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1.
Rev. Fac. Med. UNAM ; 67(1): 8-16, ene.-feb. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559095

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se calcula que el cuerpo humano está conformado por billones de células, las cuales sufren cientos de miles de lesiones al día en su DNA. Aunque el DNA no es la única biomolécula que sufre daños, su importancia radica en que es la única que no puede ser sustituida por la célula, así que, cuando esta sufre daños, la célula debe repararlos, tolerarlos o, en el caso extremo, activar las vías que la llevarán a la muerte, ya que lo importante es mantener la integridad celular y la homeostasis del organismo. Hay miles de agentes que pueden dañar al DNA, algunos los produce la misma célula y se les denomina 'agentes endógenos', mientras que otros son agentes externos y se les conoce como 'agentes exógenos'. La célula no puede evitar el daño causado por los agentes endógenos, ya que son productos de la actividad metabólica, por ejemplo; así que, cuando suceden se activan de forma inmediata los mecanismos celulares para mitigarlos. Lo mismo pasa con los daños causados por agentes exógenos, ya que la célula hará todo lo posible por disminuir los efectos adversos que pueden causar. El problema se pone de manifiesto cuando la célula no puede reparar los daños o los repara mal o son tantos que los mecanismos de reparación se ven rebasados, es entonces cuando el daño permanece en el DNA y se genera un estado de inestabilidad cromosómica que puede conducir a la célula a la disfunción y a la malignización. Este estado de inestabilidad cromosómica se puede ver reflejado en el aumento de rompimientos de DNA o de micronúcleos en las células expuestas, lo que se puede cuantificar por medio de métodos especiales como el 'Ensayo Cometa' y el 'Ensayo de Micronúcleos', ya que identificar el daño en el DNA es una forma de evaluar el potencial tóxico que tienen los agentes a los que están expuestas las poblaciones, permite conocer los mecanismos de acción que tienen y, además, ayuda a comprender los factores que influyen en el detrimento de la salud poblacional.


Abstract It is estimated that the human body is made of trillions of cells, which suffer hundreds of thousands of DNA lesions every day. Although DNA is not the only biomolecule that suffers damage, its importance lies in the fact that it is the only biomolecule that cannot be replaced by the cell, so when it suffers damage, the cell must repair it, tolerate or, in a extreme case, activate pathways that will lead to death, since the objective is to maintain cell integrity and the homeostasis of the organism.There are thousands of agents that can damage DNA, some are produced by the cell and are called 'endogenous, while others are external agents and are known as 'exogenous. The cell cannot avoid the damage caused by endogenous agents, since they are products of its metabolic activity, for example, so when they occur, cellular mechanisms are immediately activated to mitigate them. The same happens with the damage caused by exogenous agents, since the cell will do everything possible to diminish the adverse effects they can cause. The problem becomes apparent when the cell is unable to repair the damage or poorly repairs it, or repairs so much that the mechanisms are overwhelmed, when the damage remains in the DNA and a state of chromosomal instability is generated that can lead the cell to dysfunction and malignization. This state of chromosomal instability can be reflected in increased DNA breaks or micronuclei in exposed cells, which can be quantified by special methods such as the 'Comet Assay' and the 'Micronucleus Assay'. Since identifying DNA damage is a way of evaluating the toxic potential of the agents to which populations are exposed, it allows us to know their mechanisms of action and helps to understand the factors that influence the detriment in population's health.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007231

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inheritable disorder that presents with bone marrow failure, developmental anomalies, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. The etiology of this condition stems from a genetic mutation that disrupts the proper repair of interstrand DNA cross-links (ICLs). The resultant dysregulation of the DNA damage response mechanism can induce genomic instability, thereby elevating the mutation rates and the likelihood of developing cancer. The FA pathway assumes a pivotal role in safeguarding genome stability through its involvement in the repair of DNA cross-links and the maintenance of overall genomic integrity. A mutation in the germ line of any of the genes responsible for encoding the FA protein results in the development of FA. The prevalence of aberrant FA gene expression in somatic cancer, coupled with the identification of a connection between FA pathway activation and resistance to chemotherapy, has solidified the correlation between the FA pathway and cancer. Consequently, targeted therapies that exploit FA pathway gene abnormalities are being progressively developed and implemented. This review critically examines the involvement of the FA protein in the repair of ICLs, the regulation of the FA signaling network, and its implications in cancer pathogenesis and prognosis. Additionally, it explores the potential utility of small-molecule inhibitors that target the FA pathway.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012764

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the mechanism of fractionated low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the induction of EA.hy926 cell senescence. Methods EA.hy926 cells were irradiated with X-ray at 0, 50, 100, and 200 mGy × 4, respectively, and cultured for 24, 48, and 72 h. Several indicators were measured, including the levels of cellular senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, mRNA levels of senescence-associated cell cycle protein-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A and CDKN2A, reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX). Results After 4 fractionated LDIR, compared with the control group, the treatment groups showed increased nucleus area, blurred cell edge, and increased SA-β-gal positive area (P < 0.05) at 24, 48 and 72 h. After 4 fractionated LDIR, the mRNA level of CDKN1A increased in the 100 and 200 mGy × 4 groups at 24 and 48 h (P < 0.05), and CDKN2A mRNA level increased in the 100 and 200 mGy × 4 groups at 48 and 72 h (P < 0.05). The fluorescence intensity of ROS increased in treatment groups at 24, 48, and 72 h after 4 fractionated LDIR (P < 0.05). After 4 fractionated LDIR, the T-AOC level increased in the 100 and 200 mGy × 4 groups at 24 h (P < 0.05), and T-AOC level increased in all treatment groups at 48 and 72 h (P < 0.05). After 4 fractionated LDIR, γ-H2AX fluorescence intensity increased in all treatment groups at 24 h (P < 0.05), and the fluorescence intensity increased in the 100 and 200 mGy × 4 groups at 48 and 72 h (P < 0.05). Conclusion Fractionated LDIR can induce cellular senescence in EA.hy926 cells by impacting the cellular oxidation-antioxidation and oxidative damage levels, and the effects were relatively evident at 100 and 200 mGy.

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Feb; 71(2): 524-529
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-224839

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the severity of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of senile cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Methods: LECs were obtained from senile cortical, nuclear, and subcapsular types of cataracts after surgery. DNA damage in the cells was immediately assessed quantitatively using the CometScore™ software. Results: Comets were found in cataractous LECs. The formation of “comets” in the DNA of LECs can be visualized using single?cell gel electrophoresis and indicates DNA strand breaks because the damaged DNA migrates at a different rate than the nondamaged DNA. Maximal damage was observed in Grade 3 cortical, nuclear, and subcapsular forms of cataracts. Statistically significant DNA damage was seen between grades 1 and 3 of cortical type of cataract, grades 1 and 3 of nuclear type of cataract, and grades 2 and 3 and grades 1 and 3 of posterior subcapsular type of cataract. Conclusion: In patients with senile cataract, DNA of LECs was randomly damaged, and this type of damage was possibly caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Maximum DNA damage was found in patients with Grade 3 senile cortical, nuclear, and subcapsular type cataracts. The pathogenesis of senile cataracts is multifactorial and includes continuous molecular stress resulting from photooxidative stress, UV irradiation, and oxidative reactions.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Asteraceae , Antioxidants , DNA Damage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Obesity/drug therapy
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468898

ABSTRACT

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumour of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC). The recent therapeutic approaches used to treat cancer have adverse side effects. The natural agents exhibiting anticancer activities are generally considered to have a robust therapeutic potential. Curcuminoids, one of the major active compounds of the turmeric herb, are used as a therapeutic agent for several diseases including cancer. In this study, the cytotoxicity of curcuminoids was investigated against OSCC cell line HNO97. Our data showed that curcuminoids significantly inhibits the proliferation of HNO97 in a time and dose-dependent manner (IC50=35 μM). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcuminoids increased the percentage of G2/M phase cell populations in the treated groups. Treating HNO97 cells with curcuminoids led to cell shrinking and increased detached cells, which are the typical appearance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis revealed that curcuminoids significantly induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, as a response to curcuminoids treatment, comet tails were formed in cell nuclei due to the induction of DNA damage. Curcuminoids treatment reduced the colony formation capacity of HNO97 cells and induced morphological changes. Overall, these findings demonstrate that curcuminoids can in vitro inhibit HNC proliferation and metastasis and induce apoptosis.


O carcinoma de células escamosas oral (OSCC) é um tumor maligno do câncer de cabeça e pescoço (HNC). As recentes abordagens terapêuticas usadas para tratar o câncer têm efeitos colaterais adversos. Os agentes naturais que exibem atividades anticâncer são geralmente considerados como tendo um potencial terapêutico robusto. Curcuminoides, um dos principais compostos ativos da erva cúrcuma, são usados como agente terapêutico para várias doenças, incluindo câncer. Neste estudo, a citotoxicidade dos curcuminoides foi investigada contra a linha de células OSCC HNO97. Nossos dados mostraram que os curcuminoides inibem significativamente a proliferação de HNO97 de forma dependente do tempo e da dose (IC50 = 35 μM). A análise do ciclo celular demonstrou que os curcuminoides aumentaram a porcentagem de populações de células da fase G2 / M nos grupos tratados. O tratamento das células HNO97 com curcuminoides levou ao encolhimento celular e ao aumento das células destacadas, que são a aparência típica das células apoptóticas. Além disso, a análise de citometria de fluxo revelou que os curcuminoides induziram significativamente a apoptose de uma maneira dependente do tempo. Além disso, em resposta ao tratamento com curcuminoides, caudas de cometa foram formadas nos núcleos das células devido à indução de danos ao DNA. O tratamento com curcuminoides reduziu a capacidade de formação de colônias das células HNO97 e induziu alterações morfológicas. No geral, esses achados demonstram que os curcuminoides podem inibir in vitro a proliferação e metástase de HNC e induzir apoptose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis/drug effects , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy , Curcuma/cytology , Curcuma/toxicity , Head and Neck Neoplasms/prevention & control
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468949

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Antioxidants/analysis , Asteraceae/chemistry , Diet/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar/anatomy & histology , Rats, Wistar/genetics , Rats, Wistar/blood , Mice, Obese
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469114

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a malignant tumour of Head and Neck Cancer (HNC). The recent therapeutic approaches used to treat cancer have adverse side effects. The natural agents exhibiting anticancer activities are generally considered to have a robust therapeutic potential. Curcuminoids, one of the major active compounds of the turmeric herb, are used as a therapeutic agent for several diseases including cancer. In this study, the cytotoxicity of curcuminoids was investigated against OSCC cell line HNO97. Our data showed that curcuminoids significantly inhibits the proliferation of HNO97 in a time and dose-dependent manner (IC50=35 M). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcuminoids increased the percentage of G2/M phase cell populations in the treated groups. Treating HNO97 cells with curcuminoids led to cell shrinking and increased detached cells, which are the typical appearance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis revealed that curcuminoids significantly induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, as a response to curcuminoids treatment, comet tails were formed in cell nuclei due to the induction of DNA damage. Curcuminoids treatment reduced the colony formation capacity of HNO97 cells and induced morphological changes. Overall, these findings demonstrate that curcuminoids can in vitro inhibit HNC proliferation and metastasis and induce apoptosis.


Resumo O carcinoma de células escamosas oral (OSCC) é um tumor maligno do câncer de cabeça e pescoço (HNC). As recentes abordagens terapêuticas usadas para tratar o câncer têm efeitos colaterais adversos. Os agentes naturais que exibem atividades anticâncer são geralmente considerados como tendo um potencial terapêutico robusto. Curcuminoides, um dos principais compostos ativos da erva cúrcuma, são usados como agente terapêutico para várias doenças, incluindo câncer. Neste estudo, a citotoxicidade dos curcuminoides foi investigada contra a linha de células OSCC HNO97. Nossos dados mostraram que os curcuminoides inibem significativamente a proliferação de HNO97 de forma dependente do tempo e da dose (IC50 = 35 M). A análise do ciclo celular demonstrou que os curcuminoides aumentaram a porcentagem de populações de células da fase G2 / M nos grupos tratados. O tratamento das células HNO97 com curcuminoides levou ao encolhimento celular e ao aumento das células destacadas, que são a aparência típica das células apoptóticas. Além disso, a análise de citometria de fluxo revelou que os curcuminoides induziram significativamente a apoptose de uma maneira dependente do tempo. Além disso, em resposta ao tratamento com curcuminoides, caudas de cometa foram formadas nos núcleos das células devido à indução de danos ao DNA. O tratamento com curcuminoides reduziu a capacidade de formação de colônias das células HNO97 e induziu alterações morfológicas. No geral, esses achados demonstram que os curcuminoides podem inibir in vitro a proliferação e metástase de HNC e induzir apoptose.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469165

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.

10.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e385723, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519884

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study evaluated the DNA damage caused by repeated doses of xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in the liver and kidneys. Methods: In this study, 60 rats were used. The rats were divided into group 1 (xylazine-ketamine), and group 2 (medetomidine-ketamine), and these anesthetic combinations were administered to the rats at repeated doses with 30-min intervals. The effects of these anesthetic agents on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene for DNA damage were investigated. Results: According to the gene expression results, it was observed that a single dose of xylazine-ketamine was 2.9-fold expressed, while first and second repeat doses did not show significant changes in expression levels. However, in the case of the third repetition, it was observed to be 3.8-fold overexpressed. In the case of medetomidine-ketamine administration, it was observed that a single-dose application resulted in a 1.04-fold expression, while the first and the third repeat doses showed a significant down expression. The samples from the second repeat dose administration group were found to have insignificant levels of expression. Conclusions: This study can contribute to understanding the safe anesthetic combination in research and operations in which xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine combinations are used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Xylazine/administration & dosage , DNA , Gene Expression Profiling , Anesthesia , Ketamine/administration & dosage
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 37: e067, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1439738

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this population-based, observational, and cross-sectional study was to evaluate alterations in the oral cells of a population of older people from a Brazilian rural area, using the micronucleus technique to investigate possible associated genotoxic factors. A questionnaire was applied and clinical examination and collection of oral mucosal cells were performed for all older people (≥ 60 years) from a town in southern Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, deleterious habits (drinking and tobacco use), presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were considered the exposure variables, whereas metanuclear changes (MCs) and the prevalence of cell micronuclei (MN) were considered outcomes. Out of 489 older people, 447 were included in the study, among whom 50.8% were men with a mean age of 70.9 years and 83.9% had a monthly family income greater than US$ 500.00. GERD symptoms were present in 36.2% of the individuals, and 29.1% used PPIs daily, 53.3% consumed alcoholic beverages, and 46.7% used tobacco. The analysis of 1,000 oral mucosal cells per subject showed a MN frequency of 0-2 per individual, and MCs were detected with an average of 15 units per individual (median = 11 per individual). Poisson regression did not show statistical association between the exposure variables and the outcomes (presence of MN and MCs), except for the use of PPIs, which was a protective factor for the prevalence of MN [PR 0.6 (CI 0.3-0,9)]. Age, sex, family income, tobacco use and drinking, and GERD were not associated with the number of MN and MCs in oral mucosal cells of the investigated older people.

12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(10): e20230397, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514683

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate possible cytogenetic changes in children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy, through the micronucleus test in oral mucosa. METHODS: This was a prospective study consisted of 40 individuals, of whom 21 comprised the human immunodeficiency virus group and 19 comprised the control group. Children and adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were <18 years old and consent in participating in the study. The exclusion criteria were the presence of numerous systemic comorbidities, oral lesions, the habit of smoking, alcohol consumption, and X-rays or CT scans taken within 15 days prior to sample collection. A gentle scraping was performed on the inner portion of the jugal mucosa on both sides. A total of 2,000 cells per slide were analyzed for the determination of mutagenicity parameters as follows: micronuclei, binucleation, and nuclear buds. For measuring cytotoxicity, the following metanuclear changes were evaluated: pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis, in a double-blind manner. The repair index was also evaluated in this setting. RESULTS: The human immunodeficiency virus group showed high frequencies of micronuclei (p=0.05), binucleated cells (p=0.001), and nuclear buds (p=0.03). In the cytotoxicity parameters, represented by the cell death phases, there was an increase with statistical difference (p≤0.05) in the karyorrhexis frequency (p=0.05). Additionally, repair index was decreased in the human immunodeficiency virus group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that human immunodeficiency virus -infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy have cytogenetic changes in oral mucosal cells.

13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 69(12): e20230961, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521509

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic changes in individuals submitted to oral human immunodeficiency virus pre-exposure prophylaxis use through the micronucleus test in oral mucosa. METHODS: This study consisted of 37 individuals, of whom 17 comprised the pre-exposure prophylaxis group and 20 comprised the control group. A total of 2,000 cells per slide were analyzed for the determination of micronuclei, binucleation, nuclear buds, and cytotoxicity parameters: pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis (KR), in a double-blind manner. The repair index was also evaluated in this setting. RESULTS: In the mutagenicity parameters, the pre-exposure prophylaxis group showed increased frequencies of micronuclei (p=0.0001), binucleation (p=0.001), and nuclear buds (p=0.07). Regarding the cytotoxicity parameters, there was an increase with a statistical difference (p≤0.05) in the karyorrhexis frequency (p=0.001). Additionally, the repair system efficiency decreased in the pre-exposure prophylaxis group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that individuals undergoing pre-exposure prophylaxis use have geno- and cytotoxicity in oral mucosal cells.

14.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 45(2): 147-153, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448346

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER) is an essential mechanism for single-strand breaks (SSB) repair while xeroderma pigmentosum family (XPA to XPG) is the most important system to NER. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous hematological cancer characterized by cytopenias and risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation. MDS pathogenesis has been associated with problems of DNA repair system. This report aimed to evaluate NER polymorphisms (XPA rs1800975, XPC rs2228000, XPD rs1799793 and XPF rs1800067) in 269 MDS patients of different populations in Latin America (173 Brazilian and 96 Argentinean). Genotypes were identified in DNA samples by RT-qPCR using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. Regarding rs1799793 polymorphism of XPD for Brazilian population, the heterozygous genotype AG presented a high odds ratio (OR) to have a normal karyotype (p= 0.012, OR=3.000) and the mutant homozygous genotype AA was associated to a high OR of AML transformation (p= 0.034, OR=7.4). In Argentine population, the homozygous mutant AA genotype of rs1800975 polymorphism of XPA was associated with an increased odd to have hemoglobin levels below 8g/dL (p= 0.013, OR=10.000) while for the rs1799793 polymorphism of XPD, the heterozygous AG genotype decreased OR to be classified as good (p< 0.001, OR=9.05 × 10−10), and intermediate (p< 0.001, OR=3.08 × 10−10), according to Revised-International Prognostic Scoring System. Regarding the rs1800067 polymorphisms of XPF, the homozygous mutant AA genotype showed a decreased OR to be classified as good (p< 0.001, OR=4.03 × 10−13) and intermediate (p< 0.001, OR=2.54 × 10−13). Our report reinforces the heterogeneity of MDS and demonstrates the importance of ethnic differences and regional influences in pathogenesis and prognosis of MDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Polymorphism, Genetic , DNA Damage , DNA Repair
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 37: e008, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1420950

ABSTRACT

Abstract Scientific evidence about genetic and molecular changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among smokers and non-smokers is inconclusive. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of tobacco on the DNA of individuals with OSCC based on protein mutations. Electronic searches were conducted on PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Scopus to identify observational studies published up to January/2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute tool was used for the critical appraisal of studies. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated. Twenty-three studies assessing 4,060 individuals (2,967 smokers vs. 1,093 non-smokers) were included in this review. Fifteen groups of proteins/genes were investigated. Analysis of the quality of articles revealed low risk of bias in most studies. The certainty of the evidence was very low. The meta-analysis confirmed no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers with respect to damage to GSTM1 (OR: 0.60; 95%CI: 0.30-1.18), GSTT1 (OR: 1.18; 95%CI:0.49-2.83), hydrolase proteins (Ku70 and Ku80) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.18-3.05), and transferase proteins (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3) (OR: 0.74; 95%CI: 0.47-1.18). Most of the studies included showed that smokers are more likely to exhibit genetic instability. However, the meta-analysis revealed that smokers do not necessarily have more genetic alterations in the DNA than non-smokers.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993253

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of niraparib, the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, on the radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to preliminarily investigate its mechanism.Methods:Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells ECA-109 and KYSE-150 were divided into the control, niraparib, single irradiation, combined (niraparib+irradiation) groups. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay. The changes of cell survival rate were detected by colony formation assay. The changes of cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The number of γH2AX foci was detected by immunofluorescence, and the expression levels of PARP-1, cleaved-PARP, RAD51, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) ] and p-MAPK (ERK1/2) proteins were determined by Western blot. All data were expressed as Mean±SD. Data between two groups conforming to normal distribution through the normality test were subject to independent sample t-test and multiple groups were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results:In human ESCC cells ECA-109 and KYSE-150, the proliferation of ESCC cells was significantly inhibited by niraparib combined with irradiation, and the values of average lethal dose (D 0), quasi-threshould dose(D q), survival fraction after 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2) in the combined group were decreased compared with those in the single irradiation group. The effect of irradiation alone on apoptosis of ECA-109 and KYSE-150 cells was limited. Compared to single irradiation group, irradiation combined with niraparib further increased the apoptosis rate in ESCC cells ( P=0.015, P=0.006). In ECA-109 cells, G 2/M phase arrest was significantly increased in combined group compared with irradiation alone group ( P<0.001). In ECA-109 cells, the number of γH2AX foci in combined group was higher than that in the single irradiation group after 2 h, and showed a significantly slower decay of γH2AX foci ( P<0.001). Moreover, niraparib combined with irradiation enhanced the radiation-induced cleavage of PARP-1 and down-regulated the expression of Rad51 and p-MAPK(ERK1/2). Conclusion:Niraparib can increase the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting cell apoptosis, inhibiting the repair of DNA damage and regulating the MARK-ERK signaling pathway.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1740-1754, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982796

ABSTRACT

Cancer immunotherapy has become a promising strategy. However, the effectiveness of immunotherapy is restricted in "cold tumors" characterized with insufficient T cells intratumoral infiltration and failed T cells priming. Herein, an on-demand integrated nano-engager (JOT-Lip) was developed to convert cold tumors to hot via "increased DNA damage and dual immune checkpoint inhibition" strategy. JOT-Lip was engineered by co-loading oxaliplatin (Oxa) and JQ1 into liposomes with T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 antibodies (Tim-3 mAb) coupled on the liposomal surface by metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-sensitive linker. JQ1 inhibited DNA repair to increase DNA damage and immunogenic cell death (ICD) of Oxa, thus promoting T cells intratumoral infiltration. In addition, JQ1 inhibited PD-1/PD-L1 pathway, achieving dual immune checkpoint inhibition combining with Tim-3 mAb, thus effectively promoting T cells priming. It is demonstrated that JOT-Lip not only increased DNA damage and promoted the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), but also enhanced T cells intratumoral infiltration and promoted T cell priming, which successfully converted cold tumors to hot and showed significant anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects. Collectively, our study provides a rational design of an effective combination regimen and an ideal co-delivery system to convert cold tumors to hot, which holds great potential in clinical cancer chemoimmunotherapy.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971481

ABSTRACT

A series of chemotherapeutic drugs that induce DNA damage, such as cisplatin (DDP), are standard clinical treatments for ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and other diseases that lack effective targeted drug therapy. Drug resistance is one of the main factors limiting their application. Sensitizers can overcome the drug resistance of tumor cells, thereby enhancing the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we aimed to identify marketable drugs that could be potential chemotherapy sensitizers and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that the alcohol withdrawal drug disulfiram (DSF) could significantly enhance the antitumor activity of DDP. JC-1 staining, propidium iodide (PI) staining, and western blotting confirmed that the combination of DSF and DDP could enhance the apoptosis of tumor cells. Subsequent RNA sequencing combined with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) pathway enrichment analysis and cell biology studies such as immunofluorescence suggested an underlying mechanism: DSF makes cells more vulnerable to DNA damage by inhibiting the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway, exerting a sensitizing effect to DNA damaging agents including platinum chemotherapy drugs. Thus, our study illustrated the potential mechanism of action of DSF in enhancing the antitumor effect of DDP. This might provide an effective and safe solution for combating DDP resistance in clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Testicular Neoplasms/drug therapy , Fanconi Anemia/drug therapy , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Cell Line, Tumor , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Proliferation
19.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 93-104, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments for lung cancer, and about 40%-50% of patients after radiotherapy will appear uncontrolled or recurrence in the case of local tumors. Radioresistance is the predominant cause of local therapeutic failure. Nevertheless, the lack of in vitro radioresistance models is an influential factor obstructing the study of its mechanism. Therefore, the establishment of radioresistant cell lines, H1975DR and H1299DR, was beneficial to explore the mechanism of radioresistance in lung adenocarcinoma.@*METHODS@#The radioresistant cell lines of H1975DR and H1299DR were obtained from H1975 and H1299 cells irradiated with equal doses of X-rays; Clonogenic assays were performed to compare the clone-forming ability of H1975 vs H1975DR cells, H1299 vs H1299DR cells, then fitting cell survival curve by linear quadratic model; The comet assay was employed to examine DNA damage repair and calculate the percentage of DNA tails; The optical microscopy, CCK-8, flow cytometry, Transwell invasion assays were used to compare biological characteristics such as cell morphology, cell proliferation, apoptosis level, cycle distribution, cell migration and invasion; Western blot was carried out to measure the protein expression of DNA damage repair factors, such as DNA-PKcs, 53BP1, RAD51, and p-ATM.@*RESULTS@#After five months of continuous irradiation and stable culture, radioresistant cell lines H1975DR and H1299DR were obtained. The cell proliferation activity, clone formation ability and DNA damage repair ability of the two radioresistant cell lines were significantly improved under X-ray irradiation. The proportion of the G2/M phase was markedly decreased and the proportion of the G0/G1 phase was increased. Cell migration and invasion ability were significantly enhanced. Relative expression levels of p-DNA-PKcs (Ser2056), 53BP1 in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and p-ATM (Ser1981), RAD51 in the homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway were higher than those in H1975 and H1299.@*CONCLUSIONS@#H1975 and H1299 cell lines can be able to differentiate into lung adenocarcinoma radioresistant cell lines H1975DR and H1299DR by equal dose fractional irradiation, which provided an in vitro cytological model for the study of radiotherapy resistance mechanism of lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Apoptosis , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 132-148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970364

ABSTRACT

The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (Bet) family are the regulators of the epigenome and also the pivotal driving factors for the expression of tumor related genes that tumor cells depend on for survival and proliferation. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the Bet protein family. Generally, Brd4 identifies acetylated histones and binds to the promoter or enhancer region of target genes to initiate and maintain expression of tumor related genes. Brd4 is closely related to the regulation of multiple transcription factors and chromatin modification and is involved in DNA damage repair and maintenance of telomere function, thus maintaining the survival of tumor cells. This review summarizes the structure and function of Brd4 protein and the application of its inhibitors in tumor research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Histones , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Domains
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