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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378478

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, espaciais e temporais da leishmaniose visceral humana, no município de Sobral, no período de 2007 a 2019. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo e ecológico de análise espacial e temporal, com uso dos programas Quantum-Gis e Joinpoint. Resultados: foram confirmados 316 casos novos, predominantemente, no sexo masculino, nas faixas etárias de 1 a 4 anos (26,3%) e de 20 a 39 anos (24,0%), na zona urbana. Febre (95,9%), fraqueza (85,1%), emagrecimento (80,1%), palidez (73,7%), esplenomegalia (75,6%) e hepatomegalia (69,3%) foram os sinais clínicos mais frequentes. A doença se concentrou em quatro bairros: Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa e Sinhá Saboia, expressando áreas mais densas (quentes). A incidência e a letalidade foram crescentes no início do período e decrescentes no final, com uma inversão destes indicadores no ano de 2014. Conclusão: em Sobral, a leishmaniose visceral humana é um agravo considerado relevante para o serviço de vigilância em saúde com necessidade de intensificação das ações de controle entomológico, zoonótico e de manejo ambiental, principalmente nas áreas mais densas.


Objectives: the objective was to describe the epidemiological, spatial, and temporal aspects of human visceral leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Sobral, from 2007 to 2019. Methods: A descriptive, spatial and temporal ecological study was carried out using Quantum-Gis and Joinpoint programs. Results: 316 new cases were confirmed, predominantly in males, in the age groups of 1 to 4 years (26.3%) and 20 to 39 years (24.0%), mainly in the urban area. Fever (95.9%), weakness (85.1%), weight loss (80.1%), pallor (73.7%), splenomegaly (75.6%), and hepatomegaly (69.3%) were the most frequent clinical signs. The disease was concentrated in four neighborhoods (Terrenos Novos, Centro, Expectativa, and Sinhá Saboia), hot spots. The incidence and case-fatality increased at the beginning of the period but decreased at the end, with an inversion in these in the year 2014. Conclusion: In Sobral, human visceral leishmaniasis is a disease considered relevant to the health surveillance service, with the need to intensify entomological, zoonotic, and environmental management actions, especially in denser areas.


Subject(s)
Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Signs and Symptoms , Health Surveillance , Epidemiology , Mortality , Indicators and Reagents , Age Groups
2.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(3): 401-407, junio 14, 2022. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378694

ABSTRACT

Introducción. A nivel mundial los tumores gastrointestinales tienen un impacto importante en la mortalidad y se asocian a diferentes factores, entre ellos regionales y sociodemográficos. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la variación en el tiempo del cáncer gastrointestinal en una población del centro occidente de Colombia, dada su alta incidencia y desenlace frecuentemente fatal.Métodos. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo observacional con muestreo no probabilístico en un tiempo de seis años. Se seleccionaron pacientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de neoplasia del tracto digestivo, en un hospital de tercer nivel del centro occidente de Colombia. Resultados. Se evaluaron un total de 1152 pacientes. Los tumores del tracto digestivo superior (esófago, unión esófago-gástrica y estómago) fueron los más frecuentes (44 %), seguidos de los tumores del tracto digestivo medio e inferior (intestino delgado, colon, recto y ano; 31 %) y de los tumores hepato-bilio-pancreáticos (25 %). La edad media de presentación fue 64,6 años, con una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (51,6 %). El adenocarcinoma fue el tipo histológico más común.Conclusión. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que los tumores gastrointestinales son una neoplasia frecuente en nuestro país, siendo los tumores gástricos los que se presentan con mayor prevalencia, seguidos de los tumores colorrectales y las neoplasias biliopancreáticas, las cuales se mantiene en el tiempo.


Introduction. Worldwide, gastrointestinal tumors have a significant impact on mortality and are associated with different factors, including regional and sociodemographics. The objective of this study was to describe the variation over time of gastrointestinal cancer in a population from Central-Western Colombia, given its high incidence and frequently fatal outcome. Methods. An observational retrospective study with non-probabilistic sampling was carried out over a period of six years. Patients diagnosed with some type of neoplasm of the digestive tract were selected in a tertiary care hospital in the Central-Western Colombia. Results. A total of 1152 patients were evaluated. Tumors of the upper digestive tract (esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and stomach) were the most frequent (44%), followed by tumors of the middle and lower digestive tract (small intestine, colon, rectum and anus; 31%), and hepatobiliary-pancreatic tumors (25%). The mean age of presentation was 64.6 years with a higher frequency in males (51.6%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type.Conclusion. The results of this study show that gastrointestinal tumors are a frequent neoplasm in our country, with gastric tumors being the most prevalent, followed by colorectal tumors and biliopancreatic neoplasms, which are maintained over time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mortality , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Stomach , Incidence , Colon , Neoplasms
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 447-453, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to healthcare services may have become difficult, which may have led to an increase in chronic diseases and multimorbidity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of multimorbidity and its associated factors among adults living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We included data from the two waves of the Prospective Study About Mental and Physical Health (PAMPA). Data were collected via online questionnaires between June and July 2020 (wave 1) and between December 2020 and January 2021 (wave 2). Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more diagnosed medical conditions. RESULTS: In total, 516 individuals were included, among whom 27.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.5-31.1) developed multimorbidity from wave 1 to 2. In adjusted regression models, female sex (hazard ratio, HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.19-3.24), middle-aged adults (31-59 years) (HR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.18-2.70) and older adults (60 or over) (HR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.25-4.61) showed higher risk of multimorbidity. Back pain (19.4%), high cholesterol (13.3%) and depression (12.2%) were the medical conditions with the highest proportions reported by the participants during wave 2. CONCLUSION: The incidence of multimorbidity during a six-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic was 27.1% in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Multimorbidity , Middle Aged
4.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(288): 7804-7813, maio.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372433

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar retrospectivamente a incidência de lesão por pressão (LP) em uma UTI Geral em 2018, após aplicação da ciência de melhoria no Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Método: estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e exploratório de natureza quantitativa, com dados de março a dezembro de 2018, sobre a incidência de LP e adesão as medidas implantadas após aplicação ciência da melhoria na UTI Geral São Judas Tadeu no Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Resultados: identificadas 104 lesões em 59 pacientes e uma incidência de LP de 7,33%. A região sacra foi a mais acometida (27,03%). 50% das LP foram de estágio 2. 38,46% das lesões foram relacionadas a dispositivos médicos. A adesão ao bundle de cuidados ficou em 71,16% e a Escala de Braden em 4 horas em 89,4%. Conclusão: estudo demonstra uma menor incidência de LP comparada com os valores nacionais, melhoria significativa no processo de identificação dos estadiamentos, avaliação do risco e notificações das LP(AU)


Objective: to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of pressure injury (PI) in a General ICU in 2018, after application of improvement science at Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Method: a retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study of a quantitative nature, with data from March to December 2018, on the incidence of PI and adherence to measures implemented after scientific application of improvement in the São Judas Tadeu General ICU at Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Results: 104 lesions were identified in 59 patients and an incidence of PI of 7.33%. The sacral region was the most affected (27.03%). 50% of PI were stage 2. 38.46% of injuries were related to medical devices. Adherence to the care bundle was 71.16% and the 4-hour Braden Scale was 89.4%. Conclusion: study demonstrates a lower incidence of PI compared to national values, significant improvement in the process of identifying staging, risk assessment and reporting of PI.(AU)


Objetivo: evaluar retrospectivamente la incidencia de lesión por presión (LP) en una UTI General en 2018, después de la aplicación de la ciencia de la mejora en el Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Método: estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y exploratorio de naturaleza cuantitativa, con datos de marzo a diciembre de 2018, sobre la incidencia de LP y la adhesión a las medidas implementadas después de la aplicación científica de la mejora en la UTI General São Judas Tadeu del Hospital Santa Teresa, Petrópolis, RJ. Resultados: se identificaron 104 lesiones en 59 pacientes y una incidencia de LP del 7,33%. La región sacra fue la más afectada (27,03%). El 50% de las LP fueron estadio 2. El 38,46% de las lesiones estuvieron relacionadas con dispositivos médicos. La adherencia al paquete de atención fue del 71,16% y la Escala de Braden de 4 horas fue del 89,4%. Conclusión: el estudio demuestra una menor incidencia de LP en comparación con los valores nacionales, una mejora significativa en el proceso de identificación de etapas, evaluación de riesgos y notificación de LP.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pressure Ulcer , Quality Improvement , Incidence
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 59(1): 71-74, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374438

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Viral infections can cause acute pancreatitis. Idiopathic pancreatitis has an important proportion in the etiology of acute pancreatitis. Objective To investigate the rate of development of acute pancreatitis (AP) in COVID-19 patients and to determine the rate of idiopathic pancreatitis in the etiology of this pancreatitis. Methods A total of 6.467 patients hospitalized with the COVID-19 diagnosis were included in the study. Patients diagnosed with AP based on the Atlanta criteria were identified. Etiological factors were determined in patients who developed acute pancreatitis and compared with the etiological factors in 315 patients with non-COVID-19, hospitalized with the diagnosis of AP before the COVID-19 pandemic. AP was detected in 0.1% of patients with COVID-19. While gallstone was the etiologic factor in 2 (28.6%) of seven patients who developed acute pancreatitis during COVID-19, hyperlipidemia was the factor for 1 (14.3%) patient. Moreover, the etiologic factor could not be determined in 4 (57.1%) patients, and they were regarded as idiopathic pancreatitis patients. Biliary pancreatitis was the most common etiologic factor in 315 (78.4%) patients admitted to the hospital for AP before the COVID-19 pandemic. Idiopathic pancreatitis was ranked second with 16.8%. Conclusion It was observed that there was a significant difference in the incidence of idiopathic pancreatitis between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 (P=0.015). Results suggest that the SARS-Cov-2 virus may be among the factors leading to AP.


RESUMO Contexto Infecções virais podem causar pancreatite aguda (PA). A pancreatite idiopática tem uma proporção importante na etiologia da pancreatite aguda. Objetivo Investigar a taxa de desenvolvimento de pancreatite aguda em pacientes com COVID-19 e determinar a taxa de pancreatite idiopática na etiologia desta pancreatite. Métodos No estudo foram incluídos 6.467 pacientes internados com o diagnóstico de COVID-19. Foram identificados pacientes diagnosticados com PA com base nos critérios de Atlanta. Fatores etiológicos foram determinados em pacientes que desenvolveram pancreatite aguda e comparados com os fatores etiológicos em 315 pacientes sem COVID-19, hospitalizados com o diagnóstico de PA antes da pandemia COVID-19. A PA foi detectada em 0,1% dos pacientes com COVID-19. Enquanto o cálculo biliar foi o fator etiológico em 2 (28,6%) dos sete pacientes que desenvolveram pancreatite aguda durante o COVID-19, a hiperlipidemia foi o fator para 1 (14,3%) paciente. Além disso, o fator etiológico não pôde ser determinado em 4 (57,1%) pacientes, sendo considerados pacientes com pancreatite idiopática. A pancreatite biliar foi o fator etiológico mais comum em 315 (78,4%) pacientes internados no hospital para PA antes da pandemia COVID-19. A pancreatite idiopática ficou em segundo lugar com 16,8%. Conclusão Observou-se que houve diferença significativa na incidência de pancreatite idiopática entre pacientes com COVID-19 e não COVID-19 (P=0,015). Os resultados sugerem que o vírus SARS-Cov-2 pode estar entre os fatores que levam à pancreatite aguda.

6.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(1): e9559, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368151

ABSTRACT

O estudo tem por objetivo analisar a influência de indicadores sociais das regiões e verificar sua correlação com a incidência e mortalidade causada pela COVID-19 no Brasil no período de junho de 2020. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, ecológico e analítico na qual foram incluídas nas análises todas Unidades Federativas brasileiras de 10/06/2020 à 13/06/2020. Considerou-se como variáveis relacionadas à COVID-19: taxa de incidência e mortalidade acumulada por 100 mil habitantes e taxa de letalidade acumulada. Como variáveis independentes, determinou-se: índice de desenvolvimento humano, percentual de pobreza e renda per capita. Verificou-se que regiões mais pobres (Norte e Nordeste) possuem maior incidência, mortalidade e letalidade por COVID-19 se comparado com as regiões mais ricas do (Sudeste, Sul e Centro-oeste). Esses resultados demonstram que os indicadores sociais possuem influência nas taxas de incidência e óbitos por 100 mil habitantes devido a COVID-19, além de apresentar correlações significativas entre si. Os achados do estudo podem ser usados para embasar e dar direcionamento a ações de combate ao COVID-19 no país, levando à criação de políticas públicas bem estruturadas e garantindo eficácia para o enfrentamento da doença em áreas com vulnerabilidade.


Current paper analyzes the influence of social indicators in Brazilian regions and verifies their correlation with the occurrence and mortality caused by COVID-19 in Brazil. All the Brazilian Federative States were included in current observational, ecological and analytical study from 06/10/2020 to 06/13/2020. Variables were related to COVID-19´s occurrence rate, lethality and accumulated mortality per 100,000 inhabitants. Independent variables comprised human development index, poverty percentage and per capita income. Results show that poorer regions have higher incidence, mortality and lethality by COVID-19 when compared to richer ones. These results demonstrate that social indicators influence the incidence and death rates per 100,000 inhabitants due to COVID-19, in addition to showing significant correlations with each other. The study findings may be used to support and guide actions to combat COVID-19 in the country.

7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(1): 55-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365533

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with hyperlactatemia, which leads to adverse clinical outcomes. No study has examined the effect of different clamping techniques on postoperative hyperlactatemia (PHL). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the impact of two different techniques on PHL and the clinical outcomes in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: This retrospective study included 100 patients who underwent isolated CPB either with single clamp technique (SCT, n=47) or double clamp technique (DCT, n=53). Demographic and preoperative laboratory data, as well as operative features and arterial blood lactate levels at the onset and at the end of CPB, were collected from patient charts. Results: Blood lactate levels collected at the end of CPB did not differ significantly between groups whereas intraoperative lactate increased significantly in both groups (P<0.005). PHL developed in 16 patients (32%). There was no meaningful difference in SCT and DCT in this regard. Left internal mammary artery was used more frequently in the DCT group than in the SCT group. While the cross-clamp time was significantly longer in the SCT group, there was no difference regarding CPB time. Among postoperative complications, only the incidence of stroke was significantly higher in the DCT group than in the SCT group (10.6% vs. 0%, P=0.020). CPB time, cross-clamp time and numbers of proximal saphenous graft and distal anastomosis showed a significant positive correlation with the postoperative lactate level. In the regression analysis, CPB time emerged as the only independent predictor of PHL (OR 1.04, CI 95% 1.01-1.07, P=0.011). Conclusion: There was no difference in postoperative blood lactate levels between SCT and DCT groups.

8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 69-75, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360563

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To analyze gastroschisis annual incidence, mortality rates, and trends in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul from the year 2000 to the year 2017. Method: Population-based study with the analysis of the temporal trend of gastroschisis annual incidence and mortality rates. Data were obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System, with the analysis performed by polynomial regression modeling. Results: There were 2,612,532 live births, 705 hospitalizations, and 233 deaths due to gastroschisis. The annual incidence of gastroschisis was 2.69 per 10,000 live births. The annual incidence rate increased by 85% in the total period (p = 0.003), and mortality was 33% in the 2000-2017 period. Maternal age < 25 years was a risk factor for gastroschisis (p < 0.001). Children were more likely to be born weighing < 2,500 g (p < 0.001) and with a gestational age < 37 weeks (p < 0.001). The annual incidence trend was to increase, and the mortality trend was to decrease. Conclusion: Similar to what has been described in several regions/countries, there was a trend showing an 85% increase in the annual incidence of gastroschisis (p = 0.003) and the mortality was 33% with a trend of decreasing (p = 0.002).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Adult , Gastroschisis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Maternal Age , Live Birth
9.
Rev. salud pública ; 24(1): e203, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze trends in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in Latin American countries. Methods An ecological study with incidence data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from the World Health Organization. The trend of incidence by Joinpoint regression, the variation of the annual average and the 95% confidence interval were analyzed. Results There were increasing trends in incidence in Brazil, in males, aged 40-59 years, and reduction in Costa Rica. In females, there was stability in all age groups. The mortality rates increased in the elderly in Brazil (AAPC: 1.09%; 95% CI: 0.76; 1.42), Peru (AAPC: 1.76%; 95% CI: 0.36; 3.17) and El Salvador (AAPC: 2.88%; 95% CI: 0.38; 5.43), while in Mexico, there was a reduction. In females, this rate increased in Brazil (AAPC: 1.38%; 95% CI: 1.07; 1.69), Peru (AAPC: 2.25%; 95% CI: 0.68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3.62%; 95% CI: 1.96; 5.31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2.51%; 95% CI: 0.36; 4.71) and Paraguay (AAPC: 1.17%; 95% CI: 0.37; 1.98) and a downward trend was observed in Colombia and Ecuador. Conclusions Pancreatic cancer had a higher incidence in the elderly population of both sexes and an increase of the mortality trend in females was noted.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las tendencias en la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de páncreas en los países latinoamericanos. Método Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos de incidencia de la Agencia Internacional de Investigación sobre Cáncer y datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se analizó la tendencia de incidencia por regresión de Joinpoint, la variación del promedio anual y el intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados Hubo tendencias crecientes en la incidencia en Brasil en varones entre 40 y 59 años, y una reducción en Costa Rica. En las mujeres, hubo estabilidad en todos los grupos de edad. Las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron en los ancianos en Brasil (AAPC: 1,09%; IC 95%: 0,76; 1.42), Perú (AAPC: 1,76%; IC 95%: 0,36; 3,17) y El Salvador (AAPC: 2,88%; 95% IC 0,38; 5,43), mientras que en México hubo una reducción. En las mujeres, esta tasa aumentó en Brasil (AAPC: 1,38%; IC 95%: 1,07; 1.69), Perú (AAPC: 2,25%; IC 95%: 0,68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3,62%; IC 95%: 1,96; 5,31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2,51%; IC 95%: 0,36; 4,71) y Paraguay (AAPC: 1,17%; IC 95%: 0,37; 1,98) y se observó una tendencia a la baja en Colombia y Ecuador. Conclusiones El cáncer de páncreas tuvo una mayor incidencia en la población anciana de ambos sexos; cabe también señalar que debido a este aumentó su mortalidad en las mujeres.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907070

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To analyze the trends in incidence of thyroid cancer in Huangpu District, Shanghai from 2002 to 2017, so as to provide insights into the management of thyroid cancer.@*Methods @#The incidence of thyroid cancer in Shanghai from 2002 to 2017 was collected from the cancer registration system created by Shanghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The crude and standardized incidence of thyroid cancer were estimated by year, gender and age groups, and annual change percentage ( APC ) was calculated to analyze the trends in incidence of thyroid cancer.@*Results @#A total of 2 854 new cases of thyroid cancer were reported in Huangpu District from 2002 to 2017, and the crude and standardized incidence rates of thyroid cancer were 19.57/105 and 13.47/105, with APC of 18.15% and 17.93% ( P<0.05 ), respectively. The crude and standardized incidence rates of thyroid cancer were 10.02/105 and 7.06/105 in men, with APC of 19.58% and 19.04% ( P<0.05 ), and were 28.90/105 and 19.95/105 in women, with APC of 17.33% and 16.99% ( P<0.05 ), respectively. The crude incidence of thyroid cancer was higher in women than in men ( P<0.05 ). In addition, there were two peaks in the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in patients at age of 35 to 39 and 60 to 64 years, with crude incidence rates of 28.98/105 and 33.36/105, respectively. @*Conclusions @#The incidence of thyroid cancer appeared a tendency towards a rise in Huangpu District from 2002 to 2017, and much attention should be paid to females and patients aged 60 to 64 years.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907066

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the incidence of new HIV infection and its influencing factors among men who have sex with men ( MSM ) in China, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the AIDS control strategy.@*Methods @#Cohort studies pertaining to new HIV infections among Chinese MSM populations were retrieved in Chinese and English electronic databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library, and the retrieval time was set to build the database until May 2021. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the incidence of new HIV infection and its influencing factors among Chinese MSM populations. The publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and Egger's test, and the stability of outcome parameters was evaluated using sensitivity analysis.@*Results @#A total of 850 publications were retrieved, and 43 eligible literatures ( 44 studies ) were included in the final analysis. The pooled incidence of new HIV infection was 4.93 ( 95%CI: 4.15 to 5.72) per 100 person-years among Chinese MSM populations. Egger's test showed a publication bias ( t=2.411, P=0.021). Subgroup analysis revealed high incidence of new HIV infection in east ( 5.21 per 100 person-years ), north ( 5.30 per 100 person-years ) and southwest (4.84 per 100 person-years) China, and the lowest incidence in northwest China ( 2.87 per 100 person-years ), and showed higher incidence in first-tier cities ( 5.12 per 100 person-years ) than in nonfirst-tier cities ( 3.89 per 100 person-years ). Syphilis infection ( HR=3.41 ), unprotected anal sex ( HR=2.52 ), multiple sexual partners ( HR=3.51 ), seeking sex partners in bars, public baths and parks ( HR=3.44 ), age of > 25 years ( HR=0.44 ), Han Ethnicity ( HR=0.35 ), awareness of AIDS-related knowledge ( HR=0.20 ) and provision of HIV preventive services ( HR=0.18 ) were associated with new HIV infection in Chinese MSM populations. In addition, publication bias was found in studies reporting syphilis infection ( t=4.841, P<0.001 ), unprotected anal sex ( t=4.114, P=0.006 ) and ethnicity ( t=-5.018, P=0.038 ). @*Conclusions @#The incidence of new HIV infection is high among Chinese MSM populations. Interventions targeting the factors affecting new HIV infections are required to reduce in the incidence of new HIV infections among Chinese MSM populations.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904811

ABSTRACT

Objective @# To study the effect of fluoride varnish, glass ionomer and resin sealant on the prevention of pit and fissure caries in young children, and to identify an a method to reduce the sensitivity of operation technique to prevent pit and fissure caries in young children with limited moisture isolation.@*Methods@# A self-control design was used to select 370 young children aged 3 to 5. Eight molars in the mouth were distributed in four quadrants, and each quadrant was randomly allocated to the blank group, fluoride varnish Duraphat group, glass ionomer GC FujiⅦ group, and resin ClinproTM Sealant group. The retention rate of pit and fissure sealant and the incidence of primary molar caries were observed in the 6th, 12th, 24th and 36th months respectively.@* Results @# In the 6th month, 12th month and 24th month, there were no significant differences in the material retention rate between the GC Fuji Ⅶ group and ClinproTM Sealant group. In the 36th month, the retention rate of the ClinproTM sealant group was better than that of the GC Fuji Ⅶ group (P < 0.05). In the 6th month, the caries incidence in the Duraphat group, GC Fuji Ⅶ group and ClinproTM sealant group was significantly lower than that in the blank group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the Duraphat group, GC Fuji Ⅶ group and ClinproTM sealant group. In the 12th month, 24th month and 36th month, the incidence of caries in the GC Fuji Ⅶ group and ClinproTM sealant group was lower than that in the Duraphat group and blank group (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the blank group and Duraphat group, and there was no significant difference in caries incidence between the GC Fuji Ⅶ group and ClinproTM sealant group.@*Conclusion @#The GC Fuji Ⅶ and ClinproTM sealant treatments continuously and effectively prevented pit and fissure caries compared with simple fluoride application. However, in cases of limited cooperation and poor moisture isolation in young children, the preventive measures of glass ionomer pits and fissure sealants (GC Fuji Ⅶ) are simpler and more feasible.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#We investigated whether family histories of herpes zoster (HZ) are associated with the risk of incident HZ in a Japanese population.@*METHODS@#A total of 12,522 Japanese residents aged ≥50 years in Shozu County participated in the baseline survey between December 2008 and November 2009 (the participation rate = 72.3%). They were interviewed at baseline by research physicians regarding the registrants' history of HZ. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate the potential confounding factors. 10,530 participants without a history of HZ were followed up to ascertain the incidence of HZ during 3-years follow-up until the end of November 2012 with Japanese nationals. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of incident HZ according to first-degree family histories using the Cox proportional hazard regression after adjusting for age, sex, and other potential confounding factors.@*RESULTS@#Compared to no HZ history of each family member, a history of brother or sister was associated with a higher risk of incident HZ while histories of father and mother were not. The multivariable HR (95%CI) of incident HZ for a history of brother or sister was 1.67 (1.04-2.69). When comparing to no family histories of all first-degree relatives, the multivariable HRs (95%CIs) were 1.34 (0.77-2.34) for a history of brother or sister alone, but 4.81 (1.78-13.00) for a history of mother plus brother or sister. As for the number of family histories, the multivariable HRs (95%CIs) were 1.08 (0.76-1.54) for one relative (father, mother, or brother or sister) and 2.75 (1.13-6.70) for two or more relatives.@*CONCLUSION@#Family histories of mother plus brother or sister and two or more first-degree relatives were associated with a higher risk of incident HZ.


Subject(s)
Female , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mothers , Proportional Hazards Models
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Community health activities by public health nurses (PHNs) are known to improve lifestyle habits of local residents, and may encourage the practice of infectious disease prevention behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the association between prefecture-level COVID-19 incidence rate and the number of PHNs per population in Japan, by the COVID-19 variant type.@*METHODS@#Our data were based on government surveys where prefectural-level data are accessible to the public. The outcome variable was the COVID-19 incidence rate (i.e., the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population for each variant type in 47 prefectures). The explanatory variable was the number of PHNs per 100,000 population by prefecture. Covariates included socioeconomic factors, regional characteristics, healthcare resources, and health behaviors. The generalized estimating equations of the multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the COVID-19 cases. We performed stratified analyses by variant type (i.e., wild type, alpha variant, and delta variant).@*RESULTS@#A total of 1,705,224 confirmed COVID-19 cases (1351.6 per 100,000 population) in Japan were reported as of September 30, 2021. The number of PHNs per 100,000 population in Japan was 41.9. Multivariable Poisson regression models showed that a lower number of PHNs per population was associated with higher IRR of COVID-19. Among all COVID-19 cases, compared to the highest quintile group of the number of PHNs per population, the adjusted IRR of the lowest quintile group was consistently significant in the models adjusting for socioeconomic factors (IRR: 3.76, 95% CI: 2.55-5.54), regional characteristics (1.73, 1.28-2.34), healthcare resources (3.88, 2.45-6.16), and health behaviors (2.17, 1.39-3.37). These significant associations were unaffected by the variant type of COVID-19.@*CONCLUSION@#We found that the COVID-19 incidence rate was higher in prefectures with fewer PHNs per population, regardless of the COVID-19 variant type. By increasing the number of PHNs, it may be possible to contain the spread of COVID-19 in Japan and provide an effective human resource to combat emerging infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Nurses, Public Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 606-610, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927247

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the incidence and trends for incidence of stroke in Jinhua City from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into stroke control.@*Methods@#The data pertaining to incidence of stroke among registered residents in Jinhua City from 2015 to 2020 were collected from Zhejiang Provincial Information Management System for Surveillance on Chronic Diseases. The incidence of stroke was estimated and standardized to the Sixth National Population Census in 2010. The trend in incidence of stroke was evaluated using annual percent change (APC).@*Results@#Totally 120 993 stroke cases were reported in Jinhua City from 2015 to 2020, and the annual mean crude incidence and standardized incidence of stroke were 415.68/105 and 339.67/105, respectively. There were no significant trends in crude incidence (APC=0.30%, t=0.234, P=0.827) and standardized incidence of stroke (APC=-0.99%, t=0.946, P=0.398). The crude incidence of stroke was significantly higher in men than in women (457.38/105 vs. 372.62/105; χ2 =1 262.329, P<0.001), and the crude incidence of stroke appeared a tendency towards a rise with age (χ2 trend=377 708.263, P<0.001), with a tendency towards a decline among residents at ages of 75 years and older (APC=-2.66%, t=3.078, P=0.037). There were 94 038 residents with ischemic stroke (77.72%) and 24 176 residents with hemorrhagic stroke (19.98%), and both the crude incidence (APC=1.78%, t=3.440, P=0.026) and standardized incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (APC=2.66%, t=3.911, P=0.017) appeared a tendency towards a decline.@* Conclusions@#The incidence of stroke remained relatively stable in Jinhua City from 2015 to 2020; however, the overall incidence was still high. Ischemic stroke was the predominant type of stroke, and men and middle-aged and elderly people are at high risk of stroke.

16.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 561-570, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927239

ABSTRACT

Objective@# To investigate the factors influencing the development of gastric cancer in Chinese populations, so as provide insights into creating a model for predicting gastric cancer incidence among Chinese populations.@*Methods@#The case-control and cohort studies pertaining to factors affecting the development of gastric cancer were retrieved in electronic Chinese and English databases, including CNKI, Wanfang Data, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science and Embase from their inception until September 30, 2021. A meta-analysis was performed using R package version 4.1.0. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the “leave-one-out” evaluation procedure, and the publication bias was evaluated using the Egger regression test and the trim-and-fill procedure. @*Results@# A total of 5 301 publications were screened and 116 eligible studies were included in the final analysis, including 103 case-control studies and 13 cohort studies, which covered approximately 3.23 million study subjects. A total of 45 factors affecting the development of gastric cancer were collected, and there were less than 4 publications reporting 7 factors, which were only qualitatively described. There were 38 factors included in the final meta-analysis. A total of 21 factors were identified as risk factors of gastric cancer, including a history of gastrointestinal diseases (pooled OR=4.85, 95%CI: 3.74-6.29), H. pylori infection (pooled OR=3.18, 95%CI: 2.35-4.32), binge eating and drinking (pooled OR=2.88, 95%CI: 2.09-3.97) and a family history of tumors (pooled OR=2.78, 95%CI: 2.17-3.56), and 10 factors as protective factors, including vegetable intake (pooled OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.38-0.61), tea consumption (pooled OR=0.55, 95%CI: 0.47-0.64), administration of aspirin (pooled OR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.31-0.92) and administration of statins (pooled OR=0.59, 95%CI: 0.44-0.80). Sensitivity analyses of eating moldy food frequently, white meat intake, favoring spicy food and administration of sulfonylureas were not robust. Following correction with the trim-and-fill procedure, there was still a publication bias pertaining to high income, diabetes, administration of stains, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and white meat intake.@*Conclusions@# The development of gastric cancer is associated with a medical history of gastrointestinal disease, H. pylori infection, family history of tumors and poor dietary habits. Risk and protective factors of gastric cancer are recommended to be included in models used to predict gastric cancer incidence among Chinese populations.

17.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 289-293, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920769

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate epidemiological characteristics of cancers in Zhoushan City in 2018, so as to provide the evidence for the formulation of cancer control strategies.@*Methods@#The cancer data in Zhoushan City in 2018 were captured from Zhejiang Provincial Information Management System for Chronic Disease Surveillance. The gender- and age-specific incidence of cancers was descriptively analyzed. The cancer incidence was standardized to the data of the Sixth National Population Census in China in 2010 ( Chinese standard population ) and Segi's world standard population.@*Results@#The crude incidence rate, age-standardized incidence rate by Chinese standard population ( ASR China ), and age-standardized incidence rate by world standard population ( ASR world ) of cancers were 468.65/105, 300.12/105 and 232.79/105 in Zhoushan City in 2018, and the cumulative cancer incidence rate was 26.91% among residents at ages of 0 to 74 years, while the truncated-age cancer incidence rate was 431.90/105 among residents at ages of 35 to 64 years. The crude incidence rate, ASR China, and ASR world of cancers were 473.00/105, 285.67/105 and 229.03/105 in men, and 464.43/105, 317.66/105 and 241.30/105 in women in Zhoushan City in 2018, respectively. In addition, the mean age of new cases with cancers in 2018 was ( 61.34±13.19 ) years in Zhoushan City in 2018, and the highest crude cancer incidence was seen in residents at ages of 70 to 74 years ( 1 327.50/105 ). The crude cancer incidence rate was higher in new female cases at ages of 25 to 54 years than in new male cases, and the crude cancer incidence rate was higher in new male cases at ages of 60 to 84 years than in new female cases ( P<0.05 ). The 10 most common cancers included lung cancer, female breast cancer, thyroid cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, prostatic cancer, pancreatic cancer and bladder cancer, which accounted for 80.20% of all cancers in Zhoushan City in 2018.@*Conclusions@#High cancer incidence was found in Zhoushan City in 2018, and elderly populations are at high risk of developing cancers. The management of lung cancer, female breast cancer, thyroid cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer should be given a high priority.

18.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 227-231, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920757

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the trends in incidence and mortality of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Zhejiang Province from 2003 to 2017, so as to provide the evidence for the development of AD prevention and control strategies. @* Methods@#The data pertaining to the incidence and mortality of AD in China from 2003 to 2017 were collected from the Global Burden Disease Study, and standardized to the data of the Sixth National Population Census in China in 2010. The trends in incidence and mortality of AD were analyzed using annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change ( AAPC ) in Zhejiang Province from 2003 to 2017. @*Results@#The incidence of AD increased from 96.05/105 in 2003 to 140.96/105 in 2017 in Zhejiang Province, with AAPC of 2.776% ( P<0.05 ), and the greatest APC ( 3.419% ) was found during the period between 2003 and 2005 ( P<0.05 ). The standardized incidence of AD increased 102.06/105 in 2003 to 106.09/105 in 2017 in Zhejiang Province, with AAPC of 0.274% ( P<0.05 ), and the greatest APC ( 1.177% ) was measured during the period between 2003 and 2005 ( P<0.05). The mortality of AD increased from 24.60/105 in 2003 to 41.44/105 in 2017 in Zhejiang Province, with AAPC of 3.862% ( P<0.05 ), and the greatest APC (4.667%) was found during the period between 2005 and 2011 ( P<0.05 ). The standardized mortality of AD increased 26.83/105 in 2003 to 27.16/105 in 2017 in Zhejiang Province, with AAPC of 0.142% ( P>0.05 ), and the greatest APC ( 1.048% ) was measured during the period between 2005 and 2012 ( P<0.05 ).@*Conclusion@#Both the incidence and mortality of AD appeared a tendency towards a rise in Zhejiang Province from 2003 to 2017.

19.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 176-179, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920619

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ningbo City from 2011 to 2020, so as to provide the evidence for developing the control measures of pulmonary tuberculosis.@*Methods@#The data pertaining to pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Ningbo City from 2011 to 2020 were collected from the Tuberculosis Management Information System of the Chinese Disease Control and Prevention Information System. The temporal distribution, population distribution, regional distribution and case report by hospitals were descriptively analyzed.@*Results@#Totally 38 305 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported in Ningbo City from 2011 to 2020, with an incidence rate of 48.71/105. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared a tendency towards a decline ( P<0.05 ), with an annual reduction rate of 5.29%. There were 15 784 smear-positive cases ( 41.21% ), and the proportion of smear-positive cases appeared a tendency towards a reduction from 2011 to 2015 ( P<0.05 ), and a rise from 2016 to 2020 ( P<0.05 ). The number of reported pulmonary tuberculosis cases peaked from March to May (10 973 cases, 28.65%), and a higher incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in men than in women ( 64.55/105 vs. 32.20/105, P<0.05 ). The highest incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in cases at ages of 15 to 25 years ( 72.93/105 ), followed by in cases at ages of 65 years and greater ( 69.97/105 ), and farmers were the predominant occupation among the pulmonary tuberculosis patients ( 12 279 cases, 32.06% ). During the period from 2011 to 2020, pulmonary tuberculosis cases were reported across the 10 districts or counties of Ningbo City, and the top three high incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis were seen in Yinzhou District ( 59.91/105 ), Fenghua District ( 56.19/105 ) and Beilun District ( 56.01/105 ). The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported by designated pulmonary tuberculosis hospitals increased from 72.16% in 2011 to 99.74% in 2020 in Ningbo City.@*Conclusions@#The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared a tendency towards a decline in Ningbo City from 2011 to 2020, and the annual decline rate meets the requirements of the WHO strategic goal of ending pulmonary tuberculosis; however, the control measures for pulmonary tuberculosis require to be intensified among men, youths, and farmers.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920363

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effects of random forest and SARIMA (Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) on predicting incidence rate of brucellosis. Methods Using Brucellosis cases reported in the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System from 2005 to 2017, two models, random forest and SARIMA, were established for training and forecasting, and the forecasting results of the two models were compared. Results The R2 (R Squared) and RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error) of SARIMA model and random forest model are 0.904, 0.034351, 0.927 and 0.03345 respectively. Conclusion Both models have high prediction accuracy and can predict the incidence of brucellosis. Random forest prediction is a little bit better than SARIMA model and has more practical value.

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