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Int. braz. j. urol ; 49(1): 61-88, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421707


ABSTRACT Background: The depth of response to platinum in urothelial neoplasm tissues varies greatly. Biomarkers that have practical value in prognosis stratification are increasingly needed. Our study aimed to select a set of BC (bladder cancer)-related genes involved in both platinum resistance and survival, then use these genes to establish the prognostic model. Materials and Methods: Platinum resistance-related DEGs (differentially expressed genes) and tumorigenesis-related DEGs were identified. Ten most predictive co-DEGs were acquired followed by building a risk score model. Survival analysis and ROC (receiver operating characteristic) plot were used to evaluate the predictive accuracy. Combined with age and tumor stages, a nomogram was generated to create a graphical representation of survival rates at 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year in BC patients. The prognostic performance was validated in three independent BC datasets with platinum-based chemotherapy. The potential mechanism was explored by enrichment analysis. Results: PPP2R2B, TSPAN7, ATAD3C, SYT15, SAPCD1, AKR1B1, TCHH, AKAP12, AGLN3, and IGF2 were selected for our prognostic model. Patients in high- and low-risk groups exhibited a significant survival difference with HR (hazard ratio) = 2.7 (p < 0.0001). The prognostic nomogram of predicting 3-year OS (overall survival) for BC patients could yield an AUC (area under the curve) of 0.819. In the external validation dataset, the risk score also has a robust predictive ability. Conclusion: A prognostic model derived from platinum resistance-related genes was constructed, we confirmed its value in predicting platinum-based chemotherapy benefits and overall survival for BC patients. The model might assist in therapeutic decisions for bladder malignancy.

Int. j. morphol ; 41(1)feb. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430531


SUMMARY: The present study investigated the possible protective effects of melatonin on Bleomycin, Cisplatin and etoposide (BEP) chemotherapy regimens using immunohistochemistry. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten as; group 1 as untreated control; group 2 as BEP group which received the three cycles of 21 days' regimen each of 0.5¥ dose levels ofBEP (bleomycin 0.75 mg/kg, etoposide 7.5 mg/kg and cisplatin 1.5 mg/kg). Rats in the group 3 (MEL group) received 10 mg/kg/day melatonin once daily. Group 4 received the melatonin (30 min before the BEP injections) and BEP as in groups 2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was used to detect cell proliferation and caspase-3, caspase-9 and Caspase-8 were detected to investigate apoptosis. PCNA immunostaining in alveolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages and bronchus was weak to moderate in BEP group. However, diffuse and strong caspase immunoreactions for caspase-3, caspase 8- and caspase-9 were detected in the bronchioles epithelium, vascular endothelium, alveolar luminal macrophages in the BEP group. PCNA and caspase immunoreactivities in MEL and Mel + BEP groups were close to the control one. The surface are in the BEP group was significantly reduced as compared to the control one ((P0.05). It can be concluded that BEP regimen can affects negatively on lung tissue and melatonin inhibits lung tissue injuries during BEP chemotherapy.

El presente estudio investigó los posibles efectos protectores de la melatonina en los regímenes de quimioterapia con bleomicina, etopósido y cisplatino (BEP) mediante inmunohistoquímica. Cuarenta ratas Wistar macho se dividieron en cuatro grupos de diez: grupo 1, control sin tratar; grupo 2, quimioterapia con una dosis de 0,5x de BEP (0,75 mg/kg de bleomicina, 7,5 mg/ kg de etopósido y 1,5 mg/kg de cisplatino) con tres ciclos de 21 días cada uno. Las ratas del grupo 3 (grupo MEL) recibieron 10 mg/kg/día de melatonina una vez al día. El grupo 4 (Mel + BEP) recibió melatonina (30 minutos antes de las inyecciones de BEP) y BEP, como en los grupos 2. Se usó la tinción del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) para detectar la proliferación celular y, caspasa- 3, caspasa-9 y caspasa-8 para investigar apoptosis. La inmunotinción de PCNA en el epitelio alveolar, los macrófagos alveolares y los bronquios varió de débil a moderada en el grupo BEP. Sin embargo, se detectaron inmunorreacciones difusas y fuertes para caspasa-3, caspasa 8- y caspasa-9 en el epitelio de los bronquiolos, endotelio vascular y macrófagos luminales alveolares. Las inmunorreactividades de PCNA y caspasa en los grupos MEL y Mel + BEP fueron similares a las del control. El área de superficie en el grupo BEP se redujo significativamente en comparación con el control (P0,05). Se puede concluir que la quimioterapia con BEP puede afectar negativamente al tejido pulmonar y la melatonina inhibe las lesiones durante la quimioterapia.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(1): 153-158, Jan. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422597


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. In the treatment of these patients, pathological complete response is defined as the absence of invasive cancer in breast or lymph node tissue after the completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 and mucin 1 expressions with pathological complete response in patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: A total of 151 patients were included in the study. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 and mucin 1 expressions were evaluated in the biopsy materials pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy surgical material, and their relationship with pathological complete response was investigated. RESULTS: The pathological complete response rates were significantly higher among the hormone receptor-negative patients, those with a high Ki-67 score, and patients with HER2-positive. Higher pathological complete response rates were obtained from patients with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression positivity pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In addition, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression was found to be completely negative in materials with pathological complete response; that is, in breast tissues considered to be tumor-free. While there was no significant relationship between mucin 1 expression and pathological complete response pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mucin 1 expression was determined to significantly differ between the tissues with and without pathological complete response among the surgical materials examined. CONCLUSION: In our study investigating the relationship between enhancer of zeste homolog 2 and mucin 1 expression and pathological complete response in patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 expression could be used as a predictive marker for pathological complete response. However, mucin 1 expression was not associated with pathological complete response.

Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(1): 493-510, Jan-Abr. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1416551


A quimioterapia do câncer pode ocasionar reações adversas medicamentosas (RAM), podendo resultar de interações medicamentosas (IM) e impactar na adesão. O presente estudo relatou as RAM apresentadas por pacientes em quimioterapia (QT) e propôs estratégias de intervenções. Este trabalho foi aprovado em comité de ética (5.160.503), sendo incluídos 23 pacientes em quimioterapia (oral- VO e/ou endovenosa- EV) e todos foram entrevistados. Recebiam apenas o QTEV, 20 pacientes e 2 QTEV e VO, a maioria em tratamento paliativo (50%), predomínio de estadiamento IV, sendo as doenças mais presentes de pâncreas (27,3%), estômago (22,7%) e mama (18,2%) e esquema mais usado foi Carboplatina + Paclitaxel. As principais comorbidades foram diabetes e hipertensão arterial. As interações medicamentosas foram classificadas em graves (45%), moderadas (55%) e intencional (75%), sendo necessário introdução de medicamentos de suporte (61%). Houve RAM de maior gravidade, neutropenia, sendo necessário a suspensão temporária, e de menor gravidade náuseas. Houve um óbito relacionado a evolução de doença e, talvez, o tratamento possa ter contribuído. Ao final, foram feitas as intervenções para cada caso e validado o formulário para a consulta farmacêutica a pacientes oncológicos.

Cancer chemotherapy can cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs), which can result from drug interactions (IM) and impact adherence. The present study reported the ADRs presented by patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and proposed intervention strategies. This work was approved by the ethics committee (5,160,503), and 23 patients on chemotherapy (oral-VO and/or intravenous-IV) were included and all were interviewed. Only received CTIV, 20 patients and 2 CTIV and VO, most in palliative treatment (50%), predominance of stage IV, being the most common diseases of pancreas (27.3%), stomach (22.7%) and breast (18.2%) and the most used regimen was Carboplatin + Paclitaxel. The main comorbidities were diabetes and arterial hypertension. Drug interactions were classified as severe (45%), moderate (55%) and intentional (75%), requiring the introduction of supportive drugs (61%). There were more severe ADRs, neutropenia, requiring temporary suspension, and less severe nausea. There was one death related to the evolution of the disease and, perhaps, the treatment may have contributed. At the end, interventions were made for each case and the form for the pharmaceutical consultation to cancer patients was validated.

La quimioterapia contra el cáncer puede causar reacciones adversas a los medicamentos (RAM), que pueden ser consecuencia de interacciones farmacológicas (IM) y repercutir en la adherencia. El presente estudio reportó las RAM presentadas por pacientes en quimioterapia (QT) y propuso estrategias de intervención. Este trabajo fue aprobado en comité de ética (5.160.503), se incluyeron 23 pacientes en quimioterapia (oral- VO y/o endovenosa-EV) y todos fueron entrevistados. Recibieron sólo QTEV, 20 pacientes y 2 QTEV y VO, la mayoría en tratamiento paliativo (50%), predominio de estadiaje IV, siendo las enfermedades más presentes las de páncreas (27,3%), estómago (22,7%) y mama (18,2%) y el esquema más utilizado fue Carboplatino + Paclitaxel. Las principales comorbilidades fueron la diabetes y la hipertensión arterial. Las interacciones farmacológicas se clasificaron como graves (45%), moderadas (55%) e intencionadas (75%), requiriendo la introducción de fármacos de apoyo (61%). La RAM más grave fue la neutropenia, que requirió la suspensión temporal, y la menos grave las náuseas. Hubo una muerte relacionada con la evolución de la enfermedad y, tal vez, el tratamiento pudo haber contribuido. Al final, se realizaron intervenciones para cada caso y se validó el formulario de consulta farmacéutica a pacientes oncológicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Patients , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Palliative Care , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Carboplatin/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Interactions , Hypertension , Nausea/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy
Clinics ; 78: 100152, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421261


Abstract This study aimed to perform a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of gefitinib in combination with chemotherapy versus gefitinib alone in patients with advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). We searched databases for clinical studies that reported the efficacy or safety of gefitinib plus chemotherapy in comparison with gefitinib alone. Raw data from included studies were extracted and pooled to calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) for Objective Response Rate (ORR) and Disease Control Rate (DCR), the Hazard Ratio (HR) for Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS), and OR for complication ≥ Grade 3. A total of 10 studies containing 1,528 patients with NSCLC were identified and included in the analysis. Gefitinib plus chemotherapy showed significantly better efficacy in improving ORR (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [Confidence Interval], 1.13‒2.1; p = 0.006), DCR (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.14‒2.29; p = 0.007), PFS (HR=1.67; 95% CI 1.45‒1.94; p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.2‒1.87; p < 0.001) as compared with gefitinib alone. Consistent results were observed in the sub-population with positive EGFR mutation. The combination of gefitinib with chemotherapy had a significantly higher risk of complication (≥ Grade 3) with an OR of 3.29 (95% CI 2.57‒4.21; p < 0.001). The findings in the present study suggest that the combination of gefitinib with chemotherapy can provide better disease response and survival outcomes for patients with advanced NSCLC.

Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 50: e20233421, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431275


ABSTRACT Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) indicates advanced stage cancer, which is generally associated with a poor outcome and a 6 to 12 months. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an option for treating patients with primary PC, such as mesothelioma, or secondary PC, such as colorectal cancer (CRC) or pseudomixoma. Until recently, such patients were deemed untreatable. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the results of CRS + HIPEC in patients with PC. Postoperative complications, mortality and survival rates were evaluated according to the diagnosis. Results: Fifty-six patients with PC, undergoing full CRS + HIPEC between October 2004 and January 2020, were enrolled. The mortality rate was 3.8% and the morbidity rate was 61.5%. Complications were significantly higher in proportion to the duration of surgery (p<0.001). The overall survival rates, as shown in the Kaplan-Meyer curve, were respectively 81%, 74% and 53% at 12, 24 and 60 months. Survival rates according to each diagnosis for the same periods were 87%, 82% and 47% in patients with pseudomixoma, and 77%, 72% and 57% in patients with CRC (log-rank 0.371, p=0.543). Conclusion: CRS with HIPEC is an option for pacients with primary or secondary PC. Although complication rates are high, a longer survival rate may be attained compared to those seen in previously published results; in some cases, patients may even be cured.

RESUMO O diagnóstico de carcinomatose peritoneal (CP), indica um estágio avançado do câncer e em geral está associado a um mau prognóstico com sobrevida média variando de 6 a 12 meses. A cirurgia citorredutora (CRS) associada à quimioterapia intraperitoneal hipertérmica (HIPEC) tem sido descrita como uma opção de tratamento para os pacientes portadores de CP primária como nos portadores de mesotelioma, ou secundária como em portadores de cancer colorretal ou pseudomixoma, até recentemente considerados sem possibilidade terapêutica. Objetivo: Avaliar os resultados do tratamento de pacientes portadores de CP submetidos a CRS + HIPEC. Foram analisadas as taxas complicações pós-operatórias, mortalidade e a sobrevida desses pacientes. Resultados: Foram incluídos 56 pacientes com CP, submetidos a c CRS + HIPEC, no período de Outubro 2004 a Janeiro 2020. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 3,8% e taxa de morbidade de 61,5%, sendo a ocorrência de complicações significativamente maior quanto maior o tempo cirúrgico (p<0,001). A sobrevida global pela curva de Kaplan-Meyer foi de 81%, 74% e 53% em 12, 24 e 60 meses respectivamente. Já a sobrevida por diagnóstico nos mesmos períodos foi de 87%, 82%, 47% para os pacientes portadores de pseudomixoma e de 77%, 72% e 57% para pacientes portadores de câncer colorretal (Log -RANK 0,371, p=0,543). Conclusão: A CRS + HIPEC é uma opção de tratamento para pacientes portadores de CP primária ou secundária. Embora com taxa de complicações elevadas, pode proporcionar aumento da sobrevida quando comparado com resultados prévios da literatura e em alguns casos até a cura.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 560-570, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965640


The active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine, silybin (SBN), can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and enhance the anticancer effect of doxorubicin (DOX). However, due to non-targeting and short half-life of SBN and DOX, as well as different administration routes and pharmacokinetic processes, this combination drug cannot act on the tumor in the set order, seriously eliminating the synergistic effect between them and limiting the effect in vivo. Therefore, we intended to construct a nano-delivery system based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sialic acid (SA), and co-loaded with SBN and DOX. The system induced the release of combined drugs under the dual-stimulation of pH and near infra-red (NIR), increased the free concentration of intracellular drugs, so as to achieve the synergistic effect between them. The animal welfare and experimental procedures were in accordance with the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. MoS2-PEG-SA-SBN/DOX circulated in vivo, and effectively accumulated at tumor sites through enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) and SA-mediated active targeting. Under near infrared light irradiation, MoS2-PEG-SA-SBN/DOX realized the combination of synergistic chemotherapy and photothermal therapy for tumor, thus achieving excellent anti-tumor effect in vivo. This study can provide a new idea and strategy for the clinical treatment of lung cancer. Taken together, MoS2-PEG-SA-SBN/DOX can offer a new idea and strategy for the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 581-586, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964769


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tislelizumab monotherapy in the second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC),so as to provide reference for rational use of drug in clinic. METHODS A three-state partitioned survival model was constructed from the perspective of China’s health system, based on the data of RATIONALE-302 study,with simulation time limit of 10 years, cycle period of 1 month. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated with quality-adjusted life year (QALY) as utility index. The cost-effectiveness of tislelizumab monotherapy was compared with that of chemotherapy for second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic ESCC by cost-utility analysis. The stability of basic analysis results was validated through sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis. RESULTS The results of basic analysis showed that compared with chemotherapy group, incremental cost per capita of tislelizumab group was 35 025.32 yuan,and incremental utility per capita was 2.71 QALYs; ICER was 12 892.31 yuan/QALY, which was far lower than the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 3 times of China’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP) 242 928 yuan in 2021. The results of univariate sensitivity analysis showed that parameters such as the cost of apatinib, the utility value of disease progression status and the cost of adverse reactions in the chemotherapy group had a great impact on the ICER value, but these parameters could not cause the reversal of the basic analysis results. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that WTP threshold was higher than 80 000 yuan/QALY,the probability of tislelizumab monotherapy possessed cost-effectiveness was 100%. Results of scenario analysis showed that in which model simulation time lasted for 5 or 20 years,ICER of tislelizumab was 8 331.00 yuan/QALY and 12 981.00 yuan/QALY, which were less than 3 times of China’s per capita GDP in 2021 as WTP threshold. CONCLUSIONS When three times of China’s GDP per capita in 2021 is taken as the WTP threshold, the second-line treatment of tirelizumab monotherapy for advanced or metastatic ESCC is more cost-effective than chemotherapy.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 9-20, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964303


Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. It is very hard to treat pancreatic cancers for their high heterogeneity, complex tumor microenvironment, and drug resistance. Currently, gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, capecitabine and FOLFIRINOX are standard chemotherapy for resectable or advanced metastatic pancreatic cancer. Considering the limited efficacy and toxic side effects of chemotherapy, targeted and immune drugs have gradually attracted attention and made some progress. In this article, we systematically reviewed the chemotherapeutic drugs, targets and related targeted drugs, and immunotherapy drugs for pancreatic cancer.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 493-496, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962498


OBJECTIVE To establish the path-based management mode of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist (5- HT3RA) in chemotherapy patients, and to improve the rationality of medication in chemotherapy patients. METHODS 5-HT3RA standardized drug use control rules were formulated, with the help of medical intelligence and decision support (MINDS) system, path-based management was carried out for chemotherapy patients using 5-HT3RA in the form of whole-process information capture and prescription pre-review, and whole-process intervention was implemented on medication indications, usage and dosage, course of treatment, etc. The intervention effect was analyzed by comparing the changes in the use of 5-HT3RA without indication, unreasonable usage and dosage, repeated medication, unreasonable course of treatment, and per capita drug cost before and after the implementation of path-based management. RESULTS A total of 9 181 patients were included. After the implementation of path- based management, the proportion of unindicated drugs decreased by 0.48%, and the rate of unreasonable single dosage, unreasonable frequency, repeated medication, unreasonable treatment course (5-HT3RA still used 3 days after chemotherapy) decreased by 10.48%, 0.65%, 1.33% and 0.34%; per capita cost of 5-HT3RA decreased by 13.72 yuan; there were statistical significance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS 5-HT3RA path-based management mode effectively improves the rationality of medication and provides a new idea for rational clinical drug use.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961114


@#Ferroptosis is a newly discovered method of programmed cell death. Current studies have shown that activation of ferroptosis-related pathways can inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells and reverse their drug resistance. Oral cancer is a common malignant tumor with a high recurrence rate and high drug resistance. Inducing ferroptosis is a potential treatment strategy. There are still many uncertainties in the application of ferroptosis in the treatment of oral cancer, which need to be further explored. This article systematically introduces the mechanism of ferroptosis and its recent progress in oral cancer treatment to provide new mechanisms and methods for the clinical treatment of oral cancer. Current research shows that the mechanism of ferroptosis is mainly related to amino acid metabolism, Fe2+ metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Ferroptosis in oral cancer cells can reverse drug resistance in cancer cells and improve the activity of immune cells. New drugs, such as curcumin analogs and triptolide, can induce ferroptosis in oral cancer, and the development of nanomaterials has improved the utilization rate of drugs. Inhibiting the expression of the ferroptosis-related factors SLC7A11, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1) can promote ferroptosis in oral cancer cells. It is a potential target for the clinical treatment of oral cancer, but its translation into clinical practice still needs further research.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960882


Objective @#To explore the prognostic value of chemoradiotherapy based on the depth of invasion (DOI) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.@* Methods @#Patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who received surgical treatment in a hospital from 2008 to 2016 were enrolled. The chi-square test was used to compare the effects of DOI on postoperative cervical lymph node metastasis and local recurrence. The effects of chemoradiotherapy on postoperative cervical lymph node metastasis, local recurrence, and survival were analyzed based on the DOI.@*Results@# A total of 111 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. The postoperative local recurrence rate (P<0.05) and cervical lymph node metastasis rate (P<0.05) of patients with 5 mm < DOI ≤ 10 mm and DOI > 10 mm were significantly higher than those with DOI ≤ 5 mm. The time of postoperative recurrence was concentrated within two years after the operation. The greater the DOI was, the shorter the time to postoperative recurrence (P<0.05). The addition of postoperative chemoradiotherapy did not significantly improve the postoperative local recurrence rate, cervical lymph node metastasis or survival rate of patients with different DOIs (P > 0.05). @*Conclusion@#DOI has important predictive value for postoperative recurrence, cervical lymph node metastasis and survival rate. However, DOI cannot be used as an independent index to guide whether chemoradiotherapy is needed after oral cancer surgery.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 122-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953731


Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that seriously threatens women’s health at present. Although surgical treatment is the most direct and effective, it is limited by many factors and needs to be assisted by other treatments. In addition to conventional radiotherapy, these adjuvant therapies also include chemotherapy, gene therapy, phototherapy and so on. However, the therapeutic agents used in these treatment methods have some limitations, such as poor water-solubility, instability and targeting. With the development of nano-technology, more and more researchers construct and study nano delivery system for breast tumor treatment, such as response system designed based on tumor microenvironment, temperature sensitive response system, nano delivery system based on specific proteins of tumor cell membrane, etc. The author summarizes the nano delivery system, and finds that these nano delivery systems can not only improve the water-solubility and stability of the therapeutic agents, but also accurately deliver them to the breast tumor site by targeted means, improve the efficacy and reduce toxic side effects, which provides new ideas for the treatment of breast cancer in the future.

Braz. j. anesth ; 72(6): 695-701, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420619


Abstract Introduction Intraoperative fluid therapy in cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy plays an important role in postoperative morbidity. Studies have found an association between overload fluid therapy and increased postoperative complications, advising restrictive intraoperative fluid therapy. Our objective in this study was to compare the morbidity associated with restrictive versus non-restrictive intraoperative fluid therapy. Methods Retrospective analysis of a database collected prospectively in the Anesthesiology Service of Virgen del Rocío Hospital, from December 2016 to April 2019. One hundred and six patients who underwent complete cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy were divided into two cohorts according to Fluid Therapy received 1. Restrictive ≤ 9 mL.kg-1.h-1 (34 patients), 2. Non-restrictive ≥ 9 mL.kg-1.h-1 (72 patients). Percentage of major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV) and length hospital stay were the main outcomes variables. Results Of the 106 enrolled patients, 68.9% were women; 46.2% had ovarian cancer, 35.84% colorectal cancer, and 7.5% peritoneal cancer. The average fluid administration rate was 11 ± 3.58 mL.kg-1.h-1. The restrictive group suffered a significantly higher percentage of Clavien-Dindo grade III-IV complications (35.29%) compared with the non-restrictive group (15.27%) (p= 0.02). The relative risk associated with restrictive therapy was 1.968 (95% confidence interval: 1.158-3.346). We also found a significant difference for hospital length of stay, 20.91 days in the restrictive group vs 16.19 days in the non-restrictive group (p= 0.038). Conclusions Intraoperative fluid therapy restriction below 9 mL.kg-1.h-1 in cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was associated with a higher percentage of major postoperative complications.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(supl.4): 30-33, dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423808


Resumen Se presenta un caso clínico de linfoma cardíaco primario en un paciente anciano, y se explica tanto la aproximación diagnóstica, como el tratamiento que llevó a su remisión completa.

Abstract A clinical case of primary cardiac lymphoma in an elderly patient is presented, and both the diagnostic approach and the treatment that led to its complete remission are explained.

Arch. Head Neck Surg ; 51: e20220004, Jan-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401105


Introduction: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can have a poor prognosis when diagnosed in advanced stages. The optimized treatment for locally advanced and unresectable lesions is mainly based on radiotherapy associated with chemotherapy (cisplatin 100mg/m²), however, at the expense of a high toxicity index. Objective: Evaluate whether chemoradiotherapy (CRT) ­ the goldstandard treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) ­ is effective in the study population. Methods: This is a retrospective study aimed at determining the efficacy of definitive CRT in patients with unresectable HNC treated between the 2012 and 2018 in a single institution. The following outcomes were evaluated: objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profiles. Results: Fifty-two (52) patients diagnosed with HNC between 2012 and 2018 met the inclusion criteria. The ORR was 84.6%, with 50% showing complete response. Median PFS and OS were 35.3 and 52 months, respectively. Analysis of the toxicity profiles revealed that 69.2% of the patients presented grade 3-4 toxicity. Completion of two or more cycles of cisplatin-based therapy (HR 3.57 [95% CI 1.25­10.25]; p p<0.001), grade 3-4 toxicity (HR 0.27 [95% CI 0.09-0.8] ­ p<0.02), and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (HR 3.23 [95% CI 1.26­8.29]; p<0.001) were significantly associated with survival. Regarding toxicity, prophylactic low-level laser therapy (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.27­0.86]; p<0.001 for those without this practice) and body mass index (BMI) (HR 0.27 [95% CI 0.09­0.76]; p<0.01) showed statistical significance. Conclusion: CRT was effective to treat HNC in the study population, with PFS and OS comparable to those reported in larger sample studies and lower toxicity grade. Some clinical characteristics have been identified as prognostic and/or predictive factors.

J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379702


Objectives: to describe and examine oral hygiene habits and self-reported gingival bleeding in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: in an observational and prospective study, 140 women were evaluated during chemotherapy between 2017 and 2019. Results and Conclusion: more than 40% of participants reported gingival bleeding at some point during chemotherapy. Flossing was unsatisfactory at baseline and in the intermediate cycle as well as did not affect self-reported gingival bleeding. The amount of tooth brushing per day was a predictor of self-reported gingival bleeding at the end of chemotherapy.

Objetivos: descrever e examinar os hábitos de higiene bucal e o autorrelato de sangramento gengival em mulheres com câncer de mama em quimioterapia. Métodos: em um estudo observacional prospectivo, foram avaliadas 140 mulheres ao longo da quimioterapia, entre 2017 e 2019. Resultados e Conclusão: mais de 40% das participantes relataram sangramento gengival em algum momento da quimioterapia. O uso de fio dental foi insatisfatório no baseline e ciclo intermediário, bem como não afetou o autorrelato de sangramento gengival. A quantidade de escovação dentária por dia foi um preditor para o autorrelato de sangramento gengival ao fim da quimioterapia.

Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Oral Hygiene , Dental Devices, Home Care , Self Report
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 68(10): 1364-1368, Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406561


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the patterns of serum cytokines in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients at baseline and post-chemotherapy and investigate their association with response to treatment and chronic lymphocytic leukemia prognosis. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 32 subjects at their first medical visit after being diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 year after chemotherapy. Then, levels of cytokines and blood parameters in peripheral blood were measured. Correlation analysis was used to assess the indexes before and after chemotherapy as well as at different disease stages. RESULTS: Most of the patients (45.80%) had stages I and III before initiation of treatment and after treatment, respectively. There were significant differences between levels of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.006) and IL-10 (p=0.009) before and after treatment. Notably, the difference in IL-10 levels before and after treatment was significantly higher in the advanced stages compared to that in the non-advanced stages (p=0.007). IL-6 and IL-10 were also higher in the expired patients compared to the survived cases. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-10 may be considered predicting factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia prognosis.

Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(5)oct. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423762


Introducción: En Chile, el Cáncer colorrectal (CC) abarca el 11,5% de todas las neoplasias malignas. La cirugía es la piedra angular del tratamiento del cáncer de colon, y en pacientes en etapa III, la quimioterapia adyuvante forma parte del tratamiento estándar. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo transversal, de centro único, de pacientes con cáncer de colon en estadio III patológico. Objetivo principal de este estudio es conocer si, en pacientes con cáncer de colon etapa III, la quimioterapia adyuvante se entrega de manera oportuna. Resultados: En el período comprendido entre abril de 2016 y abril de 2021 se operaron 35 pacientes con cáncer de colon en estadio III patológico. Se realizó quimioterapia adyuvante en un 80%, y en siete pacientes durante las primeras ocho semanas poscirugía. La dehiscencia de anastomosis ocurrió en un 11,4%, aumentando la mediana de hospitalización en 2,2 veces. Discusión: En nuestro estudio, la adyuvancia en cáncer de colon etapa III se administró a un alto porcentaje de los pacientes (80%), pero observamos un retraso importante, ya que sólo en un 25% se inició el tratamiento durante las primeras 8 semanas poscirugía, lo cual puede ser explicado por múltiples factores, siendo la dehiscencia de anastomosis un punto importante a considerar. Conclusión: En estadio III de CC la adyuvancia puede verse retrasada por múltiples factores, lo que puede repercutir en la sobrevida de los pacientes, por lo tanto, conocer las causas de este retraso podría ayudar a instaurar nuevas estrategias, como la neoadyuvancia, para mejorar los resultados oncológicos.

Introduction: In Chile, colorectal cancer covers 11.5% of all malignant neoplasms. Surgery is the cor- nerstone of colon cancer treatment and in stage III patients adjuvant chemotherapy is part of standard treatment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study, single center, of patients with pathological stage III colon cancer. Main objective of this study is to know if in patients with stage III colon cancer adjuvant chemotherapy is delivered in a timely manner. Results: Between April 2016 and April 2021, 35 patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were operated on. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 80%, and in seven patient during the first eight weeks after surgery. Anastomotic dehiscence occurred in 11.4%, the median hospitalization increased by 2.2 times. Discussion: In this study, adjuvant stage III colon cancer was administered to a high percentage of patients (80%), but we observed a significant delay, since only 25% began treatment during the first 8 weeks post-surgery, which can be explained by multiple factors, with anastomotic dehiscence being an important point to consider. Conclusion: In stage III CC, adjuvant treatment can be delayed by multiple factors, which may affect patient survival; therefore, knowing the causes of this delay could help to establish new strategies, such as neoadjuvant therapy, to improve oncological results.

Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(3): 334-339, July-Sept. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403499


ABSTRACT Background: The treatment of distal rectal cancer may be accompanied by evacuation disorders of multifactorial etiology. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) is part of the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced extraperitoneal rectal cancer. The assessment of anorectal function after long-term NCRT in patients with cancer of the extraperitoneal rectum has been poorly evaluated. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NCRT on anorectal function and continence in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Methods: Rectal adenocarcinoma patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy were submitted to functional evaluation by anorectal manometry and the degree of fecal incontinence using the Jorge-Wexner score, before and eight weeks after NCRT. The manometric parameters evaluated were mean resting anal pressure (ARp), maximum voluntary contraction anal pressure (MaxSp) and average voluntary contraction anal pressure (ASp). All patients underwent the same NCRT protocol based on the application of fluoropyrimidine (5-FU) at a dosage of 350 mg/m2 associated with folic acid at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, intravenously, in the first and last week of treatment, concomitantly with conformational radiotherapy with a total dose of 50.4Gy, divided into 28 daily fractions of 1.8Gy. For statistical analysis of the quantitative variables with normal distribution, the mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range were calculated. For comparison of two related samples (before and eight weeks after NCRT), Wilcoxon's non-parametric test was used. Results: Forty-eight patients with rectal cancer were included in the study, with a mean age of 62.8 (39-81) years, 36 (75%) of whom were male. The use of NCRT was associated with a decrease in the values of ARp (55.0 mmHg vs 39.1 mmHg, P<0.05) and ASp (161.9 mmHg vs 141.9 mmHg, P<0.05) without changing MaxSp values (185,5 mmHg vs 173 mmHg, P=0.05). There was no worsening of the incontinence score eight weeks after the use of NCRT (3.0 vs 3.3; P>0.05). Conclusion: NCRT was associated with a reduction in the values of ARp and the ASp. There was no change in MaxSp, as well as in the degree of fecal continence by the Jorge-Wexner score.

RESUMO Contexto: O tratamento do câncer retal distal pode ser acompanhado por distúrbios evacuatórios de etiologia multifatorial. A quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante faz parte do tratamento padrão para pacientes com câncer retal extraperitoneal localmente avançado. A avaliação da função anorretal após neoadjuvância de longa duração em pacientes com câncer de reto extraperitoneal tem sido pouco estudada. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da neoadjuvância na função anorretal e na incontinência em pacientes com câncer retal extraperitoneal. Métodos: Pacientes com adenocarcinoma de reto candidatos à terapia neoadjuvante foram submetidos a avaliação funcional por manometria anorretal e avaliação do grau de incontinência fecal pelo escore de Jorge-Wexner, pré e oito semanas após a neoadjuvância. Os parâmetros manométricos avaliados foram pressão anal média de repouso, pressão anal de contração voluntária máxima e pressão anal média de contração voluntária. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos ao mesmo protocolo de neoadjuvância baseado na aplicação de fluoropirimidina (5-FU) na dosagem de 350 mg/m2 associada ao ácido fólico na dosagem de 20 mg/m2, por via intravenosa, na primeira e última semana de tratamento, concomitantemente à radioterapia conformacional com dose total de 50,4Gy, dividida em 28 frações diárias de 1,8Gy. Para análise estatística das variáveis quantitativas com distribuição normal, foram calculados a média, desvio padrão, mediana e intervalo interquartil. Para comparação de duas amostras relacionadas (antes e oito semanas após a neoadjuvância, foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Quarenta e oito pacientes com câncer retal foram incluídos no estudo, com média de idade de 62,8 (39-81) anos, sendo 36 (75%) do sexo masculino. O uso de neoadjuvância foi associado à diminuição dos valores de média de pressão de repouso (55,0 mmHg vs 39,1 mmHg, P<0,05) e média de pressão de contração voluntária (161,9 mmHg vs 141,9 mmHg, P<0,05) sem alterar os valores de pressão de contração voluntária máxima ((185,5 mmHg vs 173 mmHg, P=0.05)). Não houve piora do escore de incontinência oito semanas após o uso da quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante (3,0 vs 3,3; P>0,05). Conclusão: A neoadjuvância associou-se à redução dos valores de média de pressão de repouso e média dos valores contração voluntária. Não houve alteração nos valores de contração voluntária máxima, bem como no grau de continência fecal pelo escore de Jorge-Wexner.