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1.
Univ. salud ; 24(2): 154-169, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377464

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El Trabajo Emocional deteriora la salud mental de los colaboradores, quienes, en interacción con usuarios, regulan sus emociones para expresar las prescritas en la organización. Objetivo: Mapear sistemáticamente los hallazgos principales sobre el Trabajo Emocional en grupos ocupacionales de Latinoamérica a partir de la revisión de artículos científicos publicados entre 2009 y 2020, mediante una revisión de alcance. Materiales y métodos: A partir de la metodología PRISMA-ScR, se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos LILACS, Redalyc, Dialnet, DOAJ, BVS, Gale One File: Psychology y EBSCOhost; con las palabras clave "trabajo emocional" (español), "emotional labor"/"emotional work" (inglés) y "trabalho emocional" (portugués); y una matriz de registro documental como formulario de gráfico de datos. Resultados: De 186 artículos, se seleccionó 17, con las siguientes características: la mayoría fueron de Brasil; grupos de trabajadores en salud y docentes; con definición de trabajo emocional en 6 categorías; y se utilizaron 11 instrumentos de medición. Conclusiones: Existe amplia concepción sobre el trabajo emocional, sin embargo, la evidencia en Latinoamérica aún es limitada, por ello es necesario continuar investigación de su incidencia en diferentes escenarios laborales, para obtener una comprensión global del constructo.


Abstract Introduction: Emotional work deteriorates the mental health of employees who interact with the public and therefore must regulate their emotions in order to express those established by the organization. Objective: To systematically map the main findings of Emotional Work in occupational groups of Latin America based on the revision of scientific articles published between 2009 and 2020 through a scoping review. Materials and methods: A PRISMA-ScR methodology with the keywords "trabajo emocional" (Spanish), "emotional labor"/"emotional work" (English) and "trabalho emocional" (Portuguese) was used to search the following databases: LILACS, Redalyc, Dialnet, DOAJ, BVS, Gale One File: Psychology and EBSCOhost. A document record matrix was used as format for data graphic. Results: From 186 articles, 17 were selected with the following characteristics: majority were from Brazil; included health employees and professors; defined emotional work using 6 categories; used 11 measurement instruments. Conclusions: There is a wide understanding of the topic of emotional work, however the evidence in Latin America is limited, which is why it is necessary to continue investigating its incidence in different work environments in order to obtain a global understanding of the construct.

2.
Serv. soc. soc ; (143): 62-80, jan.-abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357433

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo tem por objetivo debater a gênese, o desenvolvimento e a consolidação da fração mais crítica do Serviço Social no Uruguai. Produto de estudo pós-doutoral realizado na Universidade da República e financiado pela Fapesp em 2020, o texto aborda os elementos centrais que sustentaram a formação de um Serviço Social progressista a partir das lutas latino-americanas coletivamente travadas nas décadas de 1960, 1970 e 1980, e o fim da ditadura cívico-militar no Uruguai em 1985.


Abstract: This article aims to discuss the genesis, development and consolidation of the most critical fraction of Social Work in Uruguay. Product of a postdoctoral study conducted at the University of the Republic and funded by Fapesp in 2020, the text addresses the central elements that sustained the formation of a progressive Social Work from the Latin American struggles collectively fought in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, and the end of the civic-military dictatorship in Uruguay from 1985.

3.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 170-176, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376875

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia cardíaca más frecuente, es una de las causas más importantes de eventos cerebrovasculares de origen embólico y se asocia con el desarrollo de insuficiencia cardíaca y muerte súbita. En Colombia, constituye una enfermedad con altos costos para el sistema de salud; sin embargo, su prevalencia es desconocida. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular reportada a los sistemas oficiales de información en Colombia. Método: Mediante la extracción, el tabulado y el análisis de datos de la herramienta SISPRO, del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, se calculó la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular estandarizada por edad, global y para las diferentes regiones geográficas del país, entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 143,656 casos reportados con el código I48X, que corresponde a fibrilación auricular en la CIE-10. La prevalencia de fibrilación auricular se incrementó desde 41 hasta 87 por cada 100,000 habitantes entre 2013 y 2017 (p < 0.001). En Colombia, la fibrilación auricular es más frecuente en las mujeres, con mayor prevalencia en mayores de 60 años (606/100,000 en 2017); hay zonas con prevalencia superior a 150/100,000 en los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Santander y Bogotá D.C. Conclusiones: Este estudio sugiere que la fibrilación auricular tiene una tendencia ascendente en Colombia, es más frecuente en las mujeres y más prevalente en los centros urbanos, posiblemente debido a una mayor proporción de pacientes mayores y al mejor acceso a los sistemas de salud.


Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. It is responsible for an important proportion of embolic strokes and is associated with the development of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death. In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is highly costly for the healthcare system; however, its true prevalence is unknown. Objective: To describe the prevalence of atrial fibrillation reported to the official information systems in Colombia. Method: We calculated the prevalence of atrial fibrillation through the extraction, tabulation and analysis of data contained in the Integral Information System for Social Protection tool, which was created by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection in Colombia. Global and age-standardized prevalence rates were obtained for the period between years 2013 and 2017. Results: A total of 143,656 cases were identified. These were reported through the ICD-10 code I48X, corresponding to atrial fibrillation. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation increased from 41 to 87 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between years 2013 and 2017 (p < 0.001). In Colombia, atrial fibrillation is more frequent among women, and individuals over the age of 60 (606/100,000 in 2017). The departments of Antioquia, Caldas, Santander and Bogotá D.C had zones with prevalence greater than 150/100,000. Conclusions: This study suggests that atrial fibrillation displays an upward trend in Colombia. Its prevalence is higher in women and urban centers. The latter may be due to the higher proportion of older patients and better access to healthcare in these subgroups.

4.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(1): 95-104, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376205

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to assess the prevalence of rapid weight gain (RWG) in children born with normal weight and its association with overweight (OW) in four Latin America countries. Methods: cross-sectional study in children aged 0 to 5 from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher in Brazil and the Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru,using a birth weight ≥2,500g. The outcome variable was OW, the exposure was RWG and breastfeeding (BF) was the adjustment variable. Prevalence, odds ratio and 95% confidence intervalwere estimated using multivariate logistic regression model. Results: there was a greater prevalence of RWG and BF at less than 6 months in Brazil, and a greater prevalence of OW in Brazil and Bolivia. The chances of OW when RWG was present and adjusted for BF were 6.1 times (CI95% = 3.8-9.7) in Brazil, 4.4 times (CI95% = 3.6-5.3) in Bolivia, 6.7 times (CI95% = 5.5-8.2) in Colombia, and 12.2 times in Peru (CI95% = 9.4-15.7) with a p < 0.001 for all countries. Conclusions: RWG in children with normal birth weight was associated with a greater chance of being OW in the four observed Latin America countries.


Resumo Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência do ganho rápido de peso (GRP) em crianças nascidas com peso normal e sua associação com o excesso de peso (EP) em quatro países da América Latina. Métodos: estudo transversal de inquéritos populacionais com crianças de 0 a 5 anos da Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher no Brasil e da Encuesta Nacional de Demografía y Salud da Bolívia, Colômbia e Peru, selecionadas pelo peso ao nascer ≥2.500 gramas. A variável desfecho foi o EP; de exposição o GRP; e de ajuste a amamentação. Foram estimadas as prevalências, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95% por regressão logística multivariada. Resultados: observou-se maior prevalência de GRP e tempo de amamentação menor do que 6 meses no Brasil e maior prevalência de EP no Brasil e Bolívia. As chances de EP quando GRP presente e ajustado por amamentação foram de 6,1 vezes (IC95% = 3,8-9,7) no Brasil; 4,4 vezes (IC95% = 3,6-5,3) na Bolívia; 6,7 vezes (IC95% = 5,5-8,2) na Colômbia; 12,2 vezes no Peru (IC95% = 9,4-15,7) e p<0,001 nos quatro países. Conclusões: o GRP em crianças nascidas com peso normal foi associado a maior chance de EP infantil nos quatro países da América Latina.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1119-1131, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364682

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study aimed to investigate the association between social capital indicators and depressive symptoms among university students from Brazil. The study drew on a sample of 579 randomly selected university students, from a greater crossnational study conducted in 2018. Students completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, indicators of social capital and lifestyle behaviors. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. Indicators of social capital included trust, group membership and frequency of meeting friends. Four social capital indicators were significantly associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Students who agreed that people are likely to take advantage of one another were more likely to report depressive clinically relevant symptoms (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.00 - 3.23) as well as students who agreed that people are not willing to help in case needed (OR: 2.11, 95%CI: 1.02 - 4.36). Perceived stress, smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption were not associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Social capital plays an important role in explaining depressive symptoms among Brazilian university students. The study suggests that creating trust and enhancing participation in social networks can be an important strategy for promoting mental health among university students investigated in this study.


Resumo O estudo investigou a associação entre indicadores de capital social e sintomas depressivos entre estudantes universitários do Brasil. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido com uma amostra de 579 estudantes universitários selecionados randomicamente em 2018. Os estudantes completaram questionários auto-administrados para avaliar sintomas depressivos, indicadores de capital social e comportamentos de estilos de vida. Os dados foram analisados usando modelos de regressão logística multivariada. Indicadores de capital social incluíam confiança, associações em grupos, frequência de encontrar com os amigos, entre outros. Quatro indicadores de capital social se associaram significativamente com relevantes sintomas clínicos de depressão. Estudantes que disseram que as pessoas tendem a tirar mais vantagens umas das outras eram mais propensas a relatar sintomas clínicos relevantes de depressão (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.00 - 3.23), assim como estudantes que relataram que as pessoas não estão dispostas a ajudar caso precise de ajuda (OR: 2.11, 95%CI: 1.02 - 4.36). A autopercepção de estresse, o consumo de álcool e o fumo não se associaram aos sintomas clínicos de depressão. O capital social desempenha um papel importante na explicação dos sintomas depressivos entre os universitários brasileiros. O estudo sugere que promover confiança e aumentar a participação nas redes sociais pode ser uma estratégia importante para a promoção da saúde mental entre os universitários investigados neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Capital , Students/psychology , Universities , Brazil/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology
6.
Iatreia ; 35(1): 21-28, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375628

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la mayoría de las investigaciones muestran la situación de los recursos humanos del sistema de salud en países primermundistas, por lo que es necesario caracterizar nuestra realidad latinoamericana en este aspecto. Objetivo: caracterizar el tipo de trabajo y la formación de posgrado de los recursos humanos del área de salud en ocho países de Latinoamérica. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo a través de encuestas autoaplicadas sobre las características de los centros de labores y capacitaciones de posgrado que se han tenido. Resultados: de las 1.283 personas que respondieron la encuesta, el 87,1 % laboraba en un hospital (salario promedio mensual: 840 dólares), el 23,3 % también lo hacía en una clínica (salario promedio mensual: 1.200 dólares). Además, solo el 20,5 % trabajaba en un establecimiento del primer nivel de atención (salario promedio mensual: 420 dólares). El 31,2 % había realizado un curso de posgrado, el 23,2 % un diplomado, el 17,8 % una maestría y, el 5,1 %, un doctorado. Conclusiones: los recursos humanos en salud trabajan principalmente en hospitales con sueldos diferentes según el lugar donde laboran. Los médicos son los que tienen mayor remuneración, pero en el sector privado las diferencias son menos marcadas. Menos de la tercera parte han hecho cursos u otras actividades académicas culminadas hace ya varios años. Esto sirve para la mejora de las características laborales y de capacitación.


SUMMARY Introduction: Most research shows the situation of first world countries regarding human resources of health; therefore, it is necessary to characterize our Latin American reality. Objective: To characterize the type of work and postgraduate training of health human resources in eight Latin American countries. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out, through self-applied surveys on the characteristics of its work center, and post-graduate training that them has had. Results: Of the 1283 people who responded to the survey, 87.1% worked in a hospital (average monthly salary: 840 dollars), 23.3% also worked in a clinic (average monthly salary: 1200 dollars). In addition, only 20.5% worked in an establishment of the first level of care (average monthly salary: 420 dollars). 31.2% had completed a post-graduate course, 23.2% had a diploma, 17.8% had a master's degree and 5.1% had a doctoral degree. Conclusions: The human resources in health work mainly in hospitals and the salaries are different according to the place where they work. The physicians are those who have higher remuneration, but in the private sector the salaries are more similar than in the other sectors. Less than a third have taken courses or other academic activities, having been completed several years ago. This serves to improve the work and training characteristics.

7.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(1): 23-46, jan.-fev. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365463

ABSTRACT

Abstract The relation between taxation and partisanship is a widely studied topic in Political Science. However, previous works have provided conflicting findings without clarifying which parties are most prone to progressive taxation. These studies also did not consider one distinctive feature of Latin American politics: coalition governments. Using the level of direct tax collection as a proxy for progressive taxation and panel data of Latin American countries since 1990, we investigate how progressive taxes vary across a scale of ideology observed in the executive branch along with the ideological heterogeneity of its coalition. The results show that ideologically heterogeneous governments present a policy drift, as the policies being enacted depart from parties' original preferences. Homogeneous left-wing governments collect more direct taxes than ideologically heterogeneous coalitions led by governments with the same ideology. The same dynamic is observed with homogeneous right-wing governments, which collect more indirect taxes in ideologically homogeneous coalitions. These results create new paths of research highlighting the need to include the government's composition in the analysis to understand policy design and the need to unravel the mechanism through which policy drift occurs in ideologically heterogeneous governments.


Resumen La relación entre tributación y partidismo es un tema ampliamente estudiado en Ciencias Políticas. Sin embargo, trabajos previos han proporcionado hallazgos contradictorios sin aclarar qué partes son más propensas a la tributación progresiva. Estos estudios tampoco consideraron una característica distintiva de la política latinoamericana: los gobiernos de coalición. Utilizando el nivel de recaudación de impuestos directos como indicador de la tributación progresiva y datos de panel de los países de América Latina desde 1990, investigamos cómo varían los impuestos progresivos a lo largo de una escala de ideología observada en el poder ejecutivo junto con la heterogeneidad ideológica de su coalición. Los resultados muestran que los gobiernos ideológicamente heterogéneos presentan un policy drift, ya que las políticas que se promulgan se apartan de las preferencias originales de los partidos. Los gobiernos homogéneos de izquierda recaudan más impuestos directos que las coaliciones ideológicamente heterogéneas lideradas por gobiernos con la misma ideología. La misma dinámica se observa con gobiernos homogéneos de derecha, que recaudan más impuestos indirectos en coaliciones ideológicamente homogéneas. Estos resultados crean nuevos caminos de investigación que destacan la necesidad de incluir la composición del gobierno en el análisis para comprender el diseño de políticas y la necesidad de desentrañar el mecanismo a través del cual se produce policy drift de políticas en gobiernos ideológicamente heterogéneos.


Resumo A relação entre tributação e partidarismo é amplamente estudada na Ciência Política. Entretanto, trabalhos anteriores não só apresentaram resultados contraditórios - sem esclarecer quais partidos são mais propensos a instituir tributos progressivos - como nenhum considerou um elemento particular da política latino-americana: os governos de coalizão. Usando o nível de arrecadação com tributos diretos como uma proxy para tributação progressiva e adotando um banco de dados em painel, investiga-se a receita com tributos progressivos considerando uma escala da ideologia da liderança executiva e a heterogeneidade ideológica da coalizão que forma o governo. Os resultados indicam que governos ideologicamente heterogêneos apresentam policy drift, já que as políticas sendo implementadas se distanciam das preferências originais da liderança executiva. Governos homogêneos de esquerda têm receitas maiores com tributos diretos do que governos formados a partir de coalizão ideologicamente heterogênea sob as mesmas lideranças. A mesma dinâmica ocorre com governos homogêneos de direita, que têm receitas maiores com tributos indiretos. Os resultados indicam novos caminhos para pesquisa, destacando a necessidade de se incorporar a composição de um governo à análise de políticas públicas, como a importância de se compreender o mecanismo pelo qual policy drift ocorre em governos ideologicamente heterogêneos.


Subject(s)
Taxes , Executive , Policy , Government , Latin America
8.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(1): 29-35, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376851

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La hipertensión arterial es el principal factor de riesgo cardiovascular modificable y aumenta la probabilidad de mortalidad de causa cardiovascular. Las mediciones de prevalencia en Colombia han incluido ciudades principales y pequeñas regiones, pero no se dispone de información en el país. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial a partir de los reportes a los sistemas oficiales de información en Colombia. Método: Mediante la extracción y el análisis de datos de la herramienta SISPRO del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social de Colombia, se calculó la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial, estandarizada por edad y para las diferentes regiones geográficas del país, entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados: Durante los 5 años evaluados hubo 12,386,343 registros con diagnóstico principal de hipertensión arterial; en 2013 se observó la menor prevalencia (4.65%) y en 2017 la mayor (5.83%). El promedio de prevalencia nacional en los mayores de 60 años durante los 5 años fue del 28.14%. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres, con una relación mujer: hombre de 1.78:1. El grupo de mayor prevalencia durante el estudio fueron las mujeres mayores de 80 años en 2017, con una prevalencia ajustada del 54.4%. Las regiones con prevalencia mayor al 10% fueron Risaralda, Caldas, Boyacá, Antioquia y Sucre. Conclusiones: La prevalencia nacional de los registros de consultas por hipertensión arterial a las fuentes oficiales de información es menor que la reportada en estudios realizados en poblaciones similares y sugiere que existe un subregistro del reporte a dichas fuentes de información.


Abstract Introduction: Systemic hypertension is the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, leading to increased probability of mortality due to cardiovascular causes. Studies assessing the prevalence of systemic hypertension in Colombia have included main cities and small regions. However, there is no available data regarding the country as a whole. Objective: To describe the prevalence of systemic hypertension according to reports made to the official information systems in Colombia. Method: The prevalence of systemic hypertension was calculated through the extraction and analysis of data contained within the SISPRO tool, the official information system for the Colombian Ministry of Health and Social Protection. The prevalence was then standardized by age, and for the different geographical regions of the country in the period comprised between years 2013 and 2017. Results: During the five years of follow-up, we located 12,386,343 registries reporting systemic hypertension as a main diagnosis. The lowest prevalence (4.65%) was found in year 2013, and the highest prevalence (5.83%) was found in 2017. The mean national prevalence for patients above the age of 60, during the aforementioned 5-year period, was 28.14%. The prevalence was higher in women, with a women-to-men ratio of 1.78:1. The group with the higher adjusted prevalence during the study period was composed of women above the age of 80 in year 2017, with an adjusted prevalence of 54.4%. The regions with a prevalence over 10% were Risaralda, Caldas, Boyacá. Antioquia and Sucre. Conclusions: The national prevalence of registered consultations due to systemic hypertension to the official information sources is lower than that reported in previous studies conducted on similar populations, suggesting the existence of underreport to said information sources.

9.
Rev. salud pública ; 24(1): e203, ene.-feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377216

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze trends in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in Latin American countries. Methods An ecological study with incidence data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer and mortality data from the World Health Organization. The trend of incidence by Joinpoint regression, the variation of the annual average and the 95% confidence interval were analyzed. Results There were increasing trends in incidence in Brazil, in males, aged 40-59 years, and reduction in Costa Rica. In females, there was stability in all age groups. The mortality rates increased in the elderly in Brazil (AAPC: 1.09%; 95% CI: 0.76; 1.42), Peru (AAPC: 1.76%; 95% CI: 0.36; 3.17) and El Salvador (AAPC: 2.88%; 95% CI: 0.38; 5.43), while in Mexico, there was a reduction. In females, this rate increased in Brazil (AAPC: 1.38%; 95% CI: 1.07; 1.69), Peru (AAPC: 2.25%; 95% CI: 0.68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3.62%; 95% CI: 1.96; 5.31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2.51%; 95% CI: 0.36; 4.71) and Paraguay (AAPC: 1.17%; 95% CI: 0.37; 1.98) and a downward trend was observed in Colombia and Ecuador. Conclusions Pancreatic cancer had a higher incidence in the elderly population of both sexes and an increase of the mortality trend in females was noted.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar las tendencias en la incidencia y mortalidad por cáncer de páncreas en los países latinoamericanos. Método Se realizó un estudio ecológico con datos de incidencia de la Agencia Internacional de Investigación sobre Cáncer y datos de mortalidad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se analizó la tendencia de incidencia por regresión de Joinpoint, la variación del promedio anual y el intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados Hubo tendencias crecientes en la incidencia en Brasil en varones entre 40 y 59 años, y una reducción en Costa Rica. En las mujeres, hubo estabilidad en todos los grupos de edad. Las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron en los ancianos en Brasil (AAPC: 1,09%; IC 95%: 0,76; 1.42), Perú (AAPC: 1,76%; IC 95%: 0,36; 3,17) y El Salvador (AAPC: 2,88%; 95% IC 0,38; 5,43), mientras que en México hubo una reducción. En las mujeres, esta tasa aumentó en Brasil (AAPC: 1,38%; IC 95%: 1,07; 1.69), Perú (AAPC: 2,25%; IC 95%: 0,68; 3.85), Chile (AAPC: 3,62%; IC 95%: 1,96; 5,31), Nicaragua (AAPC: 2,51%; IC 95%: 0,36; 4,71) y Paraguay (AAPC: 1,17%; IC 95%: 0,37; 1,98) y se observó una tendencia a la baja en Colombia y Ecuador. Conclusiones El cáncer de páncreas tuvo una mayor incidencia en la población anciana de ambos sexos; cabe también señalar que debido a este aumentó su mortalidad en las mujeres.

10.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(1): e1685, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375611

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas y clínicas, la evolución y el tratamiento de los pacientes con hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó a 47 pacientes con diagnóstico primario de hipertensión pulmonar. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue de 48 años, y el 91,49 % fueron mujeres. El promedio de seguimiento fue 39 meses. Los tipos predominantes de hipertensión arterial pulmonar fueron los siguientes: asociada a cardiopatía congénita (48,93 %), asociada a enfermedad del tejido conectivo (21,28 %) e hipertensión idiopática (17,02 %). En el 78,72 % de los pacientes se empleó la monoterapia (principalmente con sildenafilo), y en 21,28 % de los casos se usó la terapia combinada secuencial (sildenafilo más bosentan). Durante el seguimiento, el 70,21 % tuvo por lo menos una hospitalización y cinco pacientes fallecieron, lo que significó una mortalidad total acumulada de 10,64 %. Conclusiones: La hipertensión arterial pulmonar afecta predominantemente a personas jóvenes y de sexo femenino. La cardiopatía congénita es la principal etiología asociada. La monoterapia con sildenafilo es el tratamiento específico que se utiliza con más frecuencia. La mortalidad encontrada fue menor a la reportada en otros estudios.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, evolution and treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Materials and methods: A descriptive study that included 47 patients with a primary diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Results: The average age of the patients was 48 years and 91.49 % were females. The average follow-up was 39 months. The main types of pulmonary arterial hypertension were the one associated with congenital heart diseases (48.93 %), the one associated with connective tissue diseases (21.28 %) and idiopathic hypertension (17.02 %). Monotherapy (mainly with sildenafil) and sequential combination therapy (sildenafil plus bosentan) were used in 78.72 % and 21.28 % of the patients, respectively. During the follow-up, 70.21 % of the patients were hospitalized at least once and five patients died, resulting in a cumulative total mortality of 10.64 %. Conclusions: Pulmonary arterial hypertension predominantly affects young people and females. The main associated etiology is congenital heart disease. The most frequently used specific treatment is sildenafil monotherapy. The mortality rate was lower than that reported in other studies.

11.
Rev. bras. educ. espec ; 28: e0084, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365600

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as condições de trabalho do Docente de Apoio à Inclusão (DAI) em Córdoba, Argentina, a partir da Resolução nº 1.825, de 2019, sob a perspectiva das influências neoliberais na educação da América Latina. O percurso metodológico desta pesquisa qualitativa de inspiração etnográfica encontrou sustentação na teoria histórico-cultural, e contou com pesquisa de campo em Córdoba, pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, entrevista não estruturada e análise de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam para a presença de efeitos do capitalismo de cunho neoliberal na política educacional que orienta o trabalho da DAI. Um dos efeitos percebidos foi a intensificação das atribuições docentes, que pode resultar em uma sobrecarga de trabalho na medida em que a política exige um "superprofessor" e contrasta com a adoção de uma concepção social de deficiência para orientar o trabalho do DAI.


ABSTRACT: This paper aims to analyze the Inclusion Support Teacher's (IST) working conditions in Córdoba, Argentina, based on Resolution no. 1.825, 2019, from the perspective of neoliberal influences on education in Latin America. The methodological course of this qualitative research of ethnographic inspiration found support in the historical-cultural theory, and counted on field research in Córdoba, bibliographic and documentary research, unstructured interviews and content analysis. The results point to the presence of effects of neoliberal capitalism in the education policy that guides the work of the IST. One of the effects that was noticed was the intensification of teaching assignments, which can result in an overload of work as the policy requires a "super teacher", and contrasts with the adoption of a social conception of disability to guide the work of the IST.

12.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e201078, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352212

ABSTRACT

Resumo Embora políticas públicas de cuidados prolongados estejam começando a ser implementadas na América Latina, poucos estudos analisam a situação dos países que compõem a região. Este estudo tem por objetivo examinar programas públicos de cuidados prolongados na Costa Rica e estimar a demanda do país por cuidados formais. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de revisão das Contas Nacionais de Saúde, cinco entrevistas com representantes de instituições governamentais, revisão da literatura científica e relatórios oficiais, e análise dos dados extraídos de uma pesquisa nacional de cuidados. Os resultados indicam a existência de programas fragmentados e focados no enfrentamento à pobreza que não foram projetados para atender às necessidades de cuidados prolongados. Estima-se que, atualmente, 13,4% dos idosos da região necessitam de ajuda na execução de atividades básicas da vida diária, e que o trabalho informal de cuidados é intensivo, oferecido principalmente por um membro da família, e não remunerado.


Abstract Latin America is beginning to implement long-term care public policies. But only a few studies look at the situation of the countries in the region. This study aims to examine long-term care public programs in Costa Rica and to estimate the country's demand for formal care. For this purpose, we have revised its National Health Accounts, conducted five interviews with representatives of governmental institutions, reviewed the scientific literature and official reports, and analyzed the data drawn from a national care survey. The results show the existence of fragmented, poverty-focused programs that were not designed for long-term care needs. The estimated percentage of older adults in the region that currently require help to perform activities of daily living is 13.4%. The informal care work is intensive, mostly provided by a family member, and unpaid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Poverty , Public Policy , Aging , Adaptation, Psychological , Functional Status , Life Support Care
13.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377229

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) among immigrants and refugees in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS Overall, 355 individuals were interviewed, and blood samples were tested for anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG. Anti-HEV-positive samples were similarly tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS All participants were from Latin American countries, most of whom, young adult males. The overall anti-HAV IgG prevalence was 87.4% (95%CI: 83.5-90.4), of whom 94.9%, 75.6%, and 60% were from Haiti, Venezuela, and other Latin American countries, respectively (p < 0.001). Age above 19 years and more than 36 months residing in Brazil were associated with a higher prevalence of previous HAV and HEV infection, respectively. Of the children eligible for HAV vaccination according to the National Immunization Program, only eight (44%) had been vaccinated. The overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 6.5% (95%CI: 4.4-9.5). All anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals were Haitians, including a child born in Brazil. HEV RNA was detected in two of the anti-HEV IgG-positive samples. CONCLUSION The survey detected a high prevalence of anti-HAV and anti-HEV IgG among immigrants and refugees, and active HEV infection among some Haitian participants. Prevention measures are urgently required to interrupt enteric virus transmission in this emergent and vulnerable population.

14.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1375421

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this paper, we offer an in-depth analysis of relevant scientific literature and a series of critical reflections based on a narrative review of the impact that the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic had on Latin American psychology. We performed a non-exhaustive search, selection, and analysis of different documentary sources in scientific databases, institutional repositories, and websites of national and regional psychology organizations between May 25 and 31, 2020. In particular, we consulted SciELO, Redalyc, Dialnet, and Google Scholar using the following individual key words associated to psychology: "Coronavirus", "Covid-19" and "Pandemic". Various types of documents were retrieved for a subsequent in-depth analysis (e.g., articles, institutional documents, notes, bulletins, recommendation guides, etc.). Our review allowed us to identify three challenges for psychology in the region: (1) insertion of psychology in public policies; (2) construction of an own agenda of psychological research; (3) evaluation of practices and reorientation of professional training processes.


Resumo Neste artigo, é oferecida uma análise aprofundada da literatura científica relevante e uma série de reflexões críticas baseadas em uma revisão narrativa do impacto que os estágios iniciais da pandemia de Covid-19 tiveram na psicologia latino-americana. Foi realizada uma busca não exaustiva, seleção e análise de diferentes fontes documentais em bancos de dados científicos, repositórios institucionais e websites de organizações nacionais e regionais de psicologia entre 25 e 31 de maio de 2020. Em particular, foram consultadas as bases SciELO, Redalyc, Dialnet e Google Scholar usando as seguintes palavras-chave individuais associadas à psicologia: "coronavírus", "Covid-19" e "pandemia". Vários tipos de documentos foram recuperados para uma análise posterior em profundidade (por exemplo: artigos, documentos institucionais, notas, boletins, guias de recomendação, etc.). A revisão feita pelos autores permitiu identificar três desafios para a psicologia na região: (1) inserção da psicologia nas políticas públicas; (2) construção de uma agenda própria de pesquisa psicológica e (3) avaliação das práticas e reorientação dos processos de formação profissional.

15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(supl.1): 187-208, out.-dez. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360471

ABSTRACT

Resumen La historia de los animales analiza las relaciones entre sociedades humanas y animales no-humanos en el pasado. Como subcampo académico, la historia animal se remonta a la década de 1980, pero tiene sus antecedentes. En América Latina, existe una rica tradición de escritos sobre animales del siglo XVI en adelante. Las últimas décadas han visto un gran número de textos históricos sobre animales en América Latina que cubre temas variados: animales domésticos, animales y conquista militar, animales y ciencia, animales y el intercambio colombino, entre otros. Brasil, México y el Caribe han recibido gran parte de la atención. Este ensayo recapitula esta literatura e identifica patrones, problemáticas, y debates.


Abstract The animal history analyzes the relationships between human societies and non-human animals in the past. As an academic subfield, animal history dates back to the 1980s, but it has its antecedents. In Latin America, there is a rich tradition of writing about animals from the sixteenth century onwards. The last decades have seen a large number of historical texts on animals in Latin America that cover various topics: domestic animals, animals and military conquest, animals and science, animals and the Columbian exchange, among others. Brazil, Mexico, and the Caribbean have received much of the attention. This essay recapitulates this literature and identifies patterns, issues, and debates.

16.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 28(supl.1): 12-20, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360997

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that involves several systems, affects mainly young adult women, and causes a significant deterioration in quality of life. Different environmental aspects are known to facilitate the development of lupus in predisposed individuals. For several years it has been known that factors such as exposure to UV rays are related to the development of lupus; however, due to factors inherent to globalization, life-style changes, improved knowledge of cell signaling pathways as well as a better understanding of metabolomics, proteomics an genomics, it has been possible to better understand the relationship between cells and their environment. This study based on a narrative review, compiles the existing evidence on different risk factors and the development of lupus, including aspects typical of the Colombian population.


RESUMEN El lupus eritematoso sistémico es una enfermedad autoinmune que compromete diferentes sistemas, afecta principalmente a mujeres adultas jóvenes y genera un deterioro significativo de la calidad de vida. Es bien conocido que diferentes aspectos relacionados con la calidad de vida facilitan el desarrollo del lupus en individuos predispuestos. Desde hace varios años se sabe que factores tales como la exposición a los rayos ultravioleta se relacionan con el desarrollo de lupus; sin embargo, debido a factores inherentes a la globalización, a los cambios en los hábitos, a un mayor conocimiento de las vías de señalización celular, así como a una mayor comprensión de la metabolómica, la proteómica y la genómica, ha sido posible entender mejor la relación entre las células y su medio ambiente. En el presente estudio reunimos, a través de una revisión narrativa, la evidencia actual sobre diferentes factores de riesgo y el desarrollo del lupus, incluyendo aspectos típicos de la población colombiana.

17.
Rev. latinoam. psicol ; 53: 83-93, jul.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361042

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El distanciamiento social y la cuarentena han probado tener efectos negativos en la salud mental de las poblaciones, a saber: miedo, ansiedad, depresión y sintomatología de estrés postraumático. La resiliencia emerge como variable amortiguadora del impacto. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el impacto psicológico del COVID-19 en varios países latinoamericanos. Método: se obtuvo una muestra de 1184 participantes de México, Cuba, Chile, Colombia y Guatemala; cuya edad osciló entre 18 y 83 años (M = 38.78, DT = 13.81). Se aplicó una encuesta sobre síntomas médicos asociados al COVID-19 con tres instrumentos para evaluar: (1) síntomas de depresión, ansiedad y estrés, (2) impacto del evento y (3) resiliencia. Resultados: Las personas más jóvenes, con mayor cantidad de síntomas médicos y con mayores puntajes de impacto del evento tienden a presentar mayor sintomatología depresiva, ansiosa y estrés, siendo el impacto del evento el predictor más determinante. La resiliencia fue el predictor protector contra la depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran las diferencias en la respuesta psicológica ante la pandemia del COVID-19 en cada país, y sugieren la necesidad del desarrollo de políticas públicas enfocadas en la prevención y la promoción de la salud integral ante emergencias sanitarias.


Abstract Introduction: Social distancing and quarantine have proven to have negative effects on the mental health of populations, namely fear, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Resilience emerges as a buffering variable for such impact. The objective of this study was to compare the psychological impact of COVID-19 in several Latin American countries. Method: A sample of 1184 participants from Mexico, Cuba, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala was obtained; whose age ranged from 18 to 83 years old (M = 38.78, SD = 13.81). A survey on medical symptoms associated with COVID-19 and three instruments to evaluate: (1) depression, anxiety and stress, (2) impact of the event and (3) resilience were administered. Results: Younger people, with more symptoms associated with COVID-19 and those who reported higher scores of impact of event tended to present greater depressive, anxious and stress symptomatology. The impact of the event was the most determinant predictor. Resilience was protective against the impact of event, depression, anxiety and stress. Conclusions: The results show the differences in the psychological response to COVID-19 in each country and suggesting the need to develop public policies focused on prevention and promotion of integral health when facing sanitary emergencies.

18.
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 35(2): e405, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341472

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las fracturas abiertas de tibia son un subconjunto de la carga de traumatismos en América Latina. Se examinaron cuestiones relacionadas con el tratamiento potencialmente críticas en Cuba, país con recursos limitados, pero con un programa nacional de salud estandarizado, coherencia en educación y similitudes de programas de posgrado. Objetivos: Describir los patrones de tratamiento de la fractura abierta de tibia en Cuba, y comparar las características del manejo agudo y tardío en siete provincias del país. Métodos: Se encuestaron 67 cirujanos ortopédicos para evaluar cuatro aspectos en el tratamiento de la fractura abierta: profilaxis antibiótica, irrigación y desbridamiento, estabilización y tratamiento de heridas. Se utilizó el método de muestreo por conveniencia para identificar a los cirujanos y el análisis se realizó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher (p < 0,05). Resultados: Se administraron antibióticos posoperatorios durante más de 72 horas para las fracturas GA-I/II (49 por ciento) y las fracturas GA-III (70 por ciento). Los cirujanos de La Habana (n= 32) utilizaron con más frecuencia la fijación interna primaria para las fracturas GA-I/II, que los cirujanos en las restantes provincias (n= 35) (64,3 porciento vs. 30,3 por ciento, p= 0,008). Los cirujanos de otras provincias realizaron cierre primario en el momento de la fijación definitiva de fracturas GA-I /II con más frecuencia que los de La Habana (62,9 por ciento vs. 32,3 por ciento, p= 0,013). Para fracturas GA-III, la mayoría de los cirujanos habaneros (88,6 %), al igual que los de las restantes provincias (96,8 por ciento) prefirieron realizar cierre diferido.Conclusiones: El tratamiento de fracturas abiertas de tibia en Cuba es generalmente consistente con otros países de América Latina. Se describen las características del manejo de fracturas abiertas de tibia en Cuba y se comparan las diferencias en los métodos de estabilización y tratamiento de heridas entre provincias, lo cual resulta útil para evaluar si son resultado de diferencias en la práctica quirúrgica, o en la disponibilidad de recursos. Esto representa una ayuda al abordar las formas de optimizar la atención al paciente, a través de la capacitación especializada y la asignación de los recursos(AU)


Introduction: Open tibia fractures are a significant subset of the overall trauma burden in Latin America. Latin American countries vary in their access to orthopaedic care resources, and country-specific orthopaedic recommendations are necessary. Cuba, a country with limited resources, has a standardized national health program, consistencies in education, and similarities across post-graduate training programs. This study aimed to identify management preferences for open tibia factures in Cuba. Objectives: To describe the treatment of open tibial fractures in Cuba, and to compare the characteristics of acute and delayed management across seven Cuban provinces. Methods: Sixty-seven orthopaedic surgeons were surveyed to evaluate four aspects of open fracture management, regarding antibiotic prophylaxis, irrigation and debridement, stabilization, and wound management. The convenience sampling method was used to identify surgeons and the analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test (p <0.05). Results: Postoperative antibiotics were administered for more than 72 hours for GA-I / II fractures (49 pecent) and GA-III fractures (70 percent). Surgeons in Havana (n = 32) used primary internal fixation for GA-I / II fractures more frequently than surgeons in the remaining provinces (n = 35) (64.3 pecent vs. 30.3 percent p = 0.008). Surgeons from other provinces performed primary closure at the time of definitive fixation of GA-I / II fractures more frequently than those from Havana (62.9 percent vs. 32.3 percent, p = 0.013). For GA-III fractures, the majority of Havana surgeons (88.6 percent), as well as those of the remaining provinces (96.8 percent) preferred to perform deferred closure. Conclusions: The treatment of open tibial fractures in Cuba is generally consistent with other Latin American countries. The characteristics of the management of open tibial fractures in Cuba are described and differences in wound stabilization and treatment methods between provinces are compared, which is useful to assess whether they are the result of differences in surgical practice, or in availability of resources. This is helpful in addressing ways to optimize patient care through specialized training and resource allocation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tibial Fractures , Diaphyses/injuries , Fractures, Open
19.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 33(3): 226-232, set.-dez. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1360454

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only had health, economic, and political impacts, but also significant psychosocial and mental health consequences worldwide. In this article, different documentation and studies on mental health were analyzed, with the aim of identifying the various problems detected during the pandemic. Methodologically, a narrative and integrative review of the scientific literature was carried out. In Latin America, the most recent studies have documented and made patent effects on the various vulnerized populations such as migrants, women, children, the elderly, people living with significant disabilities, people experiencing marked housing and food insecurity, and temporary workers laboring in what has been referred to as the informal economy. In light of this, it is proposed that addressing these issues should involve the coordination of transnational policies and the definition of an agenda of critical priorities to focus and address. For this to come about, it is important that the empirical evidence generated by regional epidemiological studies contribute to the design of public policies on mental health of the Latin American population, so that they reduce the negative effects as well as prevent the future consequences of a pandemic that is not yet over.(AU)


A pandemia da COVID-19 no mundo tem impactado a área da saúde, os setores da economia e da política e também tem gerado consequências psicossociais, repercutindo de forma significativa no campo da saúde mental. Este estudo de revisão sistemática analisou diversos documentos e pesquisas abordando saúde mental e COVID-19, bem como problematicas geradas durante a pandemia. A metodologia de pesquisa envolveu revisão narrativa e integrativa da literatura científica. Na América Latina, os estudos mais recentes apresentam os inúmeros efeitos da COVID-19 em populações vulneráveis: imigrantes, mulheres, crianças, idosos, pessoas em situação de rua, trabalhadores informais, etc. Diante desse panorama, propõe-se que a abordagem dessas questões inclua a coordenação de políticas transnacionais e a definição de uma agenda de prioridades críticas a serem consideradas. Os resultados empíricos de estudos epidemiológicos realizados em âmbito regional contribuíram para o desenho de políticas públicas em saúde mental da população latino-americana com o objetivo de reduzir os efeitos negativos e prevenir riscos futuros de uma pandemia que ainda não terminou.(AU)


La pandemia por el COVID-19 no sólo ha generado diversos impactos en materia de salud, economía y política, sino también importantes consecuencias psicosociales y de salud mental en el mundo. En este trabajo, se analizaron diferentes documentaciones y estudios sobre salud mental, con el objetivo de recuperar las diversas problemáticas detectadas durante la pandemia. Metodológicamente se realizó una revisión narrativa e integrativa de la literatura científica. En América Latina los estudios más recientes comienzan a visualizar diferentes afectaciones sobre las diversas poblaciones vulneralizadas: migrantes, mujeres, niños, los ancianos, personas quienes viven con una discapacidad significativa, personas en situación de calle, trabajadores informales, etc. Frente a este panorama, se plantea que el abordaje de estas cuestiones deberá contar con la coordinación de políticas trasnacionales y la definición de una agenda de prioridades críticas a focalizar y atender. Para esto resulta importante que la evidencia empírica generada por los estudios epidemiológicos regionales contribuya al diseño de las políticas públicas sobre salud mental de la población latinoamericana, de modo que las mismas logren reducir los efectos negativos como también puedan prevenir las consecuencias futuras de una pandemia que todavía no ha finalizado.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Mental Health , Psychosocial Impact , Vulnerable Populations , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Health Policy
20.
Ars méd ; 46(4): 32-38, dic. 07, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366311

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The consequences of the Covid-19 epidemic have been catastrophic for Latin America in 2021. This study explores experiences, lessons learned, and practice changes during this critical time in post-graduate medical education in Latin America. Me-thods: A panel of 53 post-graduate medical education leaders from 8 Latin American countries and Canada was invited to participate in the 2021 Latin American Medical Education Leaders Forum to share their experiences, lessons learned, and main educational practice changes given the Covid-19 pandemic scenario. Participants were selected following a snowball technique with the goal of obtaining a diverse group of experts. Small group discussions were conducted by bilingual facilitators based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The plenary session with the main conclusions of each group was recorded and fully transcribed for a thematic analysis using a framework methods approach. Results: Participants ́ profiles included 13 experienced clinician-educators, 19 program directors, and 23 deans or organizational representatives. Seven specific themes emerged. They followed a pattern that went from an initial emotional reaction of surprise to a complex collective response. The responses highlighted the value of adaptability, the application of new digital skills, a renovated residents' protagonism, the strengthening of humanism in medicine, the openness of new perspectives in wellness, and finally, an unresolved challenge of assessment in medical education in a virtual post-pandemic scenario. Conclusion: A diverse panel of medical educators from Latin America and Canada identified changes triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic that could transform postgraduate medical education in the region.


Introducción: la pandemia de Covid-19 ha tenido consecuencias catastróficas para América Latina en el año 2021. Este estudio explora las experiencias, lecciones aprendidas y nuevas prácticas surgidas durante este crítico período en la educación médica de postgrado en América Latina. Métodos: un panel de 53 líderes de 8 países de América Latina y Canadá fue invitado a participar en el Foro Latinoame-ricano de Líderes en Educación Médica 2021 para compartir sus experiencias, lecciones aprendidas y cambios de prácticas educativas en el escenario de pandemia. Los participantes fueron seleccionados mediante la técnica de bola de nieve con el objetivo de obtener un grupo diverso de expertos. El Foro incluyó discusiones de pequeños grupos conducidos por facilitadores bilingües basadas en un cuestionario semiestructurado. La sesión plenaria con las principales conclusiones de los grupos fue grabada y transcrita para el análisis temático posterior utilizando la metodología de marco analítico. Resultados: el perfil de participantes incluyó 13 experimentados edu-cadores, 19 directores de programa y 23 decanos o representantes institucionales. Siete tópicos emergieron durante la discusión. Ellos siguieron un patrón que transitó desde una reacción emocional de sorpresa por la pandemia hasta una respuesta colectiva compleja. Las respuestas enfatizaron el valor de la adaptabilidad, la aplicación de nuevas habilidades digitales, un renovado protagonismo de los residentes, el fortalecimiento del humanismo en medicina, la apertura a nuevas perspectivas de bienestar y, finalmente, un desafío no resuelto respecto de la evaluación en educación médica en escenarios de pandemia. Conclusión: un panel diverso de educadores médicos latinoamericanos y canadienses identificó cambios claves gatillados por la pandemia de Covid-19 que pueden transformar la educación médica de postgrado en la región.

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