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1.
J. Transcatheter Interv ; 31: eA202301, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527158

ABSTRACT

A abordagem transradial é indicada para reduzir risco de morte, complicações vasculares ou sangramento. Em pacientes com doença cardíaca isquêmica estável, a abordagem radial é recomendada para diminuir sangramento no local de acesso e complicações vasculares. As complicações são raras, podendo ocorrer hematoma, perfuração e, muito raramente, pseudoaneurisma da artéria radial. Neste relato de caso, é descrito um caso raro de pseudoaneurisma da artéria radial esquerda associada à síndrome compartimental no antebraço esquerdo após realização de cateterismo eletivo. O diagnóstico foi confirmado por ultrassonografia com Doppler, que evidenciou pseudoaneurisma da artéria radial esquerda, medindo 2,1x1,5cm, com colo de 0,3cm. O tratamento cirúrgico do pseudoaneurisma e da síndrome compartimental restaurou a função completa do membro.


The transradial approach is indicated to reduce the risk of death, vascular complications, or bleeding. In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, the radial approach is recommended to reduce vascular complications and bleeding on access site. The complications are rare, and hematoma, perforation, and pseudoaneurysm (very rarely) of the radial artery may occur. This case report describes a rare case of left radial artery pseudoaneurysm associated with compartment syndrome in the left forearm after elective catheterization. The diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography, which showed a left radial artery pseudoaneurysm, measuring 2.1x1.5cm, with a 0.3-cm long/wide neck. Surgical treatment of pseudoaneurysm and compartment syndrome restored full limb function.

2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 21: eAO0220, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448181

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To report the effects of a tunica vagina flap on testicular compartment syndrome. Methods This single-arm clinical trial was conducted from September 2020 to October 2021. Consecutive patients with suspected testicular torsion within 24 hours of pain onset were included. Patients with past testicular torsion, bilateral torsion, or previous atrophy were excluded. The tunica vaginalis was opened, and the intratesticular pressure was measured before testicular retrieval from the scrotum and detorsion (P1), after detorsion (P2), and after transverse incision (P3). A tunica vaginalis flap was performed and a new intratesticular pressure was recorded (P4). The contralateral testicular pressure was recorded before fixation (Pc). The minimum follow-up period was 6 months. Results Fifteen patients were recruited from September 2020 to October 2021. Nine patients completed the follow-up. The median age (range) was 15 years (9-19). The mean P1, P2, P3, P4, and Pc (range) were 43, 60, 23, 20, and 14mmHg, respectively. The atrophy rate was 66.3% and the viability was 88.9%. No major complications were observed. Conclusion The modified tunica vaginalis flap in acute testicular torsion decreased intratesticular pressure. Furthermore, normal testicular pressure can improve testicular preservation. It can also decrease testicular pressure to normal levels and preserve the testicular parenchyma.

3.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 458-461, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932266

ABSTRACT

Osteofacial compartment syndrome (OCS) is one of the serious complications in traumatic orthopedics. If not treated in time, OCS may result in irreversible damage to nerve and muscle,even amputation or death in serious condition. 5P presents to be the classic clinical diagnosis of OCS, but it is highly subjective and cannot timely and accurately judge the progression of the disease. Intracompartment pressure manometry is the main auxiliary method for the diagnosis of OCS. Although there are many manometry methods, there is still no authoritative pressure threshold as the diagnosis standard. Clinicians often aggressively perform fasciotomy to avoid serious complications, leading to unnecessary fasciotomy. The authors retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with OCS treated at Air Force Hospital of Eastern Theater of PLA from March 2010 to March 2020 and found that some patients with OCS had gradual alleviation of clinical symptoms after appropriate conservative treatments such as brace releasing, limb stabilization and swelling subsidence, with no need of fasciotomy. However, the symptoms of some patients progressively aggravated after the above-mentioned traditional treatments and timely fasciotomy was required. The authors graded the severity of OCS and proposed for the first time the OCS grading criteria according to quantitative clinical results and quantitative indicators such as ratio of mean blood flow velocity of bilateral arteries and pulse wave changes, aiming to take corresponding intervention measures for patients with different OCS classifications, carry out more precise treatment and avoid unnecessary fasciotomy.

4.
Colomb. med ; 52(2)Apr.-June 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534261

ABSTRACT

In patients with abdominal trauma who require laparotomy, up to a quarter or a third will have a vascular injury. The venous structures mainly injured are the vena cava (29%) and the iliac veins (20%), and arterial vessels are the iliac arteries (16%) and the aorta (14%). The initial approach is performed following the ATLS principles. This manuscript aims to present the surgical approach to abdominal vascular trauma following damage control principles. The priority in a trauma laparotomy is bleeding control. Hemorrhages of intraperitoneal origin are controlled by applying pressure, clamping, packing, and retroperitoneal with selective pressure. After the temporary bleeding control is achieved, the compromised vascular structure must be identified, according to the location of the hematomas. The management of all lesions should be oriented towards the expeditious conclusion of the laparotomy, focusing efforts on the bleeding control and contamination, with a postponement of the definitive management. Their management of vascular injuries includes ligation, transient bypass, and packing of selected low-pressure vessels and bleeding surfaces. Subsequently, the unconventional closure of the abdominal cavity should be performed, preferably with negative pressure systems, to reoperate once the hemodynamic alterations and coagulopathy have been corrected to carry out the definitive management.


En pacientes con trauma de abdomen que requieren laparotomía, hasta una cuarta o tercera parte, habrán sufrido una lesión vascular. Las estructuras venosas principalmente lesionadas son la vena cava y las iliacas, y de vasos arteriales, son las iliacas y la aorta. El abordaje de este tipo de heridas vasculares se puede ser difícil en el contexto de un paciente hemodinámicamente inestable ya que requiera medidas rápidas que permita controlar la exanguinación del paciente. El objetivo de este manuscrito es presentar el abordaje del trauma vascular abdominal de acuerdo con la filosofía de cirugía de control de daños. La primera prioridad en una laparotomía por trauma es el control de la hemorragia. Las hemorragias de origen intraperitoneal se controlan con compresión, pinzamiento o empaquetamiento, y las retroperitoneales con compresión selectiva. Posterior al control transitorio de la hemorragia, se debe identificar la estructura vascular comprometida, de acuerdo con la localización de los hematomas. El manejo de las lesiones debe orientarse a la finalización expedita de la laparotomía, enfocado en el control de la hemorragia y contaminación, con aplazamiento del manejo definitivo. Lo pertinente al tratamiento de las lesiones vasculares incluyen la ligadura, derivación transitoria y el empaquetamiento de vasos seleccionados de baja presión y de superficies sangrantes. Posteriormente se debe realizar el cierre no convencional de la cavidad abdominal, preferiblemente con sistemas de presión negativa, para consecutivamente reoperar una vez corregidas las alteraciones hemodinámicas y la coagulopatía para realizar el manejo definitivo.

5.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 132-143, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150527

ABSTRACT

El síndrome compartimental agudo del miembro inferior es una urgencia médica, que puede conllevar una importante morbilidad para el paciente y que puede tener implicaciones medico legales para el personal médico. Afecta cerca de 3,1 por 100.000 habitantes en el mundo occidental, con predominio de hombres y jóvenes. Debido a una alteración de la perfusión tisular, por la disposición de los músculos de las extremidades en compartimientos compactos, con poca tolerancia a variaciones en la presión, puede causar isquemia, con cambios irreversibles a nivel muscular y nervioso, falla multiorgánica y la muerte, de no tratarse oportunamente. El trauma de la extremidad inferior asociado a fractura es la principal causa del síndrome compartimental agudo. El diagnóstico puede realizarse por evaluación clínica, mediante las clásicas seis "P" de la isquemia, o de manera objetiva, al medir la presión intracompartimental con dispositivos especializados. La fasciotomía descompresiva es un procedimiento quirúrgico mediante el cual se inciden las fascias de los compartimientos musculares, permitiendo la disminución de las presiones a ese nivel, y se constituye en el único tratamiento eficaz para el síndrome compartimental agudo. Las complicaciones posquirúrgicas no son infrecuentes, siendo la perdida de la extremidad la más grave de todas. Un correcto conocimiento y aplicación de la técnica quirúrgica evitará procedimientos inadecuados, que impliquen mayor riesgo de resultados adversos. Presentamos una revisión de los aspectos fundamentales de esta patología potencialmente catastrófica


Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb is a medical emergency, which can entail significant morbidity for the patient and which may have medico-legal implications for medical personnel. It affects about 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Western world, with a predominance of men and young people. Ischemia can be caused after an alteration of tissue perfusion, due to the arrangement of the muscles of the extremities in compact compartments, with little tolerance to variations in pressure, with irreversible changes at the muscular and nervous level, and multiorgan failure and death if not treated promptly. Trauma to the lower extremity associated with fracture is the main cause of acute compartment syndrome. Diagnosis can be made by clinical evaluation, using the classic six "P" of ischemia, or objectively by measuring intracompartmental pressure with specialized devices. Decompressive fasciotomy is a surgical procedure by which the fasciae of the muscle compartments are incised, allowing the pressure to be reduced at that level, and it is the only effective treatment for acute compartment syndrome. Postoperative complications are not uncommon, limb loss being the most serious of all. A correct knowledge and application of the surgical technique will avoid inappropriate procedures, which imply a greater risk of adverse results. We present a review of the fundamental aspects of this potentially catastrophic pathology


Subject(s)
Humans , Compartment Syndromes , Fasciotomy , Amputation, Surgical , Ischemia
6.
Rev. Fac. Med. Hum ; 21(1): 222-229, Ene.-Mar. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147410

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome Compartimental por Extravasación (SCE) es una patología poco frecuente, con una incidencia de 0,01-6,5%, 1.8-11% en niños. En niños pequeños la comunicación es difícil y aumenta el riego de desarrollo de SCE. Se presenta un caso de un masculino de 9 meses de edad, con Neumonía viral sobreinfectada que desencadena SCE; recibió descompresión compartimental del antebrazo y mano derecha; con desarrollo de secuelas leves. Aplicar tratamiento para lesión por extravasación no siempre es suficiente; existen complicaciones leves-moderadas o SCE. Reconocer manifestaciones clínicas y factores de riesgo es fundamental para el diagnóstico, con estudios auxiliares como precaución en niños. La faciotomía, tratamiento estándar de oro; no es inocua e impacta en la morbilidad. Se recomiendan protocolos oportunos para extravasación, valoración temprana por cirujano, investigaciones en pediatría.


Extravasation Compartment Syndrome (SCE) is an infrequent pathology, with an incidence of 0,01-6,5%, whom 1,8-11% are children. Communication in children is usually difficult, with high risk of development of SCE. A case about a 9 month old male patient with an over-infected viral pneumonia and a triggered SCE is presented. He received compartmental decompression of right forearm and right hand; however he presented mild sequelae. Treatment of extravasation injury is not always sufficient enough. Mild-to-moderate complications or SCE can be presented. Recognizing clinical manifestations and risk factors and the use of auxiliary studies is fundamental for a good diagnosis and as prevention in children. Faciotomies, gold standard for treatment, are not completely safe, and have an impact on morbidity. Early protocols against extravasation, early examination by surgeon and investigation about SCE in chil-dren are recommended.

7.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20200094, 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180821

ABSTRACT

Resumo O diagnóstico da síndrome compartimental em regiões que não são frequentemente afetadas, por possuírem uma boa relação continente-conteúdo, pode se tornar difícil, uma vez que o cirurgião terá dificuldades em alcançar um diagnóstico apenas por um sinal ou sintoma isolado. Assim, muitas vezes, pode-se protelar a conduta adequada, desencadeando danos ao paciente. A paciente era uma mulher, de 29 anos, que foi atendida com dor em mão esquerda por queimadura, com lesão em região anterior à tabaqueira anatômica de tamanho significativo. A paciente já havia sido submetida a cirurgia na sua cidade de origem com desbridamento de pele e tecido subcutâneo há 30 dias, com evolução sem melhora do quadro doloroso. Estava em uso de antibioticoterapia (ceftriaxona 1 g de 12 em 12 horas) e analgesia com dose terapêutica de morfina de 8 em 8 horas.


Abstract In areas that are not commonly affected by compartment syndrome because they have a good content/container ratio, diagnosis of the condition can be a challenge, since surgeons will find it difficult to make a diagnosis on the basis of an isolated sign or symptom. As a result, the correct treatment can very often be delayed, causing harm to the patient. In this case, the patient was a 29-year-old woman who was seen for a painful left hand secondary to a large burn injury to the area anterior of the anatomical snuffbox. She had already undergone surgery in her home town 30 days previously, with debridement of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but the pain had not improved. She was on antibiotic therapy (ceftriaxone, 1g every 12 hours) and analgesia, with therapeutic morphine doses every 8 hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Compartment Syndromes/physiopathology , Burns/surgery , Compartment Syndromes/diagnosis , Fasciotomy , Hand
8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1068-1073, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909978

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of muscle necrosis in patients with acute compartment syndrome(ACS).Methods:A retrospective case-control study was conducted for clinical data of 111 ACS patients admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 2010 to December 2020, including 84 males and 27 females; age 18-76 years [45(36, 55)years]. Muscle necrosis was presented in 35 patients(necrotic muscle group), but was not seen in 76 patients(non-necrotic muscle group). The univariate analysis was performed for the two groups in the demographic data(sex, age, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking history, chronic comorbidities), injury patterns [ mechianism of injury(low energy injury, high energy injury, crush injury, other injury), time from injury to treatment, first visit or not, combination with bone fracture or not, open injury or not, presence of tension blisters or not], medical treatment(number of debridements, fasciotomy or not)and laboratory indicators [hemoglobin(Hb), platelet count(PLT), white blood cell count(WBC), prothrombin time(PT), international normalized ratio(INR), partially activated prothrombin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer(D-D), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), albumin(ALB), intravenous blood glucose(GLU), creatine kinase(CK), peak value of CK during hospitalization(natural logarithmic conversion, lnCK), serum sodium(NA), serum potassium(K), serum calcium(CA)]. Further multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the independent risk factors of muscle necrosis in ACS patients.Results:The univariate analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the mechanism of injury, first visit or not, combination with bone fracture or not, number of debridements, Hb, PT, INR, D-D, AST, ALB, GLU, CK and lnCK( P<0.05), while not in the basic data, time from injury to treatment, open injury or not, presence of tension blisters or not, fasciotomy or not, PLT, WBC, APTT, FIB, ALT, NA, K and CA( P>0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high energy injury( OR=5.143, 95% CI 1.216-21.758, P<0.05), crush injury( OR=22.313, 95% CI 2.625-189.635, P<0.05), other mechanism of injury( OR=9.019, 95% CI 1.036-78.554, P<0.05), first visit or not( OR=0.071, 95% CI 0.006-0.819, P<0.05), Hb( OR=0.979, 95% CI 0.961-0.998, P<0.05), GLU( OR=1.218, 95% CI 1.020-1.455, P<0.05)and lnCK( OR=1.805, 95% CI 1.235-2.639, P<0.05)were significantly related with muscle necrosis. Conclusion:The mechanism of injury, first visit or not, Hb, GLU and lnCK are the independent risk factors of muscle necrosis in patients with ACS.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 848-854, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909948

ABSTRACT

The presence of tension blister often predicts severe soft tissue damage,which not only increases the risk of wound complications but also prolongs the surgical treatment time. However,the developed tension blister has been proposed as a potential decompressive approach for it may relieve the pressure of osteofascial compartment and improve the likelihood of relieving clinical symptoms,as well as avoid unnecessary surgery in cases of suspected osteofascial compartment syndrome. Recently,the osteofascial system has been increasingly recognized that associations were found between the tension blister and osteofascial self-release processing. Thus,the timing of blister occurrence and regression substantially influences physicians′ clinical decisions,making blister management as part of the treatment of fractures. In this review,the authors give an overview of the characteristics,mechanism,stress reduction effect,prevention,current treatment status and complications of the fracture-related tension blister,hoping to help orthopedic physicians understand and treat the tensile blister.

10.
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4024486, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154004

ABSTRACT

Abstract Damage control resuscitation should be initiated as soon as possible after a trauma event to avoid metabolic decompensation and high mortality rates. The aim of this article is to assess the position of the Trauma and Emergency Surgery Group (CTE) from Cali, Colombia regarding prehospital care, and to present our experience in the implementation of the "Stop the Bleed" initiative within Latin America. Prehospital care is phase 0 of damage control resuscitation. Prehospital damage control must follow the guidelines proposed by the "Stop the Bleed" initiative. We identified that prehospital personnel have a better perception of hemostatic techniques such as tourniquet use than the hospital providers. The use of tourniquets is recommended as a measure to control bleeding. Fluid management should be initiated using low volume crystalloids, ideally 250 cc boluses, maintaining the principle of permissive hypotension with a systolic blood pressure range between 80- and 90-mm Hg. Hypothermia must be management using warmed blankets or the administration of intravenous fluids warmed prior to infusion. However, these prehospital measures should not delay the transfer time of a patient from the scene to the hospital. To conclude, prehospital damage control measures are the first steps in the control of bleeding and the initiation of hemostatic resuscitation in the traumatically injured patient. Early interventions without increasing the transfer time to a hospital are the keys to increase survival rate of severe trauma patients.


Resumen La resucitación en el control de daños debe iniciarse lo más rápido posible después de presentado el evento traumático para evitar descompensación metabólica y aumento de la mortalidad. El objetivo de este artículo es sustentar nuestro enfoque respecto a la atención prehospitalaria y presentar nuestra experiencia en la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" en Latinoamérica. La atención prehospitalaria es la fase Cero de la resucitación del control de daños. Por medio de la implementación de la iniciativa "Stop the Bleed" se identificó que el personal prehospitalario tiene una mejor percepción sobre el uso de técnicas hemostáticas como el torniquete que el personal hospitalario. Se recomienda el uso de torniquetes como medida de control de sangrado en extremidades. El manejo de líquidos debe realizarse usando cristaloides a bajos volúmenes, con bolos de 250 mL para cumplir el principio de la hipotensión permisiva con un rango entre 80 y 90 mm Hg de presión arterial sistólica. Se deben realizar medidas para evitar la hipotermia como el uso de sábanas térmicas o paso de líquidos calientes. Estas medidas no deben retrasar en ningún momento el tiempo de traslado para recibir la atención hospitalaria. En conclusión, la atención prehospitalaria es el paso inicial para garantizar las primeras medidas de control de sangrado y de resucitación hemostática de los pacientes. Realizar intervenciones tempranas sin acortar el tiempo de traslado a la atención hospitalaria son las claves para aumentar la tasa de supervivencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Volume , Body Temperature , Algorithms , Injury Severity Score , Hemorrhage/etiology
11.
Colomb. med ; 51(4): e4044511, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154005

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hemorrhagic shock and its complications are a major cause of death among trauma patients. The management of hemorrhagic shock using a damage control resuscitation strategy has been shown to decrease mortality and improve patient outcomes. One of the components of damage control resuscitation is hemostatic resuscitation, which involves the replacement of lost blood volume with components such as packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelets in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. However, this is a strategy that is not applicable in many parts of Latin America and other low-and-middle-income countries throughout the world, where there is a lack of well-equipped blood banks and an insufficient availability of blood products. To overcome these barriers, we propose the use of cold fresh whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation in exsanguinating patients. Over 6 years of experience in Ecuador has shown that resuscitation with cold fresh whole blood has similar outcomes and a similar safety profile compared to resuscitation with hemocomponents. Whole blood confers many advantages over component therapy including, but not limited to the transfusion of blood with a physiologic ratio of components, ease of transport and transfusion, less volume of anticoagulants and additives transfused to the patient, and exposure to fewer donors. Whole blood is a tool with reemerging potential that can be implemented in civilian trauma centers with optimal results and less technical demand.


Resumen El choque hemorrágico y sus complicaciones son la principal causa de muerte en los pacientes con trauma. La resucitación en control de daños ha demostrado una disminución en la mortalidad y mejoría en el manejo del paciente. La resucitación hemostática consiste en la recuperación del volumen con hemoderivados como glóbulos rojos, plasma, crioprecipitado y plaquetas, en proporciones de 1:1:1:1. Sin embargo, esta demanda de hemo componentes podría no aplicarse para toda Latinoamérica u otros países de medianos y bajos ingresos. Las principales barreras para la implementación de esta estrategia serían la escasa disponibilidad de bancos de sangre y de hemoderivados insuficientes para contar con un protocolo de transfusión masiva. Una propuesta para superar estas barreras es el uso de sangre total fresca fría para la resucitación hemostática de los pacientes exsanguinados. Ecuador ha sido pionero en la implementación de esta estrategia con una experiencia ya de seis años, en que han demostrado que la sangre total tiene ventajas sobre la terapia de hemo componentes incluyendo, pero no limitando, la trasfusión de sangre con una razón fisiológica de componentes, fácil transporte y transfusión, menor volumen de anticoagulantes y aditivos trasfundidos al paciente, y menor exposición a donantes. La sangre total es una herramienta con un potencial reemergente que puede ser implementado en centros de trauma civil con óptimos resultados y menor demanda técnica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Blood Transfusion , Hemostatic Techniques , Injury Severity Score
12.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 673-680, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156196

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic compartment syndrome is a common and often underdiagnosed exercise-induced condition, accounting on average for a quarter of cases of chronic exertional pain in the leg, second only to the fracture/tibial stress syndrome spectrum. It traditionally occurs in young runner athletes, although more recent studies have demonstrated a considerable prevalence in low-performance practitioners of physical activity, even in middle-aged or elderly patients. The list of differential diagnoses is extensive, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them only by the clinical data, and subsidiary examinations are required. The diagnosis is classically made by the clinical picture, by exclusion of the differential diagnoses, and through the measurement of the intracompartmental pressure. Although needle manometry is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis, its use is not universally accepted, since there are some important limitations, apart from the restricted availability of the needle equipment in Brazil. New protocols of manometry have recently been proposed to overcome the deficiency of the traditional ones, and some of them recommend the systematic use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the exclusion of differential diagnoses. The use of post-effort liquid-sensitive MRI sequences is a good noninvasive option instead of needle manometry in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome, since the increase in post-exercise signal intensity is statistically significant when compared with manometry pressure values in asymptomatic patients and in those with the syndrome; hence, the test can be used in the diagnostic criteria. The definitive treatment is fasciotomy, although there are less effective alternatives.


Resumo A síndrome compartimental crônica é uma condição comum e frequentemente subdiagnosticada, induzida pelo exercício, que corresponde em média a um quarto dos casos de dor crônica na perna relacionada ao exercício, e que perde em frequência apenas para o espectro fratura/reação ao estresse tibial. Tradicionalmente ocorre em jovens atletas corredores, embora estudos mais recentes tenham demonstrado uma prevalência considerável em praticantes de atividade física de baixo rendimento, mesmo em pacientes de meia-idade ou idosos. A lista de diagnósticos diferenciais é extensa, e por vezes é difícil fazer a distinção apenas pelos dados clínicos, sendo necessários exames subsidiários. Classicamente, o diagnóstico é feito pelo quadro clínico, pela exclusão dos diferenciais, e pela medida pressórica intracompartimental. Embora a manometria por agulha seja considerada o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico, seu uso não é universalmente aceito, visto que existem algumas limitações importantes, além da disponibilidade restrita do equipamento com agulha no Brasil. Recentemente, novos protocolos de manometria têm sido propostos a fim suplantar a deficiência dos tradicionais, com algum deles inclusive recomendando o uso sistemático da ressonância magnética (RM) na exclusão dos diagnósticos diferenciais. O uso de sequências de RM sensíveis a líquido pós-esforço é uma ótima opção não invasiva à manometria por agulha no diagnóstico da síndrome compartimental crônica, uma vez que o aumento da intensidade de sinal pós-exercício é estatisticamente relevante quando comparados os valores pressóricos de manometria em pacientes com a síndrome e assintomáticos; portanto, o exame pode ser usado no critério diagnóstico. O tratamento definitivo é a fasciotomia, embora existam alternativas menos eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Exercise , Fractures, Stress , Compartment Syndromes , Diagnosis, Differential , Fractures, Bone , Athletes , Chronic Pain , Fasciotomy , Motor Activity
13.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(1): 57-70, 24 de febrero de 2020. Ilus
Article in Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1052281

ABSTRACT

Las supracondíleas son el tipo más común de fracturas en la articulación del codo durante la infancia, con un pico de presentación entre los cinco y siete años. Además constituyen el segundo tipo de fracturas más frecuente en la población pediátrica en general. El mecanismo típico de la lesión es una caída desde la altura del paciente sobre la palma de la mano con el codo en hiperextensión. El diagnóstico se basa en la sospecha clínica, según el mecanismo de la lesión y la edad del paciente, además de la radiografía simple del codo en dos proyecciones. La clasificación de Gartland es la más usada para establecer la gravedad de la fractura y guiar el tratamiento, que puede ser ortopédico en fracturas no desplazadas. El método de elección para corrección de las desplazadas es la reducción cerrada y fijación con pines percutáneos. La complicación más común es la neuropraxia del nervio mediano. Otras complicaciones son la lesión de la arteria braquial, el síndrome compartimental, la isquemia de Volkmann, el deslizamiento de los pines y el cúbito varo.


Supracondylar are the most common fractures in the elbow joint during childhood with a peak between the ages five to seven. Besides, they are the second most common type of fracture in the pediatric population in general. The typical cause of the injury is the patient falling from their own height on the palm of the hand with the elbow in hyperextension. The diagnosis is based on the clinical suspicion according to the injury mechanism and the age of the patient, in addition to a standard elbow X-ray from two views. The Gartland classification is the most used instrument to establish the severity of the fracture and to guide the treatment, which can be orthopedic in non-displaced fracture, whereas the method of choice for correction of displaced fractures is closed reduction and percutaneous fixation. The most common complication is the neuropraxia of the median nerve. Others are the brachial artery injury, compartment syndrome, Volkamm ischemic contracture, sliding of the pins and ulna varus.


As supracondilares são o tipo mais comum de fraturas na articulação do cotovelo durante a infância, com um pico de apresentação entre os cinco e sete anos. Ademais constituem o segundo tipo de fraturas mais frequente na população pediátrica em geral. O mecanismo típico da lesão é uma queda desde a altura do paciente sobre a palma da mão com o cotovelo em hiperextensão. O diagnóstico se baseia na suspeita clínica, segundo o mecanismo da lesão e a idade do paciente, ademais da radiografia simples do cotovelo em duas projeções. A classificação de Gartland é a mais usada para estabelecer a gravidade da fratura e guiar o tratamento, que pode ser ortopédico em fraturas não deslocadas. O método de eleição para correção das deslocadas é a redução fechada e fixação com pinos percutâneos. A complicação mais comum é a neuropraxia do nervo mediano. Outras complicações são a lesão da artéria braquial, a síndrome compartimental, a isquemia de Volkmann, o deslizamento dos pinos e o cúbito varo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fractures, Bone , Ulna , Accidental Falls , Brachial Artery , Compartment Syndromes , Elbow , Closed Fracture Reduction
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC4778, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056052

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This is a case report of a previously healthy athlete who did not use oral anticoagulant, suffered a rupture of the distal biceps brachii tendon, and evolved with arm compartment syndrome. An emergency fasciotomy and the repair of the tendon were performed. After surgery the patient had a good recovery of the paresthesia and sensibility. This complication is rare and, when reported, is usually associated with patients who use anticoagulant therapy. Due to growth of rupture of distal biceps tendon cases, physicians should be aware that this complication must be treated as an emergency.


RESUMO Relato de caso de paciente atleta, previamente hígido e que não utilizava anticoagulantes orais, com lesão do tendão distal do músculo bíceps braquial, que evoluiu com síndrome compartimental do braço. Realizaram-se fasciotomia de emergência e reparo cirúrgico do tendão, apresentando bom seguimento com recuperação da parestesia e sensibilidade. Essa complicação é bastante rara e, quando relatada, geralmente é associada a pacientes em uso de medicamentos anticoagulantes orais. Contudo, com o aumento da incidência de rupturas do tendão do músculo bíceps braquial, é preciso estar atento à tal complicação que deve ser conduzida como emergência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tendon Injuries/complications , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Arm Injuries/surgery , Arm Injuries/complications , Athletic Injuries/surgery , Athletic Injuries/complications , Rupture , Tendon Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Elbow Joint/surgery , Elbow Joint/injuries , Fasciotomy/methods
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180117, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002492

ABSTRACT

Acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremities after urological surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but potentially devastating clinical and medicolegal problem. We report the case of a 67-year-old male who underwent laparoscopic prostatectomy surgery to treat cancer, spending 180 minutes in surgery. Postoperatively, the patient developed acute compartment syndrome of both legs, needing emergency bilateral four-compartment fasciotomies, with repeated returns to the operating room for second-look procedures. The patient also exhibited delayed wound closure. He regained full function within 6 months, returning to unimpaired baseline activity levels. This report aims to highlight the importance of preoperative awareness of this severe complication which, in conjunction with early recognition and immediate surgical management, may mitigate long-term adverse sequelae and improve postoperative outcomes


A síndrome compartimental aguda dos membros inferiores após cirurgia urológica na posição de litotomia é um problema clínico e médico-legal raro, mas potencialmente devastador. Reportamos o caso de um homem de 67 anos submetido a uma prostatectomia laparoscópica por câncer. A cirurgia durou 180 min. No pós-operatório, o paciente desenvolveu síndrome compartimental aguda de ambos os membros inferiores, necessitando de fasciotomias de urgência, com retornos repetidos à sala de cirurgia para procedimentos adicionais. O paciente também apresentou fechamento tardio da ferida. Ele recuperou a função completa dentro de 6 meses e retornou a um nível de atividade basal irrestrito. Este artigo tem a importância de ressaltar a consciência pré-operatória desta grave complicação que, em conjunto com o reconhecimento precoce e o tratamento cirúrgico imediato, pode mitigar sequelas adversas em longo prazo e melhorar os resultados pós-operatórios


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Urologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Compartment Syndromes , Lower Extremity , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms , Blood Pressure , Risk Factors , Laparoscopy/methods , Fascia , Patient Positioning/methods , Fasciotomy/methods
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Local symptoms and signs of snake envenomation mimic the clinical features of compartment syndrome. It is important to measure the intracompartmental pressure to diagnose compartment syndrome. In this study, we present our experiences of confirming compartment syndrome and performing fasciotomy in snakebite patients based on high intracompartmental pressure findings. METHODS: The medical records of patients who visited the trauma center of Wonju Severance Christian Hospital from January 2010 to December 2015 for the management of venomous snakebite were retrospectively reviewed. Starting in 2014, fasciotomy was performed in patients with an intracompartmental pressure of more than 40 mmHg in addition to the clinical symptoms of compartment syndrome. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with snakebite came to the hospital within 48 hours for treatment. Most patients (110 patients) were bitten at the upper extremities (69.6%). Since 2014, 33 out of 59 patients were suspected to have compartment syndrome, and their intracompartmental pressures were measured. Seventeen of those patients had a high intracompartmental pressure (average, 49.6 mmHg; range, 37–88 mmHg), and fasciotomy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, as many as 10.8% of all cases were in need of fasciotomy when compartment syndrome was diagnosed by measuring the intracompartmental pressure. Previously, it was reported that fasciotomy was not required in many cases of compartment syndrome originating from snakebite. However, some patients may develop very severe compartment syndrome, requiring fasciotomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Compartment Syndromes , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Snake Bites , Trauma Centers , Upper Extremity , Venoms
17.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 83-86, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734176

ABSTRACT

Osteofascial compartment syndrome (OFCS) is clinically common and is well known to orthopedic surgeons.Clinicians attach great importance to OFCS because of its severe clinical consequences,and decompression of fascial compartment is often performed in emergency treatment.This article reviews the literature on the threshold of fascial compartment decompression proposed by many scholars in the past and discusses the problems in the clinical diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome,especially the inconsistent pressure thresholds as the indication for emergency decompression surgery.By observing calf fractures patients with tension blister,we found that the pressure of fascia decreased sharply upon the appearance of blisters.Meanwhile,the swelling gradually subsided as well as the clinical manifestations of pain and parasthsia.In view of the uncertainty of various thresholds of fascial decompression and self-decompression,the concepts of myofascial self-release law and muscle-swelling syndrome were first proposed.The author believes that when intracompartmental pressure rises to a point,some unknown mechanisms of fascia can achieve self-decompression.Therefore,no compartment syndrome will take place.We also emphasize that the ' muscle-swelling syndrome'should be strictly distinguished from the soft tissue necrosis caused by crush syndrome and acute limb vascular injury,so as to provide more precise treatment.We believe that without external restrictions such as casts,splints and compression bandages,the muscle-swelling syndrome can achieve self decompression by releasing the pressure in the compartment through tension blisters,and there is no need for fasciotomy.

18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 53(2): 244-247, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899259

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Acute compartment syndrome in athletes is a rare orthopedic emergency associated with strenuous exercise. It is often diagnosed late and can lead to severe complications and high morbidity. This report describes the case of a young soccer player with acute compartment syndrome with no history of trauma, diagnosed and treated 24 h after the onset of symptoms, through minimally invasive decompressive fasciotomy, with good postoperative evolution.


RESUMO A síndrome de compartimento aguda não traumática em atletas é uma emergência ortopédica rara associada ao exercício físico extenuante. Apresenta diagnóstico difícil, frequentemente tardio, pode levar a complicações graves e alta morbidade. Os autores relatam o caso de uma atleta de futebol juvenil com uma síndrome compartimental aguda sem história de trauma, diagnosticada e tratada 24 horas após início dos sintomas, através de fasciotomia descompressiva minimamente invasiva, com boa evolução pós-operatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Athletes , Compartment Syndromes , Decompression, Surgical , Fasciotomy , Soccer
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(2): 185-193, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959369

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fasciotomía es el pilar del tratamiento y prevención del síndrome compartimental agudo. Una vez resuelto el cuadro agudo que derivó en la necesidad de ésta, el cierre de la herida resultante genera un importante desafío reconstructivo para el cirujano dado el importante edema residual de los tejidos. El objetivo de este artículo es entregar una actualización respecto a las alternativas de cierre de una fasciotomía de extremidades, para lo cual se realizó una búsqueda de artículos indexados en PubMed, Epistemonikos y Scielo. Se encontraron al menos 6 técnicas disponibles, cada una de ellas con determinadas ventajas y desventajas. Recomendamos que la elección sea de acuerdo a la experiencia del cirujano, los recursos disponibles y el contexto de cada paciente.


Fasciotomy is the mainstay of treatment and prevention of acute compartment syndrome. Given the important deep tissue edema, closure of the resulting wound generates a significant reconstructive challenge for the surgeon. The aim of this article is to provide an update concerning alternatives for closure of fasciotomy of limbs, for which a search of articles indexed in PubMed, Scielo and Epistemonikos databases was performed. At least 6 techniques were found, each of them with specific advantages and disadvantages. We recommend that the choice should be according to the surgeons experience, resources and context of each patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Wound Closure Techniques , Fasciotomy/methods , Compartment Syndromes/prevention & control , Extremities
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707486

ABSTRACT

Extremity compartment syndrome can cause neuromuscular ischemia and deposition of metabolites in the compartment,leading to irreversible lesions which harm limb functions in the end.It is a great challenge for surgeons to make a timely and accurate diagnosis of the syndrome in adults and children.The key is evaluation of the clinical symptoms and intracompartmental pressure.In this paper we summarize the epidemiology,etiology,pathophysiology,and current diagnosis and treatment of acute extremity compartment syndrome of the upper and lower extremities in adults and children.

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