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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226341, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354797

ABSTRACT

Treatment of dental caries in children still remains challenging due to lack of cooperation with conventional treatment modalities. Recently, the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) has proved useful in addressing this challenge. Aim: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) in arresting caries in children in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a phase III balanced randomized controlled school based interventional study on 240 children. The study group was treated with SDF while GIC was used in the control group. Follow up visits in 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months were carried out to assess the treatment outcome. Inferential statistics with the use of Pearson Chi-square test and Independent Student t-test were used at 5% level of significance. Results: There was significant relationship between SDF and caries arrest in 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months' assessment period (p = 0.001). The control group showed continuous decline (71.7%, 54.3% and 50.9%) in restorative success from 2 weeks to 3 months respectively. The mean ± SD and Confidence Interval (CI) of arrested caries in the SDF group were 113± 1.24 and 113.1 ­ 113.5 respectively. In the control group the mean ± SD and CI of restorative success were 69.3±11.8 and 67.2 ­ 71.4. The effect size was 5.24. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that SDF was effective in arresting caries in children without any harm and there was statistically significant difference in the use of 38% SDF in arresting caries in children


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Fluorides, Topical , Dental Caries , Glass Ionomer Cements
2.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370925

ABSTRACT

Introduction: orofacial clefts are common congenital malformations with an important social, psychological, and economic impact. The treatment of this condition may include different surgical procedures that previously require an adequate oral condition. Case report: we report a case of dental treatment before palatoplasty in a male patient of 17 years-old with bilateral cleft lip and palate and lesion in the jugal mucosa. Final considerations: the adequacy of the oral environment is a fundamental step in the treatment of patients with orofacial clefts and aims to restore oral health regardless of the degree of complexity of the dental treatment through the reduction of the pathogenic microbiota, elimination of retentive niches, instructions on diet and adequate oral hygiene and constant patient motivation.


Objetivos: as fissuras orofaciais são malformações congênitas comuns, com importante impacto social, psicológico e econômico. O tratamento dessa condição pode incluir vários procedimentos cirúrgicos que requerem previamente uma adequada condição bucal. Relato de caso: Relatamos o caso de tratamento odontológico prévio a palatoplastia em um paciente do gênero masculino de 17 anos de idade, com fissura transforame incisivo bilateral e lesão em mucosa jugal. Considerações finais: A adequação do meio bucal é uma etapa fundamental no tratamento de pacientes com fissuras orofaciais e visa restabelecer a saúde bucal independente do grau de complexidade do tratamento odontológico por meio da redução da microbiota patogênica, eliminação de nichos retentivos, orientações sobre dieta e higiene bucal adequada e motivação constante do paciente.


Subject(s)
Cleft Palate , Oral Hygiene , Palate , Cleft Lip , Cissus , Dental Caries , Craving , Mouth Rehabilitation
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(6): 2325-2336, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375004

ABSTRACT

Resumen Evaluamos la asociación entre inequidad en los ingresos y caries de la infancia temprana en Colombia, utilizando un análisis multinivel. Analizamos datos del último estudio nacional de salud bucal (2014) e información sobre ingresos en términos absolutos y relativos a nivel departamental. Los desenlaces fueron experiencia de caries y caries no tratada. Se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística multinivel con dos niveles: niños/familias (nivel 1) anidados en departamentos (nivel 2). En el nivel 1 se consideraron variables de edad, sexo, posición socioeconómica (PSE) de la vivienda, ingresos del hogar y régimen de aseguramiento en salud. Para el nivel 2 las variables fueron coeficiente Gini, Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas (NBI) y Producto Interno Bruto (PIB). Se evaluaron datos de 5.250 niños de 1, 3 y 5 años, 36.9% tenían experiencia de caries y 33.0% caries no tratada. Los desenlaces mostraron asociaciones significativas con edad, PSE baja del hogar y pertenecer al régimen subsidiado de salud. Para caries no tratada se encontraron asociaciones con PSE baja o muy baja (OR: 1.72; IC95% 1.42, 2.07 y OR: 1.69; IC95% 1.36, 2.09 respectivamente) y régimen subsidiado de salud (OR: 1.58; IC95% 1.11, 2.24). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas con indicadores de coeficiente Gini, PIB y NBI.


Abstract The association between income inequality and dental caries on early childhood in Colombia was evaluated using a multi-level analysis. We analyzed data from the latest national oral survey (2014) and information about income in absolute and relative terms on a state-level. The outcomes were caries experience, and untreated caries. A multilevel logistic regression model was used (2 levels) with children/households nested within states. Age, gender, area-level socioeconomic position (SEP), household income and health insurance regime were the level 1 explanatory variables. For level 2, variables were the Gini coefficient, Unsatisfied Basic Needs (UBN) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data from 5.250 children, aged 1, 3 and 5 years were evaluated. Prevalence of caries experience and untreated caries was 36.9% and 33.0% respectively. Both outcomes showed significant associations with age, low SEP and belonging to the subsidized health insurance regime: untreated dental caries was associated with living in low and very low SEP (OR: 1.72; 95%CI 1.42, 2.07 and OR: 1.69; 95%CI 1.36, 2.09 respectively), and subsidized health insurance scheme (OR: 1.58; 95%CI 1.11, 2.24). When the Gini, GDP and UBN indicators were included in the models, no significant associations were found.

4.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(2): 52-60, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374623

ABSTRACT

Resumo Os dentifrícios fluoretados comercializados para crianças devem conter concentração mínima de 1000 ppm de fluoreto (F), que deve ser quimicamente solúvel para ter efeito anticárie. Portanto, determinamos as concentrações de fluoreto total (FT) e fluoreto solúvel total (FST) em dentifrícios comercializados para crianças no Brasil e no México e analisamos as regulamentações vigentes em ambos os países. Vinte e quatro marcas foram encontradas e adquiridas no Brasil (19 formuladas com NaF/SiO2, três com Na2FPO3/CaCO3 e duas com Na2FPO3/SiO2) e seis no México (todas com NaF/SiO2). As concentrações de FT e FST foram determinadas após a compra (amostras frescas), e a estabilidade do fluoreto nas formulações de Na2FPO3/CaCO3 foi verificada após 18 meses. As análises foram realizadas com eletrodo íon-específico e os resultados expressos em ppm F (mg F/kg). As concentrações de FT encontradas variaram de 476,0 a 1.385,3 ppm F e foram próximas às declaradas pelos fabricantes (500 a 1.450 ppm F). As concentrações de FT encontradas não ultrapassaram 1.500 ppm F, de acordo com as regulamentações vigentes de ambos os países. No entanto, dentifrícios com concentrações de FST inferiores a 1.000 ppm F foram encontrados tanto em dentifrício com baixa concentração (500 ppm F) formulado com NaF/SiO2 como em dentifrícios com Na2FPO3/CaCO3 frescos e envelhecidos, originalmente fabricados com 1.000-1.100 ppm de FT. Em conclusão, embora a maioria dos dentifrícios analisados apresentasse concentração de FST superior a 1.000 ppm F, as regulamentações vigentes em ambos os países permitem que produtos que não estejam de acordo com a melhor evidência disponível estejam presentes no mercado.


Abstract Fluoride toothpastes market to children should contain a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm of fluoride (F), which must be chemically soluble to provide anti-caries effect. Therefore, we determined the concentrations of total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) in toothpastes marketed to children in Brazil and Mexico and analyzed the current regulations in force in both countries. Twenty-four brands were found and purchased in Brazil (19 formulated with NaF/SiO2, three with Na2FPO3/CaCO3 and two with Na2FPO3/SiO2) and six in Mexico (all with NaF/SiO2). TF and TSF concentrations were determined after the purchase (fresh samples) but fluoride stability in Na2FPO3/CaCO3-formulations was checked after 18 months. The analyses were performed with an ion-specific electrode and the results expressed in ppm F (mg F/kg). The TF concentrations found ranged from 476.0 to 1385.3 ppm F and they were close the declared by the manufactures (500 to 1450 ppm F). The TF concentrations found were not greater than 1500 ppm F, in accordance with the current regulations of both countries. However, toothpastes presenting TSF concentrations lower than 1000 ppm F were found either in low fluoride toothpaste (500 ppm F) formulated with NaF/SiO2 as in fresh and aged Na2FPO3/CaCO3-toothpastes, originally fabricated with 1000-1100 ppm of TF. In conclusion, although most toothpastes analyzed showed TSF concentration higher than 1000 ppm F, the regulations in force in both countries allow that products not in agreement with the best available evidence are available in the market.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1181-1190, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364685

ABSTRACT

Resumo A distribuição da cárie é desigual e fortemente associada aos diferentes perfis socioeconômicos dos países. Objetivou-se descrever as mudanças da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e em países de renda média-alta nos anos 1990 e 2017. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo realizado a partir de dados secundários extraídos do Global Burden of Disease. Foram incluídos os 53 países pertencentes ao grupo de renda média-alta. As estimativas de prevalência de cárie foram coletadas nos anos de 1990 e 2017. A variação percentual da prevalência foi calculada entre os dois anos. Também foram coletados os valores do Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) para cada país. Os resultados evidenciam tendência de redução da prevalência de dentes permanentes cariados no Brasil e na maioria dos países de renda média-alta. A prevalência de cárie não tratada no Brasil foi de 38,17%, em 1990, e de 37,46% em 2017. O Brasil ocupa a 41ª posição no ranking de redução na prevalência de cárie entre os 53 países avaliados. Os países que alcançaram as maiores reduções na prevalência de cárie foram os que melhoraram o seu IDH. Nesse sentido, considera-se a necessidade de rever as políticas públicas de saúde bucal, bem como uma reflexão acerca do enfrentamento das iniquidades presentes nos países pesquisados.


Abstract The distribution of caries is uneven and strongly associated with the different socioeconomic profiles of countries. The scope of this study was to describe the changes in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in upper-middle income countries for the years 1990 and 2017. It is a descriptive study based on secondary data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease. The 53 countries included in the upper-middle income group were included. Caries prevalence estimates were collected for the years 1990 and 2017. The percentage change in prevalence was calculated between the two years. The values of the Human Development Index (HDI) for each country were also collected. The results show the trend of a reduction in the prevalence of decayed permanent teeth in Brazil and in most upper-middle income countries. The prevalence of untreated caries in Brazil was 38.17% in 1990 and 37.46% in 2017. Brazil occupies the 41st position in the ranking of the reduction in the prevalence of caries among the 53 countries evaluated. The countries that achieved the greatest reductions in the prevalence of caries were those with an improvement in their HDI. In this respect, the need to review public oral health policies is revealed, as well as a reflection on addressing the inequities present in the countries surveyed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentition, Permanent , Developing Countries , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Income
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 87-95, jan.-fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aims: Increasing evidence supports a relationship between poor oral health and growth in children. Our objective was to assess the association between the presence of dental caries and anthropometric measurements of children residing in Claverito, a floating slum community in the Peruvian Amazon. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, presence of caries was assessed using dmft/DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth) scores and the SiC Index (mean dmft/DMFT of one-third of the study group with the highest caries score). Anthropometric categories for age-sex-specific z-scores for height and weight were calculated based on WHO standardized procedures and definitions. The association between SiC (measured by dmft/DMFT) and anthropometric measures was estimated using unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models. Critical value was established at 5%. Results: Our study population consisted of 67 children between the ages of 1 and 18 years old. Mean age was 9.5 years old (SD: 4.5), and the majority were female (52.2%). Almost all had dental caries (97.0%) and the mean dmft/DMFT score was 7.2 (SD: 4.7). The SiC Index of this population was 9.0. After adjusting for confounding variables, participants who had permanent dentition with the highest dmft/DMFT levels had statistically significant decreased height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) (p=0.04). Conclusions: We found an inverse linear association between SiC Index and height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) among children living in poverty in a floating Amazonian community in Peru. Children from under-resourced communities, like floating slums, are at high risk for oral disease possibly negatively impacting their growth and development.


Resumo Objetivos: Há cada vez mais evidências apoiando uma relação entre a saúde bucal precária e o crescimento das crianças. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre a presença de cárie dentária e medidas antropométricas de crianças residentes em Claverito, uma comunidade flutuante de favelas na Amazônia peruana. Métodos: Para este estudo transversal, a presença de cárie foi avaliada utilizando os escores dmft/DMFT (dentes cariados, ausentes, preenchidos) e o Índice SiC (média dmft/DMFT de um terço do grupo de estudo com a maior pontuação de cárie). As categorias antropométricas para pontuações z específicas de idade e sexo para altura e peso foram calculadas com base nos procedimentos e definições padronizados da OMS. A associação entre SiC (medido por dmft/DMFT) e medidas antropométricas foi estimada usando modelos de regressão linear multivariável não ajustados e ajustados. O valor crítico foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: A população do estudo consistia de 67 crianças entre 1 e 18 anos de idade. A idade média era de 9,5 anos (DP: 4,5), e a maioria era do sexo feminino (52,2%). Quase todas tinham cárie dentária (97,0%) e a média da pontuação dmft/DMFT foi de 7,2 (DP: 4,7). O índice SiC desta população era de 9,0. Após ajuste para variáveis confusas, os participantes que tinham dentição permanente com os níveis mais altos de dmft/DMFT tinham diminuído estatisticamente a pontuação z de altura por idade (HAZ) (p=0,04). Conclusões: Encontramos uma associação linear inversa entre o Índice SiC e as pontuações z de altura por idade (HAZ) entre crianças que vivem na pobreza em uma comunidade amazônica flutuante no Peru. Crianças de comunidades com poucos recursos, como favelas flutuantes, correm alto risco de contrair doenças orais, possivelmente impactando negativamente seu crescimento e desenvolvimento.

7.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 57-67, jan.-fev. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364488

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ultrasound device and the dentin surface morphology after removal of the caries dentin lesions by removal rate and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Knoop hardness test on the bovine dentin blocks (n = 20, 4x4x2mm) was performed to standardize the samples and only those with 38 ± 2 KHN were included. The dentin blocks were submitted to induction of artificial caries lesions, using the bacterial model. Strains of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were used for 7 days. The caries dentin lesion was removed for 1 min, according to two methods: G1 - carbide bur under low-speed rotation (control group) and G2 - ultrasound device under refrigeration. For the removal rate, the samples were weighed 3 times: T0 (before induction), T1 (after induction) and T2 (after removal). Morphology evaluation of the residual dentin surface was performed by SEM. Data normality was verified by Shapiro-Wilk test (p ≥ 0.240). T-test for independent samples was applied to evaluate the removal rate. A significance level of 5% was adopted. G2 provided lower removal rate than G1 (G1: 3.68 mg and G2 = 2.26 mg). SEM images showed different morphological characteristics between the groups. G2 showed absent of smear layer, while G1 showed a visible smear layer over the surface. We concluded that ultrasound device provides minimally invasive removal with residual dentin exhibiting open dentin tubules and no smear layer formation and no bacteria, which infer the removal of the infected tissue.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um dispositivo ultrassônico e a morfologia da superfície dentinária após a remoção da dentina cariada por meio da taxa de remoção e imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Foi realizado o teste de dureza Knoop nas amostras de dentina bovina (n = 20, 4x4x2mm) afim de padronizar as amostras e foram incluídas apenas aquelas com 38 ± 2 KHN. As amostras de dentina foram submetidas à indução de lesões artificiais de cárie, utilizando-se modelo biológico contendo cepas de Streptococcus mutans e Lactobacillus acidophilus durante por 7 dias. As lesões foram removidas por 1 min, de acordo com dois métodos: G1 - fresa esférica sob baixa rotação (grupo controle) e G2 - dispositivo ultrassônico sob refrigeração. Para a taxa de remoção, as amostras foram pesadas em três tempos: T0 (antes da indução), T1 (após a indução) e T2 (após a remoção). A avaliação morfológica da superfície residual da dentina foi realizada por MEV. A normalidade dos dados foi verificada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilk (p ≥ 0,240). Teste T para amostras independentes foi aplicado para avaliar a taxa de remoção. Foi adotado nível de significância de 5%. G2 apresentou menor taxa de remoção que G1 (G1: 3,68 mg e G2 = 2,26 mg). As imagens de MEV mostraram características morfológicas diferentes entre os grupos. G2 mostrou ausência de smear layer, enquanto G1 mostrou grande quantidade de smear layer sobre a superfície. Com base neste estudo in vitro, o dispositivo de ultrassom promoveu remoção minimamente invasiva e dentina residual exibindo túbulos dentinários abertos e mínima formação de smear layer.

8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 601-609, fev 11, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359371

ABSTRACT

Introdução: doenças crônicas como asma brônquica, alergias respiratórias ou doenças agudas recorrentes, como gripes, frequentemente acometem as crianças. Tais condições exigem o uso de medicamentos, normalmente sob a forma de xaropes, que podem se apresentar como genéricos ou de referência. A alta concentração em sacarose e o baixo pH dessas formulações, assim como o uso noturno e a falta de higienização após sua administração, são alguns fatores que podem contribuir para o potencial cariogênico e erosivo desses medicamentos. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o potencial cariogênico e erosivo de xaropes infantis, de referência e genéricos, a partir de suas propriedades físico-químicas e identificar seus principais componentes a partir da análise de bulas e rótulos. Metodologia: foram analisados oito medicamentos de referência e os oito genéricos equivalentes, os quais foram avaliados quanto ao pH, a acidez titulável, a presença de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix) e a composição em sacarose e conservantes através da análise de bulas e rótulos. Resultados: constatou-se que 75% da amostra apresentou pH abaixo do crítico para desmineralização do esmalte dentário. A presença da sacarose e do ácido cítrico foi observada em 43,75% dos medicamentos, especialmente entre aqueles com altos valores de titulação. Conclusão: a maioria dos medicamentos apresentou pH abaixo do pH crítico para dissolução do esmalte dentário, havendo uma ampla variação da acidez titulável. As bulas dos medicamentos não informavam quanto ao risco de erosão dentária e de cárie, apesar da presença de sacarose em algumas formulações.


Introduction: chronic illnesses such as bronchial asthma, respiratory allergies or recurrent acute illnesses, such as the flu, often affect children. Such conditions require the use of medications, usually in the form of syrups, which can be presented as generic or reference ones. The high concentration of sucrose and the low pH of these formulations, as well as the night use and the lack of hygiene after its administration, are some factors that can contribute to the cariogenic and erosive potential of these drugs. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cariogenic and erosive potential of infant reference and generic syrups, based on their physical and chemical properties and to identify their main components from the analysis of package inserts and labels. Methodology: eight reference drugs and eight generic equivalents were analyzed, which were evaluated for pH, titratable acidity, the presence of total soluble solids (ºBrix) and the composition in sucrose and preservatives through the analysis of package inserts and labels. Results: it was found that 75% of the sample had a pH below the critical level for tooth enamel demineralization. The presence of sucrose and citric acid was observed in 43.75% of the drugs, especially among those with high titration values. Conclusion: most drugs had pH below the critical pH for tooth enamel dissolution, with a wide range of titratable acidity between them. The package inserts of the medications did not inform about the risk of dental erosion and caries, despite the presence of sucrose in some formulations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Asthma , Tooth Erosion , Bronchitis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chronic Disease , Dental Caries
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904801

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the correlation between vitamin D levels and the risk of early childhood caries (ECC), and to provide a reference for the primary prevention of ECC in children.@*Methods @# A total of 389 children aged 6 months to 48 months were enrolled in this study. Data of feeding patterns and oral health behaviors were collected, and decayed-missing-filled teeth (dmft) were recorded. The children were divided into an ECC group (dmft > 0, n= 146) and a caries-free group (dmft=0, n=243). Peripheral blood of fingertips was collected to detect the active form of vitamin D--25(OH)D in vivo, and the cariogenic activity of dental plaque was analyzed with the Cariostat test. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to analyze the correlation among caries related factors such as 25(OH)D levels and caries risk in patients with ECC.@*Results@#There was no significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries among 25(OH)D deficiency, insufficiency and normal children (χ2=2.320, P=0.313). There was no correlation between dmft and 25(OH)D levels (dmft=1-3, r < 0.001, P > 0.05; dmft > 3, r= 0.009, P > 0.05). The risk factors for ECC were age (OR=1.082, 95% CI: 1.045-1.121, P < 0.001), breastfeeding within 6 months after birth (OR=2.789, 95% CI: 1.581-4.921, P < 0.001), nighttime milk consumption or sleeping with a nipple (OR=4.187, 95% CI: 1.938-9.048, P < 0.001), and a high Cariostat value of 1.5-3.0 (OR=4.173, 95% CI: 2.014-8.646, P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#There was no correlation between 25(OH)D level and caries in children aged 6-48 months. The risk factors for ECC are age, breastfeeding before 6 months old, nighttime milk consumption or sleeping with a nipple and high cariogenic activity (Cariostat value of 1.5-3.0). It is necessary to establish good feeding habits and oral hygiene habits for children while promoting breastfeeding.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920595

ABSTRACT

@#Plaque pH detection technology can detect the risk of caries and assist in the prevention of caries, with a mature theory and a relatively simple operation. With the increasing demand for clinical caries risk detection technology and the rapid development of microelectrode techniques, there is an increasing variety of types of microelectrodes that can detect the pH of dental plaque, including glass microelectrodes, metal oxide microelectrodes and ion-sensitive field effect transistors. The glass microelectrode was the first microelectrode to be applied in this field, but its structure is weak. Among the various options, the iridium oxide microelectrode has become the most promising caries risk detection electrode in recent years because of its high strength and excellent response. Metal oxide microelectrodes can also effectively compensate for the insufficient strength of glass microelectrodes. With advances in electrode technology, miniaturized, sensitive ion-sensitive field effect transistors have attracted the attention of researchers. Scientists have also recently developed a way to detect the pH of dental plaque with an optical no-contact technique. Optical contactless detection technology will not damage the dental plaque structure, so it has great research and clinical prospects. Future research will further improve the strength and performance of these electrodes on the premise of ensuring miniaturization and achieving noncontact detection.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913016

ABSTRACT

@#Metformin is currently the first-line drug for the treatment of diabetes. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, it has also been found to have other potential effects, such as anti-inflammatory, odontogenic differentiation-promoting, osteogenic differentiation-promoting, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have shown that metformin can promote the healing of periapical lesions, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of osteogenic differentiation and the induction of dental pulp cell differentiation by activation of adenylate-activated protein kinase by dimethyldiphosphate. Clinical indexes, such as the probing depth, attachment loss level and probing bleeding index, were significantly improved in patients with periodontitis treated with metformin, which may play a role in the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease by promoting the proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells. Metformin has been proven to inhibit the growth and proliferation of tumor cells and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of oral tumors such as oral squamous cell carcinoma. At present, research remains in the in vitro and animal experimental stage, and the related mechanism needs to be further explored. Clinical trials remain in the evaluation of clinical indicators, so large-scale, long-term, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trials need to be further developed

12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e003, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355928

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to assess the relationship between self-perceived neighborhood factors and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among adolescents from southern Brazil. A representative sample of 15-19-year-old students from Santa Maria, Brazil, was included. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to assess the OHRQoL. Self-perceived neighborhood factors were assessed through a structured questionnaire and included characteristics of the neighborhood where the adolescents lived, such as the presence of paved streets, tap water, community social networks, and availability of dental services and the Family Health Strategy (FHS). In addition, socioeconomic, behavioral, and clinical variables (dental caries and malocclusion) were also evaluated. Multilevel Poisson regression analysis with a hierarchical approach was used to assess the association between predictors and OHIP-14. The rate ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. A total of 1,197 adolescents were included in this study (participation rate: 72.3%). The mean OHIP-14 score was 8.4 (standard error = 0.2), ranging from 0 to 49. Living in residences with unpaved streets (RR = 1.11, 95%CI:1.06−1.17), no tap water (RR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.02−1.20), absence of the FHS services (RR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.09−1.20), and the availability of dental services (RR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03−1.14) were associated with higher OHIP-14 scores, indicating a poorer OHRQoL. In addition, lower socioeconomic status, visiting the dentist for curative reasons, lower frequency of brushing teeth, and higher sugar consumption were also associated with higher OHIP-14 scores. In conclusion, self-perceived neighborhood characteristics were associated with OHRQoL in adolescents. Adolescents who perceived their neighborhood as deprived had poorer OHRQoL.

13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e010, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355934

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between parental eating behavior and untreated early childhood caries (ECC). A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 432 parent-child dyads with children aged 18 to 36 months, at Municipal Child Education Centers in São José dos Pinhais, Brazil. The parents answered a questionnaire addressing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and the children were examined for dental caries (modified dmft index) by a single examiner (kappa = 0.80). A six-item questionnaire was administered addressing parental food consumption, parental control of the child's food consumption, and parental offering of foods to the child. Three items were considered indicative of positive behavior, and three, of negative behavior. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses with robust variance were used for the data analysis (α = 0.05). The prevalence of untreated ECC was 20.3% (95%CI: 16.7-24.4). In the multiple regression model adjusted for the child's age and the parent's schooling, negative parental behavior was associated with a greater frequency of untreated ECC (PRa = 1.213; 95%CI:1.032-1.427, p = 0.019), but lost its significance when adjusted by positive parental behavior (PRa = 1.156; 95%CI: 0.983-1.358, p = 0.079). Based on the present findings, positive parental eating behaviors are capable of minimizing the impact of negative parental behaviors on the prevalence of untreated early childhood caries.

14.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e013, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355936

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a Preventive Oral Health Exam for Elderly People (EDePAM), using the e-Delphi technique, to diagnose oral health problems in people 65 or older. The e-Delphi technique was used with experts in multiple stages, and in a final workshop, where an agreement on an examination protocol was reached for diagnosing dental caries, oral mucosa lesions, periodontal diseases, and masticatory function disorders. Quantitative analyses of all the rounds of the e-Delphi method were conducted. It was agreed that the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) should be used together with a modified version of the Nyvad criteria to detect and assess caries lesions. It was also agreed that an assessment was needed of the different factors involved in determining caries risk, namely socioeconomic level, access to fluoride, level of dependence/functionality, salivary flow, history of head and neck cancer treatment, use of medications that decrease salivary flow, diet, use of removable dental prostheses, exposure of root surfaces, and caries history. Furthermore, patients would be required to undergo an examination of the oral mucosa, where any existing lesion should be described in terms of its clinical appearance, location, and risk potential. It was also agreed that an assessment of masticatory function should be performed using the Leake index, together with chewing-gum combined with a color scale to categorize masticatory performance. The number of pairs of occluding antagonist teeth was considered as the best predictor of masticatory function. The 2018 classification by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) / European Federation of Periodontology (EFP) was accepted as the standard to assess periodontal status, and it was agreed that this assessment should include an evaluation of clinical attachment loss and bleeding on probing. The novel EDePAM was considered as appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of oral health by providing a comprehensive diagnosis of oral diseases.

15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0284, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356800

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Epidemiological surveys revealed that Brazil has a high burden of oral diseases. However, no prior study has reported estimates of untreated dental caries, periodontitis, and edentulism over a three-decade period. The objective of this study is to report the trends of prevalence, incidence, and years-lived with disability (YLDs) due to untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, periodontitis, and edentulism in Brazil between 1990 and 2019. METHODS Estimates of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs due to dental caries in primary and permanent teeth, periodontitis, and edentulism were produced for Brazil, by sex and age, between 1990 and 2019, using Dismod-MR 2.1, as part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019). Trends of oral disorders were analyzed using generalized linear regression models applying the Prais-Winsten method. RESULTS Almost 100 million Brazilians presented at least one oral disorder in 2019, which was equivalent to a prevalence of 45.3%. All oral diseases combined ranked eighth among all causes of disability, causing more than 970,000 YLDs. Untreated dental caries in primary teeth were estimated to affect 13.5 million children, and untreated dental caries in permanent teeth affected more than 52 million people. Periodontitis affected 29.5 million people, and edentulism affected almost 22 million. The generalized linear regression models revealed a trend of stability of oral disorders between 1990 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS The burden of oral diseases in Brazil is extremely high. Oral disorders, edentulism in particular, caused disability at levels that are comparable to other important chronic diseases.

16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e043, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364595

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Purpose: to evaluate the effect of dentifrice pH and fluoride concentration ([F]) on fluoride uptake on the biofilm and nails of children from a non-fluoridated area. Methods: two hundred and twenty-eight two- to four-year-old children were randomly allocated into 3 groups according to the type of dentifrice: G1: 1100 μg F/g, pH 4.5 (n = 76); G2: 750 μg F/g, pH 4.5 (n = 74); and G3: 1100 μg F/g, pH 7.0 (n = 78). Nails were collected at 4, 8, and 12 months after starting dentifrice use and biofilm was collected 5 and 60 minutes after toothbrushing. The concentrations of F in nails and biofilm were analyzed by HMDS facilitated diffusion. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney's test and the comparison between biofilm collection times was done using Wilcoxon test (p £ 0.05). Results: a significant reduction of [F] in biofilm was observed 60 minutes after toothbrushing, regardless of the dentifrice used. However, 5 minutes after toothbrushing, G1 had a significantly higher [F] compared to G2 and G3, and 60 minutes after toothbrushing, [F] was significantly higher for G1 and G2 compared to G3. G1 and G3 had significantly higher [F] in the nails compared to G2. Conclusion: a lower dentifrice concentration is a relevant factor for the reduction of excessive fluoride intake. The use of a low-F acidified dentifrice combines the reduction of fluoride uptake with caries prevention by leading to greater incorporation of F into the biofilm over time.

17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e041, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364599

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and sociodemographic factors on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children with dental behavior management problems (DBMP) and their families. One hundred and thirty-four dyads of caregivers and children participated. The impact of OHRQoL was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Socioeconomic variables were obtained from an interview. Dental caries was assessed using the dmft index. The total B-ECOHIS score was categorized as low, medium, or high impact, and its association with the independent variables was determined based on bivariate tests and a multivariate model. The median score for B-ECOHIS was 13 (range: 1-40). The negative impact was reflected mainly by complaints of oral/dental pain, difficulty in eating and parental guilt. The number of teeth with caries was significantly higher among children who experienced a high negative impact on OHRQoL (mean 9.2 [standard deviation 3.5]; p = 0.003) than those who had a low negative impact (7.0 [3.3]). The final adjusted model showed that dental caries remained independently associated with poor OHRQoL (b = 0.100; x2 Wald 4.205; p = 0.040). A greater impact on OHRQoL was experienced by children with DBMP and greater caries experience.

18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210349, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365017

ABSTRACT

Abstract There are many restrictions on topical medications for the oral cavity. Various factors affect the topical application of drugs in the oral cavity, an open and complex environment. The complex physical and chemical environment of the oral cavity, such as saliva and food, will influence the effect of free drugs. Therefore, drug delivery systems have served as supporting structures or as carriers loading active ingredients, such as antimicrobial agents and growth factors (GFs), to promote antibacterial properties, tissue regeneration, and engineering for drug diffusion. These drug delivery systems are considered in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, periodontal disease, periapical disease, the delivery of anesthetic drugs, etc. These carrier materials are designed in different ways for clinical application, including nanoparticles, hydrogels, nanofibers, films, and scaffolds. This review aimed to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of different carrier materials. We discuss synthesis methods and their application scope to provide new perspectives for the development and preparation of more favorable and effective local oral drug delivery systems.

19.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 9, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365956

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the anticaries potential of toothpastes distributed by the primary health care public clinics (UBS) of Manaus, AM. METHODS Ninety-nine tubes of toothpaste from four commercial brands were collected from October 7, 2019 to October 11, 2019 in 16 UBS. They were assigned a code by brand and source UBS. According to the information on the packaging, the four brands and their batches were formulated with sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2FPO3) and most (91%) had calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as an abrasive. We determined the concentrations of total fluoride (TF = TSF + InsF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF = F ions- or FPO32-), to certify whether they were in compliance with resolution ANVISA RDC No. 530 (maximum of 1,500 ppm TF) and whether they had anticaries potential (minimum of 1,000 ppm TSF). The analyses were performed with a ion- specific electrode. RESULTS The concentrations (ppm F) of TF [mean; standard deviation (SD); n] found in toothpaste brands A (1,502.3; SD = 45.6; n = 33), B (1,135.5; SD = 52.7; n = 48) and D (936.8; SD = 20.5; N = 8) were close to those stated on the package, 1,500, 1,100 and 1,000 ppm F, respectively. In toothpaste C, we found a mean of 274.1 ppm (SD = 219.7; n = 10) of TF, which diverges from the declared concentration of 1,500 ppm F. In addition, the five tubes of lot no. 11681118 of toothpaste C did not contain fluoride. Regarding TSF, with the exception of toothpaste D (937.9; SD = 40.29), the others had a lower concentration than their respective TF. CONCLUSION We found serious problems of quantity and quality of fluoride in toothpaste distributed by the SUS in Manaus, which shows the need for surveillance of these products and confirms the urgency of revising resolution RDC No. 530.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar o potencial anticárie dos dentifrícios distribuídos pelas unidades básicas de saúde (UBS) de Manaus-AM. MÉTODOS Noventa e nove bisnagas de dentifrícios de quatro marcas comerciais foram coletadas de 7 de outubro de 2019 a 11 de outubro de 2019 em 16 UBS, que foram codificados por marca e UBS de origem. De acordo com a embalagem, os dentifrícios das quatro marcas e seus lotes foram formulados com monofluorofosfato de sódio (Na2FPO3) e a maioria (91%) tinha carbonato de cálcio (CaCO3) como abrasivo. Foram determinadas as concentrações de fluoreto total (FT = FST + Fins) e de fluoreto solúvel total (FST = íons F- ou FPO32-), para certificar se atendiam à resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530 (máximo de 1.500 ppm de FT) e se tinham potencial anticárie (mínimo de 1.000 ppm de FST). As análises foram feitas com eletrodo íon específico. RESULTADOS As concentrações (ppm F) de FT [média; desvio padrão (DP); n] encontradas nos dentifrícios A (1.502,3; DP = 45,6; n = 33), B (1.135,5; DP = 52,7; n = 48) e D (936,8; DP = 20,5; n = 8) foram próximas ao descrito na embalagem, 1.500, 1.100 e 1.000 ppm F, respectivamente. No dentifrício C, foi encontrada média de 274,1 ppm (DP = 219,7; n = 10) de FT, divergindo da concentração declarada de 1.500 ppm F. Em acréscimo, as cinco bisnagas do lote no 11681118 do dentifrício C não foram fluoretadas. Quanto ao FST, à exceção do dentifrício D (937,9; DP = 40,29), os demais apresentaram concentração inferior ao seu respectivo FT. CONCLUSÃO Observou-se problemas graves de quantidade e qualidade do fluoreto nos dentifrícios distribuídos pelo SUS em Manaus, mostrando a necessidade de vigilância desses produtos e ratificando a urgência da revisão da resolução ANVISA RDC Nº 530.

20.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-10, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1353709

ABSTRACT

Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess level of DA among dental students in different grades and patients and to evaluate associations between DA and presence of dental caries. Material and Methods: Both four hundred all-grade dental students of Istanbul University and patients of Istanbul University Hospital were included in the study after random selection. Data regarding gender, oral hygiene habits, frequency of dental visits, and educational level were obtained via questionnaire. DA of participants were measured using both Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The prevalence of caries was determined using International Caries Detection and Assessment System Criteria (ICDAS). Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests. Results: Female patients and female 4th-year students had significantly higher MDAS scores (p<0.05). First-year students had significantly higher MDAS and DFS scores than 4th and 5th-year students (p<0.05). Patients who had caries and brushed their teeth less than twice a day had significantly higher MDAS scores (p<0.05). Among 3rd-year students, individuals who visited dentist regularly had lower MDAS scores (p<0.05). Conclusion: DA among senior dental students was lower than that in younger students with an increase in knowledge about dentistry. Tooth brushing frequency and caries prevalence was associated with DA in patient group. No association was found between DA and frequency of dental visits, except in 3rd-year students (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo transversal teve como objetivo avaliar o nível de DA entre estudantes de odontologia de diferentes anos de graduação, pacientes e associações entre DA e apresença de cárie dentária. Material e Métodos: Quatrocentos estudantes de odontologia de todas os anos da Universidade de Istambul e pacientes do Hospital Universitário de Istambul foram incluídos no estudo após randomização. Dados sobre sexo, hábitos de higiene bucal, frequência de consultas odontológicas e escolaridade foram obtidos por meio de questionário. DA dos participantes foram medidos usando dois questionários: Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) e Dental Fear Survey (DFS). A prevalência de cárie foi determinada usando os critérios do Sistema Internacional de Detecção e Avaliação de Cárie (International Caries Detection and Assessment System Criteria - ICDAS). Os dados foram analisados usando os testes Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U e Qui quadrado. Resultados: Pacientes do sexo feminino e estudantes também do sexo feminino do 4º ano apresentaram scores de MDAS significativamente maiores (p <0,05). Os alunos do primeiro ano tiveram pontuações MDAS e DFS significativamente mais altas do que os alunos do 4º e 5º ano (p <0,05). Pacientes que tinham cárie e escovavam os dentes menos de duas vezes ao dia apresentaram scores de MDAS significativamente maiores (p <0,05). Entre os alunos do terceiro ano, os indivíduos que visitavam o dentista regularmente apresentaram menores scores de MDAS (p <0,05). Conclusão: A DA entre os alunos do último ano de odontologia foi menor do que entre os alunos mais jovens, devido ao aumento do conhecimento sobre odontologia. A frequência de escovação e a prevalência de cárie foram associadas à DA no grupo de pacientes. Não foi encontrada associação entre DA e frequência de consultas odontológicas, exceto em alunos do 3º ano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Dental Caries , Prevalence
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