Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2449-2468, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888869

ABSTRACT

Orally administered drug entities have to survive the harsh gastrointestinal environment, penetrate the enteric epithelia and circumvent hepatic metabolism before reaching the systemic circulation. Whereas the gastrointestinal stability can be well maintained by taking proper measures, hepatic metabolism presents as a formidable barrier to drugs suffering from first-pass metabolism. The pharmaceutical academia and industries are seeking alternative pathways for drug transport to circumvent problems associated with the portal pathway. Intestinal lymphatic transport is emerging as a promising pathway to this end. In this review, we intend to provide an updated overview on the rationale, strategies, factors and applications involved in intestinal lymphatic transport. There are mainly two pathways for peroral lymphatic transport-the chylomicron and the microfold cell pathways. The underlying mechanisms are being unraveled gradually and nowadays witness increasing research input and applications.

2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
3.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 29(3): 381-388, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020582

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The value of propolis is scientifically and commercially measured through the content of biologically active molecules as phenolic compounds and flavonoids; on the other hand, a high percentage of waxes in the propolis composition makes it a substandard beekeeping product. Colombian propolis is characterized by a high content of waxes; however, this drawback turns into an advantage when this material is used for preparing lipid nanocarriers. Accordingly, in this research work, a propolis-extracted material obtained by Randall method is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Then, it is used for obtaining nanostructured lipid carriers by the emulsification-diffusion technique, whose recipe and operating work conditions were established by a Plackett-Burman statistical screening design. The obtained particles exhibit sizes less than 300 nm, polydispersity indices around 0.1, zeta potential values less than ±2 mV, good physical stability and they show to be safe in the in vitro irritation test. Thus, Colombian propolis arises as an attractive natural source for obtaining lipid carriers that could be used in pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries for developing innovative products.

4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 59 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008520

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos têm crescido cada vez mais o número de pesquisas envolvendo nanotecnologia para obtenção de medicamentos com liberação controlada, pois esses sistemas podem: proteger o fármaco de incompatibilidades tanto biológicas quanto físico-químicas assim como controlar a biodisponibilidade do fármaco. Embora com todas essas vantagens não existem métodos in vitro realmente capazes de prever com precisão a liberação dos fármacos por esses sistemas, por esse motivo, é muito importante o desenvolvimento de métodos de liberação in vitro para determinar a cinética de liberação desses sistemas.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar os métodos de eletroforese capilar (CE) e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) para determinar a eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco imatinibe em nanopartículaspreviamente elaboradas e caracterizadas, assim como estudar sua liberação in vitro por CE. As nanopartículas foramdesenvolvidas pelo método de nanoprecipitaçãoe caracterizadas quanto ao tamanho, potencial zeta, morfologia e eficiência de encapsulação. A eletroforese capilar é uma técnica alternativa muito promissora em relação ao HPLC devido ao seu baixo custo, menor tempo de corrida e menos poluente ao meio ambiente. Os métodos de quantificação por CE e HPLCforam desenvolvidose validadossegundo as diretrizes do ICH, Farmacopeia Americana e ANVISA, permitindo desenvolver um estudo de liberação.As nanoesferas desenvolvidas apresentaram diâmetro médio próximo a 150nm, com índice de polidispersão menor que 0,1 e aproximadamente 90% de eficiência de encapsulação. Ambos métodos se mostraram lineares com coeficientes de determinação superiores a 0,99, os métodos se mostraram precisos (%DPR< 2), exatos(101,0±4,2% e 98,0±2,5% para HPLC e CE, respectivamente)e seletivos.O método de CE permitiu desenvolver um método de estudo de liberação independente das membranas de diálise


In recent years, there has been a growing number of researches involving nanotechnology to obtain controlled release drugs, these systems can: protect the drug against biological and physico-chemical incompatibilities; controlling the bioavailability of the drug. Although with all these advantages there are no in vitro methods really capable of accurately predicting drugs release by such systems, therefore, the development of in vitro release methods to determine the release kinetics of such systems is very important. The objective of the present work was to develop and validate capillary electrophoresis (CE) and HPLC methods to determine the encapsulation efficiency of the imatinib drug in previously elaborated and characterized nanoparticles, as well as to study its release in vitro by CE method. The nanoparticles were synthesized using the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Capillary electrophoresis is a very promising alternative to HPLC because of its low cost, less runtime and less polluting environment. The CE and HPLC methodswere developed and validated according ICH, American Pharmacopoeia and ANVISA guidelines.Developed nanospheres had an average diameter close to 150nm, with polydispersity index less than 0.1 and approximately 90% encapsulation efficiency. Both methods were linear with determination coefficients higher than 0.99, the methods were precise (%RSD < 2), accurate (101.0±4,2% and 98.0±2,5% for HPLC and CE, respectively) and selective. Capillary electrophoresis method allowed to develop a drug release study independent of dialysis membranes


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Electrophoresis, Capillary/methods , Imatinib Mesylate/analysis
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746215

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as an ideal treatment for multiple diseases including ocular disease.Recent studies have demonstrated that MSCs-derived exosomes have similar functions with MSCs.Exosomes are nanovesicles surrounded by a phospholipid layer that shuttle active cargo between different cells.They are capable of passing the biological barrier and have potentials to be utilized as natural carrier for the ocular drug delivery.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811769

ABSTRACT

@#Platelet is an important component of human blood, which plays a key role in the physiological and pathological processes. Recently, novel drug delivery system based on platelet and platelet membrane bionics attracted much attention. Compared to the traditional drug carriers, platelet and platelet membrane-based biomimetic drug delivery system has great performances in biocompatibility, longer circulation and stronger ability of targeting. This review presented the features, classifications, drug-loading and applications of platelet and platelet membrane-based biomimetic drug delivery systems, promoting their development and application in the future.

7.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 566-569, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807208

ABSTRACT

Growth factors play critical roles in the process of wound healing. Application of growth factor locally is a good way of promoting wound healing, while it is easy to be hydrolyzed in wounds and its efficacy has dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, appropriate growth factor delivery system is needed to assist it to function in wounds. In addition to delivering growth factor directly to wounds, viral and non-viral vectors can be used for gene transfection of growth factor in wounds. The gene can be transformed to growth factor to promote wound healing by transcription and translation. This article reviews the advances in the research of delivery system of growth factor and the gene for promoting wound healing.

8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e008, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889493

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in situ degree of conversion, contact angle, and immediate and long-term bond strengths of a commercial primer and an experimental adhesive containing indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded nanocapsules (NCs). The indomethacin- and triclosan-loaded NCs, which promote anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects through controlled release, were incorporated into the primer at a concentration of 2% and in the adhesive at concentrations of 1, 2, 5, and 10%. The in situ degree of conversion (DC, n=3) was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle of the primer and adhesive on the dentin surface (n = 3) was determined by an optical tensiometer. For the microtensile bond strength µTBS test (12 teeth per group), stick-shaped specimens were tested under tensile stress immediately after preparation and after storage in water for 1 year. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests with α=0.05. The use of the NC-loaded adhesive resulted in a higher in situ degree of conversion. The DC values varied from 75.07 ± 8.83% to 96.18 ± 0.87%. The use of NCs in only the adhesive up to a concentration of 5% had no influence on the bond strength. The contact angle of the primer remained the same with and without NCs. The use of both the primer and adhesive with NCs (for all concentrations) resulted in a higher contact angle of the adhesive. The longitudinal μTBS was inversely proportional to the concentration of NCs in the adhesive system, exhibiting decreasing values for the groups with primer containing NCs and adhesives with increasing concentrations of NCs. Adhesives containing up to 5% of nanocapsules and primer with no NCs maintained the in situ degree of conversion, contact angle, and immediate and long-term bond strengths. Therefore, the NC-loaded adhesive can be an alternative method for combining the bond performance and therapeutic effects. The use of an adhesive with up to 5% nanocapsules containing indomethacin and triclosan and a primer with no nanocapsules maintained the long-term bond performance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dental Bonding/methods , Indomethacin/chemistry , Nanocapsules/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Triclosan/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Dental Restoration Failure , Dentin/drug effects , Materials Testing , Phase Transition/drug effects , Polymerization/drug effects , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
9.
Journal of Chinese Physician ; (12): 801-803, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705900

ABSTRACT

This article summarized the mechanism of Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) and the research progress of URDDS for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702374

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer have always been the focus of attention.The rapid development of nanotechnology brings new hope for early diagnosis and highly effective non-toxic drug treatment of cancer.Through the construction of stable,low toxicity and high-performance carrier,which is combined with anti-cancer drugs and molecular probes to improve the distribution and metabolism of drugs in the body,targeted transport and tracer in vivo effect can achieved.Carbon nanomaterials have become a hot spot in drug carrier research with their unique structure and excellent properties.The progresses of different types of carbon nanomaterials in cancer diagnosis and treatment were reviewed in this article.

11.
Tumor ; (12): 1339-1343, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-848454

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy has become a new cancer therapy model behind surgical excision, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and interventional therapy. The choice of proper carrier is very important in cancer gene therapy. Adenovirus is widely used as a vector carrier in cancer gene therapy. Gene-engineered oncolytic adenovirus (OncoAd) has the advantages including cancer cell-specific replication, infected cell destruction, and high expression of inserted therapeutic genes, so as to obtain the potent antitumor efficacy. Therefore, using OncoAd is considered to be an effective tumor therapy strategy. The systemic administration of intravenous delivery plays an important role in the treatment of advanced metastatic cancer. However, the delivery of OncoAd was limited to local injection in vivo in the past. Because the efficacy of intravenously administering OncoAd is compromised by non-specific sequestration in the liver and host immune response, while the non-viral vectors have the advantages of good biosafety and low immunogenicity, the combination of the two will be beneficial to the systemic administration of OncoAd. In this paper, the research strategies of OncoAd intravenous delivery for cancer gene therapy in recent years are reviewed, and the research progress in OncoAd combined with non-viral vector for cancer gene therapy is emphasized.

12.
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 124-128, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-489604

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is currently the world's fourth incidence of malignant tumors,the early clinical manifestations are not obvious,so the early diagnosis is difficult to find,most of them are in progress.Treatment of advanced stage with chemotherapy,interventional therapy,radiotherapy and other methods,in which chemotherapy in the killing of tumor cells at the same time,the normal cells of the body also has a killing effect.In recent years,all kinds of new nano targeting delivery system has been developed,which can be targeted to the tumor tissue,so it is more and more important in the treatment of intestinal tumor,especially with metastasis.The author has made an overview of the types of nano drug carrier materials,the research status and its application in the research of colorectal cancer.

13.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 1140-1143, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479160

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the optimum condition of preparing ofloxaxcin gelatin microspheres. Methods Oflox?axcin gelatin microspheres were manufactured using the emulsion chemical-cross linking method and gelatin was employed as carrier, liquid paraffin as oil phase, Span80 as emulsifier, . The loading capability and entrapment efficiency of the ofloxax?cin gelatin microspheres were determined by UV Spectrophotometry. The effect of gelatin concentration, oil/water volume ra?tio, gelatin/ofloxaxcin mass ratio and volume fraction of span80 on drug loading capability and entrapment efficiency were in?vestigated. The optimum proportions of each component was obtained by L9 (34) orthogonal test, based on the above 4 factors, using sum of drug loading capability and entrapment efficiency as evaluation index. Results The optimum condition for manufacturing high quality ofloxaxcin gelatin microspheres used 20%of gelatin concentration,water/oil volume ratio at 3.5∶1, gelatin/ofloxaxcin mass ratio at 1∶1, the span 80 volume fraction of 2.5%. Conclusion Drug loading capability and entrap?ment efficiency of the ofloxaxcin gelatin microspheres reached 80%using this manufacture technology therefore the prepara?tion was stable and feasible.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-465631

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Recently, microcarrier culture as a high concentration cel culture technology has been used in hepatocyte culturein vitro. OBJECTIVE:To periodicaly observe the morphological changes of human hepatocyte L-02 cultured by the spherical porous chitosan microcarrier. METHODS:The self-made spherical porous chitosan microcarrier sample as a support to culture human hepatocytes L-02 acted as experimental group; non-spherical porous chitosan microcarrier as a support to culture human hepatocytes L-02 as control group. Cels in two groups underwent cel count at regular time, and the morphological changes were observed in the experimental group, including inverted phase contrast biological microscope observation and scanning electron microscope observation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The quantity of cultured cels in the two groups was increased in the first 3 days and reached the peak at the 3rd day. The cel quantity in the experiment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P 0.05). The quantity of hepatocytes adhered to the microcarrier surface was gradualy increased in the former 3 days under the inverted phase contrast biological microscope. There were lots of cel clusters on the surface of a greater part of microcarriers, with the total survival rate of more than 90%, and hepatocytes kept a good morphological structure. Under the scanning electron microscope, lots of hepatocytes adhered tightly to each other on the surface and section of microcarrier as wel as inside the microcarrier. It is indicated that the self-made spherical porous chitosan microcarrier as a support in three-dimensional environment can undergo cel culture with high concentration.

15.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 852-855, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-478635

ABSTRACT

Objective To prepare a targeted antitumor drug delivery system using large-inner-diameter multi-walled carbon nanotubes (LID-MWCNTs) for sustained release and to study its performance. Methods LID-MWCNTs were puri?fied and oxidized,then use nanocarriers and USTs as homologous blockers. Folic acid and fluorescent labels were conjugat?ed onto the external surfaces of nanocarriers. CDDP (cisplatin) was encapsulated and ultrashort tubes (USTs) were employed to block the drug entry/exit paths. The microstructure of resulted drug delivery system (DDS) was observed, while drug load?ing efficiency and drug release profile in vitro were determined. The tumor-targeting property and cytotoxicity of DDS were also assessed. Results LID-MWCNT based sustained release targeted drug delivery system was established. Drug loading efficiency of CDDP@UST-FA-LID-MWCNTs was as high as 70.97%. A typical biphasic sustained release pattern was dem?onstrated, and the accumulating release time was 18 h. DDS exhibited a certain kind of tumor-targeting property, and inhibit?ed proliferation of tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion CDDP@UST-FA-LID-MWCNT drug delivery system exhibited an improved drug loading efficiency and a sustained drug release profile. It could specifically target the tu?mor cells and had a significant antitumor effect.

16.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 582-586, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-467955

ABSTRACT

Objective To synthesize poly asparagine derivatives and to evaluate its safety at the cellular level, which provide research platform for its potential application as drug carrier. Methods Polysuccinimide was synthesized by ther?mal polymerization of L-polyaspartic acid, and the target product of PSI-Phe-EA was obtained by the ring-opening reaction of polysuccinimide using L-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride and ethanol amine. The structure of PSI-Phe-EA were characterized by 1H NMR. The rate of ring-opening of PSI was calculated by internal standard method of 1H NMR. The change of hydrophilicity was studied by the comparison of solubility. The cytotoxicity and morphology modification by PSI-Phe-EA at designate concentrations was investigated by MTT method and inverted microscopy respectively. The effects on cell cycles were analyzed by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results 1H NMR results confirmed the structure of PSI-Phe-EA and the ring-openning rate of PSI was 40%. The hydrophilicity of PSI-Phe-EA was greatly in?creased upon ring opening using ethanol amine. MTT test showed that the cell survival rates of NIH 3T3 and HepG2 cells were higher than 80%under the examined concentration (<100 mg/L). Inverted microscopy showed that 50 mg/L of PSI-Phe-EA treatment had no adverse effects on cell morphology. Cell cycle analysis indicated that PSI-Phe-EA treatment had no in?fluence on cell cycles of NIH 3T3 and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion PSI-Phe-EA showed high hydrophilicity without sig?nificant effects on the cells survival, cells morphology and cell cycles. It is a kind of safe polymer material.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446881

ABSTRACT

Targeted therapy means transporting drugs to certain tissue,aiming at increasing the utilization of drugs as well as reducing cytotoxicity.Chemotherapy drugs carried by carbon nanotube have high pharmaceutical activity and tumor control rate,compared with drugs alone.Carbon nanotube combined with immunotherapy drugs and nucleic acid can treat tumors at immunology and gene level.

18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163294

ABSTRACT

Aims: To develop block copolymer crosslinked nanoassemblies (CNAs) that co-entrap an imaging dye (Acridine Yellow: AY) and therapeutic agent (doxorubicin: DOX) as novel nanoparticle drug carriers for a combined application of drug delivery-based therapy and diagnostic imaging technologies (theranostics). Study Design: Physicochemical properties of AY-CNAs, such as molecular weight, particle size, surface charge, drug entrapment yield, and drug release profiles, were characterized prior to determining intracellular uptake profile, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo tissue distribution patterns of the particles. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (University of Kentucky), between June 2012 and January 2013. Methodology: The AY-crosslinked CNAs (CNAs) were synthesized from biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymers by using AY as a crosslinker while DOX was physically entrapped in the particle through an ionic interaction. AY-CNAs and AY-CNAs with DOX were characterized to determine their particle properties (molecular weight, size, and optical properties), intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity in an in vitro cell culture system using human colon HT29 and lung A549 cancer cell lines, and tissue accumulation and tumor-preferential drug delivery efficiency ex vivo with a xenograft mouse tumor model. Results: AY-CNAs maintained nanoscale particle sizes (< 20 nm), fluorescence optical properties, and negative surface charge before and after drug entrapment. AY-CNAs with DOX were confirmed to kill cancer cells as effectively as free drug formulations, and to enhance intracellular uptake in vitro and tumor accumulation ex vivo. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that block copolymer nanoassemblies crosslinked with an imaging dye are promising platforms for the development of theranostic nanoparticle drug carriers.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-839505

ABSTRACT

Objective To synthesize three kinds of surface-modified gold nanoparticles and to compare their size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, and stability. Methods Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) stabilized gold nanoparticles (PVP-AuNPs), didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB, a cationic lipid) coated gold nanoparticles (DODAB-AuNPs), and cysteamine modified gold nanoparticles (CA-AuNPs) were successfully synthesized by chemical reduction method. The size distribution, zeta potential, and surface morphology of the three kinds of gold nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and the stability of them was evaluated in various concentrations of sodium ions (0. 01, 0 1, 0. 5 and 1 mol/L NaCl; pH = 7. 2) and at different pH values (1. 0-14. 0) by UV-Vis absorption spectra. Results The mean diameters of PVP-AuNPs, DODAB-AuNPs, and CA-AuNPs were (15 0 + 3.1) nm, (22.7 + 6.1) nm, and (18. 0 + 4. 6) nm, respectively; and their zeta potentials were (- 19. 7 + 4. 1), (62. 8 + 4. 3), and (33. 3 + 7. 7) mV, respectively. It was also found that PVP-AuNPs and DODAB-AuNPs were very stable in NaCl solution and different pH environments. However, CA-AuNPs solution was sensitive to concentration of sodium ions and pH value changes and it could maintain stable only when the concentration of NaCl was 0. 01 mol/L or the pH value was within 4. 5-6. 5; otherwise there would be aggregation. Conclusion The three kinds of gold nanoparticles have a nano spherical shape and good stability, with different surface potentials when modified with different ligands; these findings provide reference for design of drug delivery carriers.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-435850

ABSTRACT

In vitro or in vivo results of investigations into the development of photosensitizer drug delivery systems have demonstrated that the use of vehicles not only enhance the stability of photosensitizer,but also promote the accumulation of photosensitizer in tumor tissue,enhance the targetability of photodynamic therapy,the working depth,the yield of singlet oxygen and overcome many untoward effects.So the research of new photosensitizer drug delivery system has important application value in photodynamic therapy of tumor.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL