-oncología es una disciplina en creciente y continuo desarrollo. Creemos que es fundamental realizar tareas de formación médica continua, así como también estimular el trabajo conjunto de diversas especialidades para brindar una mejor asistencia. Este texto es el resultado del trabajo de un equipo multidisciplinario que incluye cardiólogos, hematólogos y oncólogos, y pretende brindar información a los integrantes del equipo de salud involucrados en la asistencia de pacientes oncológicos. Debido a su extensión, hemos decidido fraccionar el contenido en tres partes para facilitar su publicación.


New oncological therapies have been successful in increasing cancer patient survival, but they have also led to an increase in morbidity and mortality linked to their side effects. During cancer treatment, the development of cardiovascular side effects has a negative impact in prognosis, but also in cancer survivors, in whom cardiovascular diseases and secondary malignancies are the main cause of death. Cancer related cardiotoxicity is defined as the development of cardiovascular diseases related to cancer treatment. Clinical presentation is broad involving ventricular dysfunction, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, arterial hypertension and arrhythmias among others. This may result from the direct cardiovascular effect of a cancer treatment or accelerated development of cardiovascular diseases. Frequently, in the literature cardiotoxicity and chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction are used as synonyms. However, cardiotoxicity includes a broad spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations, thus in this text we refer to chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction as the presence of left ventricular systolic impairment. Chemotherapy related ventricular dysfunction and heart failure are two of the most feared complications of cancer treatment due to its impact on cardiovascular and oncological prognosis, affecting treatment options. Numerous worldwide cardio-onco-hematology societies have emerged to generate clinical practice guidelines and improve the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiovascular cancer treatment side effects. Cardio-Oncology is a discipline in continuous growth and development. We strongly believe that continuum medical education and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to provide a quality health care. This text is the result of a multidisciplinary work involving cardiologists, hematologists and oncologists. It is our goal to provide information to the health care team involved in the assistance of cancer patients. Due to its extension, it will be published in three parts.


O desenvolvimento de novas terapias oncológicas levou a um aumento na sobrevida dos pacientes, mas ao mesmo tempo traz consigo morbidades relacionadas aos tratamentos. O desenvolvimento de efeitos cardiovasculares adversos tem um impacto negativo no prognóstico dos pacientes em tratamento, bem como nos pacientes considerados curados, nos quais doença cardiovascular e malignidades secundárias são as principais causas de morte. Cardiotoxicidade relacionada ao câncer é definida como o desenvolvimento de doença cardiovascular secundária ao tratamento. A gama de apresentações clínicas é ampla, podendo se manifestar como disfunção ventricular, insuficiência cardíaca, isquemia miocárdica, hipertensão arterial, arritmias, entre outras. Isto pode ser resultante de desenvolvimento e progressão acelerados de doença cardiovascular ou por efeito direto das terapias. Frequentemente é dito na literatura que cardiotoxicidade e disfunção ventricular relacionada à quimioterapia são sinônimos. Entretanto, cardiotoxicidade engloba um amplo espectro de manifestações cardiovasculares. Neste texto, portanto, nos referimos à disfunção ventricular causada por quimioterápicos exclusivamente como a presença de disfunção sistólica ventricular esquerda. Disfunção ventricular relacionada à quimioterapia e insuficiência cardíaca são duas das mais temidas complicações do tratamento oncológico devido ao seu impacto no prognóstico cardiovascular e oncológico, podendo afetar ainda a escolha e manutenção das opções terapêuticas. Diversas sociedades cardio-onco-hematológicas surgiram ao redor do mundo com o objetivo de gerar diretriz clínicas práticas e melhorar o diagnóstico e tratamento das complicações cardiovasculares resultantes das terapias oncológicas. A cardio-oncologia é uma disciplina em contínuo crescimento e desenvolvimento. Nós acreditamos fortemente que educação médica continuada e uma abordagem multidisciplinar são necessárias para um cuidado médico de qualidade. Este texto é o resultado de um trabalho multidisciplinar envolvendo cardiologistas, hematologistas e oncologistas. Nosso objetivo é de oferecer informação à equipe de cuidados em saúde envolvido na assistência destes pacientes. Devido à sua extensão, este texto será publicado em três partes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction/chemically induced , Ventricular Dysfunction/prevention & control , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cardiotoxins/adverse effects , Cardiotoxins/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers , Risk Assessment , Patient Care/standards , Heart Failure/chemically induced
19.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(1): 27-32, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248567

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) es un tumor del sistema nervioso central con alta tasa de recambio celular, infiltración, degradación de la matriz extracelular y resistencia al tratamiento resectivo y quimioterapéutico. La sobrevida general no suele ser superior a los dos años. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se han dilucidado mejor los mecanismos moleculares que sustentan su comportamiento y que, potencialmente, podrían modularse con la terapia. A continuación se presenta el caso de un adulto joven, de 20 años, con diagnóstico de glioblastoma multiforme frontal derecho a los 13 años. El tratamiento incluyó cirugía resectiva, quimioterapia y dieta cetogénica. La caracterización genética del tumor se analiza en el contexto clínico del paciente.


SUMMARY Glioblastoma multiforme is a very aggressive central nervous system tumor with a high celular replacement, local infiltration, degradation of the extracellular matrix and resistance to surgery and chemotherapeutical agents. General survival used to be less than 2 years. However, research in the last years has shown the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior and potentially be a therapeutical targets. We show an adult with 20 years old diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme when he was 13 years, whose treatment involved resective surgery, chemoterapy and ketogenic diet. Genetic characterization was performed and analyzed in the context of the clinical pathway.

20.
Colomb. med ; 52(1): e7024059, Jan.-Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249642

ABSTRACT

Abstract Case description: Case of lipemia retinalis secondary to hyperchylomicronemia in a 40-year-old man with a history of total body irradiation and immunosuppressive treatment that was attended in this hospital due to decreased visual acuity and abdominal pain. Clinical findings: Hyperchylomicronemia caused the development of acute pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The latter is an infrequent ocular manifestation that reflects excessive triglyceride blood levels in the organism (>2,000 mg/dL). Lipemia retinalis is characterized by the accumulation of chylomicrons in the retinal vessels, which gives them a white and creamy appearance in direct retinal ophthalmoscopy. The initial clinical suspicion of hyperchylomicronemia was based on the visualization of the supernatant in the analytical tube. Treatment and result: In the absence of definitive biochemical results, and owing to the need for special processing of the sample, lipid-lowering treatment and serum therapy were established after ophthalmological confirmation of lipemia retinalis, with subsequent full recovery of visual acuity. Clinical relevance: Given the initial difficulty to determine the accurate triglyceride levels in this kind of patient, early visualization of milky-colored retinal vessels on a salmon-colored eye fundus can help develop an early clinical suspicion of severe hyperchylomicronemia and contribute to limit the severity of complications.


Resumen Descripción del caso: Caso de lipemia retinalis secundaria a hiperquilomicronemia en varón de 40 años con antecedentes de irradiación corporal total y medicación inmunosupresora que acude al hospital por disminución de agudeza visual y dolor abdominal. Hallazgos clínicos: La hiperquilomicronemia contribuyó al desarrollo de pancreatitis aguda y lipemia retinalis. Esta última es una manifestación ocular infrecuente que refleja unos parámetros excesivos de triglicéridos en el organismo (>2,000 mg/dL). La Lipemia Retinalis consiste en la acumulación de quilomicrones en los vasos retinianos lo que les confiere un aspecto blanco y cremoso en la oftalmoscopia retiniana directa. La sospecha clínica inicial de hiperquilomicronemia se produjo por la visualización de sobrenadante en el tubo analítico. Tratamiento y resultado: Sin tener resultados definitivos bioquímicos, por necesidad de procesamiento especial de la muestra, se instauró tratamiento hipolipemiante y sueroterapia tras la confirmación oftalmológica de Lipemia Retinalis con recuperación total de la agudeza visual. Relevancia clínica: Dada la dificultad inicial para determinar las cifras reales de triglicéridos en este tipo de pacientes, la visualización precoz de vasos retinianos de color lechoso sobre lecho de color asalmonado en el fondo de ojo puede ser de ayuda para elaborar una sospecha clínica temprana de hiperquilomicronemia severa que contribuya a limitar la gravedad de las complicaciones.

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