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2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 3-11, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360121

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Problemas nutricionais são comuns em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e estão associados a um prognóstico ruim. É relevante mencionar que algumas populações de pacientes, como os com Doença de Chagas, são normalmente excluídas da maioria das análises. Objetivo Buscamos analisar a ocorrência de desnutrição e caquexia em pacientes com Doença de Chagas durante episódios de IC descompensada (ICD) em comparação a outras etiologias, e investigar a influência desses achados em desfechos hospitalares. Método Realizamos um estudo de série de casos consecutivos com pacientes hospitalizados com ICD. Os pacientes foram submetidos à Avaliação Nutricional Subjetiva Global (ASG), além de medidas antropométricas e laboratoriais, e foram avaliados para a ocorrência de caquexia, baixa massa muscular e força. Estudamos a ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco de urgência durante a internação. Resultados Ao todo, 131 pacientes foram analisados e 42 (32,1%) tinham Doença de Chagas. Pacientes com Doença de Chagas apresentavam índice de massa corporal (IMC) menor (22,4 kg/m2 [19,9-25,3] vs. 23,6 kg/m2 [20,8-27,3], p=0,03), maior frequência de desnutrição (76,2% vs 55,1%, p=0,015) e mais ocorrências de morte ou transplante (83,3% vs. 41,6%, p<0,001). Observamos que, dentre os pacientes com etiologia da Doença de Chagas, a ocorrência de morte ou transplante cardíaco esteve associada com desnutrição (3 [42,9%] pacientes com alta hospitalar vs. 29 [82,9%] pacientes que morreram ou receberam transplante cardíaco, P=0,043). Conclusões Ao todo, nossos resultados indicam que pacientes com Doença de Chagas internados com ICD costumam apresentar problemas nutricionais, principalmente desnutrição. É importante mencionar que este achado esteve associado à ocorrência de morte e transplante cardíaco durante a internação.


Abstract Background Nutritional disorders are common among patients with heart failure (HF) and associated with poor prognosis. Importantly, some populations of patients, like the ones with Chagas disease, are frequently excluded from most analyses. Objective We sought to study the occurrence of undernutrition and cachexia in patients with Chagas disease during episodes of decompensated HF (DHF) as compared to other etiologies, and to investigate the influence of these findings on hospital outcomes. Methods We performed a consecutive case series study with patients hospitalized with DHF. Patients underwent the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status (SGA), besides anthropometric and laboratorial measures, and were evaluated for the occurrence of cachexia, low muscle mass and strength. We studied the occurrence of death or urgent heart transplantation during hospitalization. Results Altogether, 131 patients were analyzed and 42 (32.1%) had Chagas disease. Patients with Chagas disease had lower Body Mass Index (BMI) (22.4 kg/m2[19.9-25.3] vs. 23.6 kg/m2 [20.8-27.3], p=0.03), higher frequency of undernutrition (76.2% vs 55.1%, p=0.015) and higher occurrence of death or transplant (83.3% vs. 41.6%, p<0.001). We found that, in patients with Chagas etiology, the occurrence of death or cardiac transplantation were associated with undernutrition (3 [42.9%] patients with hospital discharge vs 29 [82.9%] patients with death or heart transplant, p=0.043). Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that patients with Chagas disease hospitalized with DHF often present with nutritional disorders, especially undernutrition; importantly, this finding was associated with the occurrence of death and heart transplant during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Malnutrition/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , Cachexia/etiology , Hospitals
3.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0189, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365654

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do artigo é analisar o efeito da compra direta de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar sobre o déficit de estatura em crianças menores de cinco anos, entre 2013 e 2017, no Brasil. O método utilizado é o estudo ecológico e longitudinal, em que a coleta de dados ocorreu em diferentes bancos de dados. A análise foi realizada por meio do teste t para amostras independentes, a fim de comparar as médias entre as variáveis déficit de estatura e compras da agricultura familiar. Além disso, uma análise multivariável foi feita por meio da regressão linear múltipla. Verificou-se uma diferença de médias na prevalência do déficit de estatura significativa entre os municípios que compraram menos de 30% e aqueles que adquiriram 30% ou mais de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar, com 1,47 pontos de diferença. O modelo de regressão linear mostrou que a cada ponto percentual de aumento na compra de alimentos da agricultura familiar para a alimentação escolar pelo município, haverá, em média, uma diminuição 0,55 pontos na prevalência do déficit de estatura, independentemente das demais variáveis. Assim, conclui-se que a compra de alimentos da agricultura familiar para alimentação escolar no Brasil pode contribuir para a redução da prevalência do déficit de estatura em crianças menores de cinco anos.


Abstract The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of direct purchase of food from family farms for school meals on the deficit of stature in children under 5 years of age between 2013 and 2017 in Brazil. Method: Ecological and longitudinal study in which data collection occurred in different databases. The analysis was performed using the t-test for independent samples in order to compare the means between the variables stature deficit and purchases from family agriculture. In addition, a multivariable analysis was conducted through multiple linear regression. Results: There was a difference in means in the prevalence of significant stature deficit between the municipalities that bought < 30% and ≥30% of food from family farms for school feeding, with 1.47 points of difference. The linear regression model showed that for each percentage point of increase in the purchase of food from family farms for school feeding by the municipality, there will be on average a decrease of 0.55 points in the prevalence of stature deficit, independent of the other variables. Conclusion: the purchase of food from family agriculture for school feeding in Brazil may contribute to the reduction of the prevalence of stature deficit in children under five years old.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de la compra directa de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar en el déficit de estatura de los niños menores de cinco años entre 2013 y 2017 en Brasil. Método: Estudio ecológico y longitudinal en el que se recogieron datos en diferentes bases de datos. El análisis se llevó a cabo mediante la prueba t para muestras independientes con el fin de comparar las medias entre las variables déficit de estatura y compras de la agricultura familiar. Además, se hizo un análisis multivariable a través de una regresión lineal múltiple. Resultados: Se produjo una diferencia de medias en la prevalencia del déficit de estatura significativo entre los municipios que compraron < 30% y ≥ 30% de los alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar, con 1,47 puntos de diferencia. El modelo de regresión lineal mostró que por cada punto porcentual de aumento en la compra de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar por parte del municipio, habrá, en promedio, una disminución de 0,55 puntos en la prevalencia del déficit de estatura, independientemente de las demás variables. Conclusión: la compra de alimentos de las granjas familiares para la alimentación escolar en el Brasil puede contribuir a reducir la prevalencia del déficit de estatura en los niños menores de cinco años.

4.
Salud colect ; 18: e3839, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365985

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se analizan los modos en que la desnutrición se relaciona con el acceso a tierras, las condiciones laborales, las relaciones étnicas y de género y la organización social y cultural del cuidado infantil en contexto rurales y periurbanos del departamento de Orán de la provincia de Salta, Argentina. La investigación fue realizada desde un enfoque etnográfico en el que se utilizaron técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas con poblaciones ava-guaraní, kolla, wichí y criollas, pacientes del Programa de Atención Primaria de la Salud (PROAPS) de la provincia de Salta, entre 2010 y 2016. Si bien la desnutrición infantil emerge como "un problema indígena" desde la perspectiva de cierto personal de salud y de funcionarios públicos, se observaron casos de desnutrición en niñas y niños de poblaciones criollas mientras que no se encontraron diagnósticos positivos de desnutrición en niñas y niños que viven en comunidades con reconocimiento territorial. El acceso a tierras rurales, aún sin poseer título de tenencia, habilita la autoproducción de alimentos y permite acceder a condiciones habitacionales y laborales más estables. La vulneración de derechos territoriales de las poblaciones indígenas constituye un factor determinante para comprender la emergencia de déficits nutricionales en la población infantil.


ABSTRACT This article analyzes the ways in which malnutrition is related to land access, labor conditions, ethnic and gender relations, and the social and cultural organization of child care in rural and peri-urban contexts in Orán, Salta, Argentina. Research was conducted from an ethnographic approach in which qualitative and quantitative techniques were used with ava-guaraní, kolla, wichí and white populations who were patients of Salta's Primary Health Care Program (PROAPS) between 2010 and 2016. Although child malnutrition is cast as an "indigenous problem" by certain health personnel and public officials, cases of malnutrition were observed in white children, while there were no positive diagnoses of malnutrition among children living in communities with territorial recognition. Access to rural land, even without title deeds, enables food self-production and allows access to more stable housing and working conditions. The violation of indigenous populations' territorial rights are a determining factor in understanding nutritional deficits among children.

5.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 20(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367564

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la desnutrición crónica en menores de 5 años se define como el retraso en el crecimiento, resultado de recurrentes carencias nutricionales, asociadas con pobreza, de salud y nutrición materna. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de desnutrición crónica y factores asociados en menores de 5 años de la comunidad indígena awá, atendidos en la ips Unidad del Pueblo Indígena Awá (unipa) de Barbacoas (Nariño, Colombia) durante 2019. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal con enfoque analítico. Se incluyeron 527 niños menores de 5 años de la comunidad awá acudientes al programa de crecimiento y desarrollo de la ipsunipa. Se evaluó como desenlace la desnutrición crónica y, como factores asociados, características sociodemográficas, nutricionales y otras del estado de salud. Se consideró un valor de p menor al 5 % cuando se utilizó chi cuadrado, test exacto de Fisher y U de Mann-Whitney para determinar asociación estadística; además, se ajustó la relación a través de un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: el 17.6 % de los niños pre-sentó desnutrición crónica. Se encontró asociación estadística con ser hijo de madre adolescente (p = 0.006), esquema de vacunación incompleto (p = 0.012), la edad (p = 0.017) y el peso al nacer (p = 0.017). Conclusión: en menores de 5 años de la comunidad awála frecuencia de desnutrición crónica está por encima de la media para esta población en general en Colombia. Es importante priorizar la búsqueda activa de desnutrición crónica en niños cuyas madres son adolescentes, niños con bajo peso al nacer y vacunación incompleta


Introduction: Chronic malnutrition in children under 5 years old is defined as stunting due to recurrent nutritional deficiencies associated with poverty, maternal health, and nutrition. This study aimed to iden-tify the prevalence of chronic malnutrition and associated factors in children under 5 years old from the indigenous Awá community, at Barbacoas, Nariño in 2019. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, which included 527 children under 5 years old from the Awá community who attended a health institution for growth and development program. Chronic malnutrition was evaluated as an outcome, whereas sociodemographic, nutritional and other health characteristics as associated factors. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Mann­Whitney's U test were used to determine statistical association. Additionally, the relationship was adjusted through a multiple logistic regression model. Results: Chronic malnutrition was found in 17.6% of children. The statistical association was found in children of the ado-lescent mother, incomplete vaccination schedule, and age and birth weight. Conclusion: In children under 5 years old in the Awá community, the frequency of chronic malnutrition is above the average for the general population in Colombia. Prioritizing the active search for chronic malnutrition in children whose mothers are adolescents and those with low birth weight and incomplete vaccination is important


Introdução: a desnutrição crônica em crianças menores de cinco anos é definida como retardo de crescimento como resultado de deficiências nutricionais recorrentes associadas à pobreza, saúde materna e nutrição. O objetivo é identificar a prevalência de desnutrição crônica e fatores associados em crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade indígena Awá, atendidas na Unidade ips do Povo Indígena Awá (unipa) de Barbacoas, Nariño durante 2019. Materiais e métodos: estudo transversal de abordagem analítica. Foram incluídas 527 crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade Awá que participaram do programa de crescimento e desen-volvimento da ipsunipa. A desnutrição crônica foi avaliada como desfecho e as características sociodemo-gráficas, nutricionais e outras características de saúde como fatores associados. Um valor de p inferior a 5% foi considerado quando o qui-quadrado, o teste exato de Fisher e o U de Mann Whitney foram usados para determinar a associação estatística, além disso, a relação foi ajustada por meio de um modelo de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: 17,6% das crianças apresentavam desnutrição crônica. Associação estatística foi encontrada com os fatores ser filho de mãe adolescente (valor p: 0,006), esquema vacinal incompleto (valor p: 0,012), idade (valor p: 0,017) e peso ao nascer (valor p: 0,017). Conclusão: em crianças menores de 5 anos da comunidade Awá, a frequência de desnutrição crônica está acima da média geral para esta popu-lação na Colômbia. É importante priorizar a busca ativa da desnutrição crônica em crianças cujas mães são adolescentes, em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer e com esquema de vacinação incompleto


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child Nutrition Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Malnutrition , Growth and Development , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Maternal Health
6.
Niger. J. Dent. Res. (Online) ; 7(1): 29-34, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354716

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancrum oris is a rapid and devastating infectious disease of the orofacial region, which can be life threatening in its fulminant stage. Infection of bone (osteomyelitis) is a possible sequelae of Noma (cancrum oris) and is more likely due to late presentation especially in our environment. A literature search revealed scanty research describing osteomyelitis in Noma patients. Objective: To analyze the clinico­pathology of osteomyelitis in Noma patients diagnosed and treated at Noma Children Hospital, Sokoto.Methods: The design was a 2-year retrospective study of records of Thirty­two patients who had sequestrectomy secondary to osteomyelitis in Noma (Cancrum oris). Age, gender, jaws affected and side of involvement were analyzed Results: The age ranged from 2­11 years with mean ±standard deviation 5.47 ± 2.68 years was recorded. Osteomyelitis in Noma patients was found among 17 (53.10%) males compared to 15 (46.90%) females. In 20 (62. 50%) of the cases, anterior maxillary involvement was observed and the remaining 12 (37. 50%) was found at the mandibular posterior region and it is more common on the left side. Result of histopathology showed both acute and chronic inflammatory cells. Necrosis and bone hyperactivity was observed in most of the slides. Conclusion: Osteomyelitis is a common complication of Noma and its treatment is of paramount importance for adequate management of Noma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Osteomyelitis , Diagnosis , Noma
7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 215-219, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913146

ABSTRACT

There is a high prevalence rate of malnutrition in patients with end-stage liver disease, which often promotes disease progression and has a negative impact on the prognosis of patients. This article briefly describes the etiology of malnutrition in end-stage liver disease and introduces the research advances in nutrition screening, evaluation, and treatment in end-stage liver disease in China and globally, hoping to provide inspiration for nutritional support in patients with end-stage liver disease in China.

8.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 352-358, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920884

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate whether Royal Free Hospital Nutritional Prioritizing Tool (RFH-NPT) is more suitable than Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) in nutritional risk screening for patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as the applicability of subjective global assessment (SGA) in the nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods A total of 113 patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from August 2020 to June 2021 were enrolled. RFH-NPT and NRS-2002 were used for nutritional risk screening, and SGA was used for nutritional assessment. The results of these tools were compared with the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the three tools. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated for each screening tool, and the association between nutritional status and short-term prognosis was analyzed. The independent samples t -test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of GLIM criteria with NRS2002, RFH-NPT and SGA. Results According to the GLIM criteria, 69.9% of the patients were diagnosed with malnutrition, and RFH-NPT and NRS2002 screened out that 72.6% and 51.3%, respectively, of the patients had nutritional risk, while SGA assessment showed that 57.5% of the patients had malnutrition. Compared with NRS2002, RFH-NPT had a higher degree of correlation with the GLIM criteria ( r =0.764, P < 0.001), higher sensitivity (94.9%) and NPV (87.1%), and a better predictive value (AUC=0.872, 95% confidence interval [ CI ]: 0.786-0.957). Under the GLIM criteria, SGA had good specificity (88.2%) in the diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, with fair sensitivity (77.2%), good correlation ( r =0.607, P < 0.001), and good predictive value (AUC=0.827, 95% CI : 0.744-0.911). Based on the GLIM criteria, SGA assessment, and RFH-NPT assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition tended to have a longer length of hospital stay ( Z= -3.301, -2.812, and -3.813, all P < 0.05) and a higher rehospitalization rate ( χ 2 =3.957, 6.922, and 6.766, all P < 0.05). Based on the GLIM criteria and NRS2002 assessment, the patients with nutritional risk or malnutrition had a significant increase in mortality rate within 3 months ( χ 2 =4.511 and 0.776, both P < 0.05). Conclusion Under the GLIM criteria, RFH-NPT is more suitable than NRS2002 for nutritional risk screening of patients with liver cirrhosis, and SGA also has good applicability in nutritional assessment of patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, GLIM criteria, SGA, and RFH-NPT are associated with the clinical outcome of patients.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e249971, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Stunting is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the prevalence of stunting and associated risk factors of stunting among preschool and school-going children in flood-affected areas of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting 656 households through multi-stage sampling. Respondent's anthropometric measurements, socio-demographic information and sanitation facilities were explored. A logistic regression model was used to determine determinants of stunting, controlling for all possible confounders. The overall prevalence of stunting in children was 40.5%, among children 36.1% boys and 46.3% of girls were stunted. The prevalence of stunting in under-five children was 50.7%. Female children (OR=1.35, 95% CI:0.94-2.0), children aged 13-24 months (OR=6.5, 95% CI: 3.0-13.9), mothers aged 15-24 years (OR=4.4, 95% CI: 2.6-7.2), joint family (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.4-3.0) did not have access to improved drinking water (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.9), and the toilet facility (OR=2.8, 95% CI, 1.9-4.3), while the children from district Nowshera (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) were significantly (P<0.05) associated in univariate analysis. The regression model revealed that child age, maternal age, family type, quality of water, and toilet facility, were the significant (P<0.05) factors contributing to child stunting in the flood-hit areas. Identification of key factors might be helpful for policymakers in designing comprehensive community-based programs for the reduction of stunting in flood-affected areas. In disasters such as flood, the detrimental consequences of the stunting problem could be even more on children. Evidence-based education and care must be provided to the families in the flood-affected regions to reduce the stunting problem. The determinants of stunting should be targeted by making comprehensive policies regarding proper nutrition, livelihood, clean water, and sanitation facilities in flood-hit regions.


Resumo A baixa estatura é um problema significativo de saúde pública em países de baixa e média renda. Este estudo avaliou a prevalência de nanismo e os fatores de risco associados de nanismo entre crianças em idade pré-escolar e em idade escolar em áreas afetadas por inundações do Paquistão. Foi realizado um estudo transversal visitando 656 domicílios por meio de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. As medidas antropométricas do entrevistado, informações sociodemográficas e instalações de saneamento foram exploradas. Um modelo de regressão logística foi usado para determinar os determinantes do nanismo, controlando todos os possíveis fatores de confusão. A prevalência geral de baixa estatura em crianças foi de 40,5%, entre as crianças 36,1% dos meninos e 46,3% das meninas com baixa estatura. A prevalência de baixa estatura em crianças menores de 5 anos foi de 50,7%. Crianças do sexo feminino (OR = 1,35, IC de 95%: 0,94-2,0), crianças de 13-24 meses (OR = 6,5, IC de 95%: 3,0-13,9), mães de 15-24 anos (OR = 4,4, IC de 95%: 2,6-7,2), família conjunta (OR = 2,1, IC 95%: 1,4-3,0) não tiveram acesso a água potável de qualidade (OR = 3,3, IC 95%: 1,9-5,9) e a banheiro (OR = 2,8, IC de 95%, 1,9-4,3), enquanto as crianças do distrito de Nowshera (OR = 1,7, IC de 95%: 0,9-3,2) foram significativamente (P < 0,05) associadas na análise univariada. O modelo de regressão revelou que a idade da criança, idade materna, tipo de família, qualidade da água e banheiro foram os fatores significativos (P < 0,05) que contribuíram para a baixa estatura infantil nas áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. A identificação de fatores-chave pode ser útil para os formuladores de políticas no planejamento de programas comunitários abrangentes para a redução da baixa estatura em áreas afetadas pelas enchentes. Em desastres como enchentes, as consequências prejudiciais do problema de baixa estatura podem ser ainda maiores para as crianças. Educação baseada em evidências e cuidados deve ser fornecida às famílias nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes para reduzir o problema de nanismo. Os determinantes do retardo de crescimento devem ser almejados pela formulação de políticas abrangentes sobre nutrição adequada, meios de subsistência, água potável e instalações de saneamento nas regiões afetadas pelas enchentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Floods , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 15-25, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358036

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presencia simultánea del retraso del crecimiento y del exceso de peso en una persona representa una de las principales paradojas en la salud pública global y es de creciente preocupación en Bolivia, donde ambas condiciones en su conjunto no han sido abordadas y ocurren en un contexto de transición nutricional en el que se encuentra el país. OBJETIVO: describir la coexistencia de la doble carga de malnutrición a nivel individual en la población escolar (3-19 años) del municipio de La Paz. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal analítico con datos antropométricos de 7.654 escolares pertenecientes al municipio de La Paz del año 2019. Se determinaron las prevalencias y los intervalos de confianza al 95% para emaciación, retraso en el crecimiento, sobrepeso, obesidad y sobrepeso + obesidad por sexo y grupo de edad. A nivel poblacional, la doble carga de malnutrición (DCM), se estimó en base a los umbrales de alta prevalencia sugeridos por organizaciones internacionales, a saber, prevalencias por encima del 20% y 10% para retraso en el crecimiento y sobrepeso, respectivamente. Para los análisis a nivel individual, la DCM se definió como la coexistencia de retraso en el crecimiento y sobrepeso + obesidad en los tres grupos de estudio y se comparó con su valor esperado, bajo el supuesto de distribuciones independientes de cada condición. RESULTADOS: a nivel poblacional, la prevalencia de emaciación para toda la muestra analizada fue de 3,7%, sin diferencias significativas por sexo. La prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento para el año 2019 no superó el 20% en todos los grupos de edad analizados. La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue mayor al 10% para el grupo de escolares y adolescentes. A nivel individual la doble carga de malnutrición se encontró en 2,8%, 1,9% y 2,9% en prescolares, escolares y adolescentes, respectivamente. Valores que se encontraron por debajo de lo esperado. CONCLUSIONES: las prevalencias de doble carga de malnutrición, retraso del crecimiento y sobrepeso + obesidad a nivel individual, fueron menores de lo esperado en los tres grupos de estudio, asumiendo distribuciones independientes de las dos condiciones. A pesar de ello, la coexistencia de la doble carga poblacional (municipio de La Paz) debe ser abordada en políticas y programas adecuados de salud pública(AU).


INTRODUCTION: the simultaneous presence of growth retardation and excess weight in a person represents one of the main paradoxes in global public health and is of growing concern in Bolivia, where both conditions as a whole have not been addressed and occur in a context of nutritional transition in which the country finds itself. OBJECTIVE: to describe the coexistence of the double burden of malnutrition at the individual level in the school population (3-19 years) of the municipality of La Paz. METHODS: an analytical cross-sectional observational study was carried out with anthropometric data from 7,654 schoolchildren belonging to the municipality of La Paz in 2019. The prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were determined for wasting, stunting, overweight, obesity and overweight+obesity, by sex and age group. At the population level, the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) was estimated based on thresholds of high prevalence suggested by international organizations, namely, prevalence above 20% and 10% for stunting and overweight, respectively. For individual level analyzes, DBm was defined as the coexistence of stunting and overweight + obesity in the three study groups and was compared with its expected value, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. RESULTS: at the population level, the prevalence of wasting for the entire sample analyzed was 3.7%, with no significant differences by sex. The prevalence of stunting for the year 2019 did not exceed 20% in all the age groups analyzed. The prevalence of overweight was higher than 10% for the group of schoolchildren and adolescents. At the individual level, the double burden of malnutrition was found in 2.8%, 1.9% and 2.9% in preschool, schoolchildren and adolescents, respectively. Values that turned out to be lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of double burden, growth retardation and overweight and obesity at the individual level, were lower than expected in the three study groups, assuming independent distributions of the two conditions. Despite this, the coexistence of the double burden in the municipality of La Paz must be addressed in appropriate public health policies and programs(AU).


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Public Health , Growth , Case-Control Studies , Minors , Malnutrition
11.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(3): 03-21, set-dez.2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358319

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre sintomas de depressão, risco nutricional e capacidade funcional com características sociais, econômicas, demográficas e de saúde, em idosos longevos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa transversal, realizada em quatro municípios do estado de São Paulo. A relação entre as variáveis foi obtida por meio da técnica de Análise de Correspondência Múltipla. Foram avaliados 103 idosos, a maioria do sexo feminino, com idade entre 80 e 90 anos e com até quatro anos de estudo. Os resultados evidenciam a correspondência entre a presença de sintomas de depressão, risco nutricional, comprometimento funcional, baixa escolaridade e inadequada autoavaliação de saúde. Nota-se, portanto, a necessidade de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, e o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas direcionadas aos muito idosos, oferecendo atenção necessária para a redução do risco de depressão, de desnutrição e na melhoria da funcionalidade dos idosos longevos, que levem a um impacto positivo em sua qualidade de vida (AU).


This is study aimed to evaluate the relationship between depression symptoms, nutritional risk, and functional capacity, with social, economic, demographic and health characteristics in in long-lived elderly. It is a cross-sectional survey carried out in four municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The relationships among the studied variables were investigated through the technique of Multiple Correspondence Analysis. A total of 103 elderly were evaluated, most of whom were female, aged between 80 and 90 years and up to four years of schooling. The results evidence the correspondence between depression symptoms, nutritional risk, functional impairment, low schooling, and inadequate health self-assessment. Therefore, there is need a broad and interdisciplinary approach and the development of public policies directed at the very elderly are necessary, to reduce the risk of depression, malnutrition and improve the functioning of the long-lived elderly, that have a positive impact on their quality of life (AU).


Objetivo evaluar la relación entre síntomas de depresión, riesgo nutricional y capacidad funcional, con recursos sociales, económicos, demográficos y de salud, en ancianos de larga vida. Esta es un estudio transversal realizada en cuatro municipios del estado de São Paulo. Las relaciones entre las variables se investigaron utilizando la técnica de Análisis de Correspondencia Múltiple. 103 personas mayores fueron grabadas, la mayoría mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre 80 y 90 años y hasta cuatro años de estudio. Los resultados muestran una correspondencia entre la presencia de síntomas de depresión, riesgo nutricional, deterioro funcional, baja educación y salud inadecuada. Nota la necesidad de un enfoque interdisciplinario y el desarrollo de políticas públicas dirigidas a las personas mayores, ayuda a prestar atención para reducir los riesgos de depresión, desnutrición y mejorar la funcionalidad de las personas mayores de edad, lo que tiene un impacto positivo en su calidad de vida (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Risk , Risk Reduction Behavior , Malnutrition , Depression , Sociological Factors , Quality of Life , Self-Testing
12.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 113-122, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358147

ABSTRACT

Se presenta conceptos de la inmunocompetencia y su relación con la nutrición en niños, que describen aspectos fisiológicos integrales. También se describen los aspectos inmunológicos, que permiten interpretar los mecanismos de la respuesta inmune, destacándose conceptos y criterios fisiológicos. Un niño malnutrido presenta alteraciones inmunológicas, y las mismas se las puede identificar como deficiencias a predominio celular, y a predominio humoral. Se destaca la importancia del eje Neuroinmunoendocrinológico como integrador de respuestas fisiológicas. El propósito del presente trabajo, esta dirigido a identificar las herramientas que permiten el estudio del sistema inmune en nuestro contexto, haciendo especial hincapié en la ecografía del timo, por ser una herramienta útil para evaluar al sistema inmune en niños con estado nutricional alterado en forma leve o moderada.


Concepts of immunocompetence and its relationship with nutrition in children are presented, describing comprehensive physiological aspects. Immunological aspects are also described, which allow to interpret the mechanisms of the immune response, highlighting physiological concepts and criteria. A malnourished child presents immunological alterations, and these can be identified as deficiencies with a cellular predominance, and with a humoral predominance. The importance of the Neuro-immunoendocrinological axis as an integrator of physiological responses is highlighted. The purpose of this work is aimed at identifying the tools that allow the study of the immune system in our context, with special emphasis on ultrasound of the thymus, as it is a useful tool to evaluate the immune system in children with altered nutritional status, mild or moderate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thymus Gland , Nutritional Status , Growth and Development , Nutritional Sciences , Physiological Phenomena , Immune System , Immunocompetence
13.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 41-50, Dec. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352904

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estado nutricional resulta del balance entre la ingesta y las necesidades energéticas de nutrientes del organismo. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia, características y determinantes que influyen en el estado nutricional en los niños menores de cinco años. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, descriptivo con componente analítico. Se estudió a niños menores de 5 años durante agosto y noviembre de 2017. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas del niño y del jefe de familia, los factores que pueden influir en el estado nutricional y las características antropométricas del niño. Resultados: Fueron analizados 230 niños y 213 casas. Edad promedio de los niños 2,4±1,3 años (IC95%, 2,2-2,6); 58,7% fueron niños mayores de 2 años y 51,3% masculino. Los jefes de familias: 64,9% con nivel educativo secundario, 59,7% ama de casa, 46,7% de las familias perciben sueldo mínimo. Frecuencia de desnutrición global 4,2%, desnutrición aguda 2,2%, riesgo de desnutrición 10%. En mayores de dos años frecuencia de 26,7% de sobrepeso, 13,3% de obesidad. Los factores determinantes que influyen en la desnutrición de los niños fueron: hogares con jefes de familias con nivel académico bajo e ingresos menores al sueldo mínimo. Conclusión: La mayoría de las familias son de ingresos bajos y nivel de educación baja; frecuencia de desnutrición inferior a otros estudios, tendencia de exceso de peso, talla baja y los factores determinantes encontrados que influyen en el estado nutricional son los bajos ingresos económicos y el bajo nivel educativo de los jefes de familias.


Introduction: The nutritional state results from the balance between the intake and the energy needs of nutrients of the organism. Objectives: To determine the frequency, characteristics and determinants that influences the nutritional status in children under five years of age. Materials and methods: Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study with analytical component. Children under 5 years of age were studied during August and November 2017. Sociodemographic variables of the child and the head of the family, the factors that may influence the nutritional status, and the anthropometric characteristics of the child were measured. Results: 230 children and 213 houses were analyzed. Average age of the children 2.4 ± 1.3 years (95% CI, 2.2-2.6); 58.7% were children older than 2 years and 51.3% were male. Heads of families: 64.9% with secondary education, 59.7% housewife, 46.7% of families receive minimum salary. Frequency of global malnutrition 4.2%, acute malnutrition 2.2%, risk of malnutrition 10%. In those over two years of age, the frequency is 26.7% overweight, 13.3% obese. The determining factors that influence the malnutrition of children were: households with heads of families with a low academic level and income below the minimum wage. Conclusion: Most of the families are of low income and low educational level; frequency of malnutrition lower than other studies, trend of excess weight, short stature and the determining factors found that influence nutritional status are low income and low educational level of heads of families.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Minors , Social Determinants of Health
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(3): 541-554, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345402

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) global estimates for 2017, 9.6% of children under 5 years old are stunted. Worldwide evidence shows that actions for preventing stunting and catching-up growth are relevant if addressed by all the sectors involved. Therefore, there is a need to identify 'intersectoral actions' to address the risk of stunting during pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Objective: To identify and describe worldwide evidence for prevention, nutritional interventions, and 'intersectoral collaboration' efforts against stunting in infants. Materials and methods: We conducted a systematic review in 2019 (PROSPERO CRD42019134431). The search included PubMed, OVID, and Web of Science, as well as WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) official documents and expert recommendations. Results: We selected 231 studies: 86.1% described prevention-related factors, 30.7%, nutritional interventions, and 52.8% intersectoral collaboration efforts; 36.4% of the studies were conducted in multiple regions; 61% of the studies described the importance of interventions during pregnancy, 71.9% from birth up to 6 months old, and 84.8% from 6 months up to 2 years old. The most frequent variables described were antenatal care, nutritional counseling for the mother and the newborn, and counseling on micronutrient supplementation. Conclusions: Evidence-based understanding of actions geared towards monitoring the risk of stunting-associated factors from pregnancy up to 2 years old is critical.


Resumen Introducción. Según estimaciones mundiales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para el 2017, el 9,6 % de los niños menores de cinco años padecen retraso del crecimiento. La evidencia mundial ha demostrado que las acciones para prevenir el retardo del crecimiento o para tratarlo adquieren relevancia si las abordan todos los sectores involucrados. Por lo tanto, es necesario determinar las acciones intersectoriales para atender el riesgo de retraso del crecimiento durante el embarazo y los dos primeros años de vida. Objetivo. Rastrear y describir la evidencia mundial para la prevención, las intervenciones nutricionales y los esfuerzos de colaboración intersectorial contra el retraso del crecimiento en los lactantes. Materiales y métodos: Se hizo una revisión sistemática en el 2019 (PROSPERO CRD42019134431). La búsqueda incluyó PubMed, OVID y Web of Science, así como documentos oficiales de la OMS y la Organización para la Agricultura y la Alimentación de Naciones Unidas (FAO) y recomendaciones de expertos. Resultados. Se seleccionó un total de 231 estudios: 86,1 % describían factores relacionados con la prevención, 30,7 %, intervenciones nutricionales, y 52,8 %, esfuerzos de colaboración intersectorial; 36,4 % de ellos se llevaron a cabo en múltiples regiones. Del total, el 61 % de los estudios se enfocaba en la importancia de las intervenciones durante el embarazo, el 71,9 % desde el nacimiento hasta los seis meses y el 84,8 % desde los seis meses hasta los dos años. Las variables descritas con mayor frecuencia fueron la atención prenatal, el asesoramiento nutricional para la madre y el recién nacido, y el asesoramiento sobre la suplementación con micronutrientes. Conclusiones. La comprensión basada en la evidencia de las acciones orientadas a monitorear el riesgo de factores asociados al retraso del crecimiento desde el embarazo hasta los dos años, es fundamental.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Failure to Thrive , Primary Prevention , Health Status Indicators , Intersectoral Collaboration , Malnutrition
15.
Pediátr Panamá ; 50(2): 5-10, 1 October 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343236

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La desnutrición intrahospitalaria tiene grandes implicaciones socio-económicas para los países. Sus manifestaciones dependen del grado, tiempo de evolución, déficit ponderal y edad del niño. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer el riesgo nutricional de los pacientes hospitalizados en la Sala de Medicina del Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, pacientes de ambos sexos de 1 mes a 15 años de edad, ingresados a la sala de medicina del Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas en noviembre de 2014. Se aplicaron dos métodos de tamizaje nutricional, Screening Tool for Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP) y Screening Tool for Risk On Nutritionational status and Growth (STRONGKIDS) y se estableció el riesgo nutricional de cada sujeto en estudio. Resultados: 147 pacientes participaron en el estudio. La edad promedio fue de 4,5 años (DE: 4,8), la mayoría eran lactantes (50,3%), con predominio del sexo masculino (56%). Se encontró desnutrición al momento del ingreso en el 12,8% y sobrepeso-obesidad en el 26,6%. STAMP clasificó al 18,3% de la muestra con riesgo nutricional elevado. Dicho método mostró una sensibilidad 57,8% y una especificidad del 87,5%. En cuanto a la prueba de tamizaje STRONGKIDS identificó a un 12,2% con riesgo elevado, con una sensibilidad de 47,3% y especificidad del 92,3%. La concordancia (k) entre STAMP y la evaluación nutricional fue de 0,38 y en el caso de STRONGKIDS fue de 0,41. Conclusiones: Podemos concluir que la prevalencia de desnutrición al momento del ingreso fue del 12,8%. Ambas pruebas de tamizaje nutricional mostraron una buena especificidad (>80%). El riesgo nutricional se correlaciona con las medidas antropométricas principalmente en STRONGKIDS.


Introduction: Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is a prevalent condition and is associated with many adverse outcomes. It depends on the degree, time of evolution, weight deficit and age of the child. There is a direct relationship between nutritional deterioration and longer hospitalization time, causing an increase in the frequency of complications and increased mortality. The objective of this study is to know the nutritional risk of hospitalized patients at Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas Omar Torrijos Herrera. Methods and materials: Cross-sectional descriptive study with patients evaluated within 48 hours of admission. Patients were aged 1 month or older, both sexes, admitted to the medicine room at Hospital de Especialidades Pediátricas in November 2014. Nutritional risk was assessed by two nutritional screening methods: STAMP and STRONGKIDS. Nutritional status was classified through anthropometrics measurements. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee and the signing of the informed consent was required before its inclusion in the study. Results: We evaluated 147 patients aged 4.5 ± 4.8 years, 50.3% were infants and with a predominance of males (56%). The prevalence of malnutrition was 12.8% and for overweight-obesity was 26.6%. STAMP classified 18.3% of patients as high nutritional risk. This method showed a sensitivity of 57.8% and a specificity of 87.5%. Regarding, STRONGKIDS identified 12.2% of patients at high risk, with a sensitivity of 47.3% and specificity of 92.3%. The concordance (k) between STAMP and nutritional evaluation was 0.38 and in the case of STRONGKIDS it was 0.41. Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition at the time of admission was 12.8%. STAMP and STRONG KIDS demonstrated high specificity. Nutritional risk is correlated with anthropometric measures mainly in STRONGKIDS. Further studies are required to analyze these tools and nutritional interventions derived from them.

16.
Revista Pesquisa em Fisioterapia ; 11(4): 631-639, 20210802. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348943

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A desnutrição proteico-energética é definida como resultado da deficiência calórica e/ou proteica, podendo causar alterações na composição corporal como a sarcopenia, no estado mental, na funcionalidade e consequentemente prejudicar o desfecho clínico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar oferta energética e proteica de pacientes críticos, submetidos à fisioterapia convencional associada ao cicloergômetro ativo (ou unicamente a fisioterapia convencional) e correlacionar com os dados antropométricos, e a escala MRC e Perme Escore. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: estudo piloto com pacientes críticos internados na UTI, divididos entre grupo controle (GC) e experimental (GE). Todos foram avaliados pela escala MRC e PERME escore e submetidos a medidas antropométricas. Após 8 dias de intervenção fisioterapêutica convencional (GC), ou clicoergômetro ativo associado a abordagem convencional (GE), eles foram reavaliados. O aporte proteico e calórico de todos foram avaliados todos os dias. RESULTADOS: Houve redução significativa de medidas de circunferência de panturrilha no GC e perda não significativa de medidas no GE (p=0,001). O nível de adequação calórico e proteico foi de 73,9% e 69,5% respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A mobilização com o cicloergômetro parece exercer efeito positivo na preservação da massa muscular em membros inferiores de pacientes críticos. No entanto, estudos que avaliam a medida de massa muscular em membros inferiores de modo mais controlado são necessários para comprovar essa hipótese.


INTRODUCTION: Protein-energy malnutrition is defined by caloric and/or protein deficiency, which can cause changes in body composition such as sarcopenia, mental status, functionality and consequently impair the clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: To assess the energy and protein supply of critically ill patients undergoing conventional physical therapy associated with an active cycle ergometer (or only conventional physical therapy) and correlate with anthropometric data and the MRC scale and PERME score. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pilot study with critically ill patients admitted to the ICU, divided into a control (CG) and experimental (EG) group. All were evaluated by the MRC scale and PERME score and submitted to anthropometric measurements. After eight days of conventional physical therapy intervention (CG) or active ergometer associated with the conventional approach (GE), they were reassessed. The protein and caloric intake of all were evaluated every day. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in calf circumference measurements in the CG and a non-significant loss of measurements in the EG (p=0.001). The caloric and protein adequacy level was 73.9% and 69.5%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Mobilization with a cycle ergometer seems to positively affect the preservation of muscle mass in lower limbs in critically ill patients.

17.
Rev. Fac. Nac. Salud Pública ; 39(2): e344210, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356758

ABSTRACT

Resumen La nutrición cumple un valioso papel ante la infección por el nuevo coronavirus 2019 (covid-19), tanto para la prevención como para el tratamiento, y en particular en los pacientes adultos mayores, debido a que tienen un alto riesgo de desarrollar desnutrición, la cual podría desencadenar diversas complicaciones relacionadas a la enfermedad, sobre todo durante el periodo de hospitalización o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. El manejo nutricional, además del manejo farmacológico, debe ser implementado de manera adecuada y oportuna por el personal de salud. El objetivo de la presente revisión es brindar información sobre la intervención nutricional para el manejo de personas adultas mayores con infección de covid-19.


Abstract Nutrition plays a valuable role in the face of infection by the new coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) both for prevention and treatment, particularly in older adult patients due to their increased risk of developing malnutrition, which could cause various complications related to covid-19, especially during the hospitalization period or, where appropriate, in the Intensive Care Unit. Nutritional therapy must be considered and implemented by health personnel in an appropriate way. The objective of this review is to provide relevant information regarding nutritional intervention in different clinical fields for the management of older adults with covid-19 infection.

18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 230-237, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280899

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TPH) en niños es un procedimiento no exento de complicaciones graves. El ingreso de esta población a unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) se asocia con elevada mortalidad. Objetivos: Analizar la sobrevida y los factores predictivos de la mortalidad en niños que recibieron TPH e ingresaron a la UCIP y elaborar un modelo predictivo de mortalidad en esta población. Materiales y métodos: Revisión retrospectiva de niños y adolescentes que recibieron un TPH entre el 01/01/2005 y el 31/12/2019 e ingresaron a la UCIP de un hospital universitario de alta complejidad. Resultados: De un total de 264 niños que recibieron el trasplante, 114 ingresaron a la UCIP. La mortalidad general fue del 29 % (n = 34). El tipo de trasplante, enfermedad basal, evento de neutropenia febril, infección por citomegalovirus, insuficiencia respiratoria, enfermedad de injerto contra huésped (EICH), quimioterapia mieloablativa y desnutrición previa se asociaron con tasas de mortalidad más elevadas. En el análisis multivariado, la EICH (razón de posibilidades [OR, por su sigla en inglés]: 2,23; intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC 95 %]: 1,92-2,98), la necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva (OR: 2,47; IC95 %: 1,39-5,73), el trasplante de donante alternativo (OR: 1,58; IC 95 %: 1,14-2,17) y la desnutrición previa (OR: 1,78; IC 95 %: 1,223-3,89) se asociaron con mayor mortalidad. Conclusión: En la población estudiada, dos de cada tres niños que recibieron TPH e ingresaron a la UCIP sobrevivieron. La EICH, ventilación mecánica, trasplante de donante alternativo y desnutrición previa fueron factores predictivos de mortalidad


Introduction: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children is a procedure that is not exempt of severe complications. Admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is associated with a high mortality rate. Objectives: To analyze survival and predictors of mortality among children who received a HSCT and were admitted to the PICU, and to develop a mortality prediction model in this population. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of children and adolescents who received a HSCT between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2019 and were admitted to the PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Results: Out of 264 children receiving the transplant 114 were admitted to the PICU. The overall mortality rate was 29 % (n = 34). The type of transplant, underlying disease, febrile neutropenia event, cytomegalovirus infection, respiratory failure, graft versus host disease (GVHD), myeloablative chemotherapy, and previous malnutrition were associated with higher mortality rates. In the multivariate analysis, GVHD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.92-2.98), need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.47; 95 % CI: 1.39-5.73), alternative donor transplant (OR: 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.14-2.17), and previous malnutrition (OR: 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.22-3.89) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Conclusion: In the studied population, 2 out of 3 children who received a HSCT and were admitted to the PICU survived. GVHD, mechanical ventilation, alternative donor transplant, and previous malnutrition were predictors of mortality


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Sepsis , Malnutrition , Graft vs Host Disease
19.
Rev. cienc. salud ; 19(2): 1-22, mayo-ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357202

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la desnutrición infantil es un problema de salud pública que afecta la supervivencia de algunas comunidades indígenas. Varios estudios la han abordado desde la visión biomédica, pero son pocos desde la mirada de dichas comunidades. El objetivo de este artículo es comprender las perspecti vas comunitarias relacionadas con la desnutrición en niños de 0 a 7 años de edad en las comunidades wayúus de Taiguaicat, Pañarrer y Limunaka del resguardo Manaure (La Guajira, Colombia). Desarrollo: se realizó un estudio cualitativo como parte de una investigación participativa basada en la comunidad. Se llevaron a cabo 21 entrevistas semiestructuradas, 3 foros comunitarios y un ejercicio de fotovoz con 12 participantes. Se analizó la información con herramientas analíticas de la teoría fundamentada. Los hallazgos alrededor de las perspectivas comunitarias de la desnutrición infantil se agruparon en dos categorías analíticas: a) las prácticas arijunas (o las realizadas por los que no son indígenas), de la pér dida de lo ancestral a la enfermedad del hambre, y b) la enfermedad del hambre: su relación con la ali mentación del binomio madre-hijo, durante la gestación y después de esta. Conclusiones: la desnutrición infantil en los wayúus es un fenómeno complejo e histórico, con un trasfondo de desigualdades sociales y de estructuras de poder injustas. De acuerdo con los participantes, la supervivencia de la niñez wayúu está siendo amenazada por la desnutrición, la cual afecta principalmente al binomio madre-hijo, ocasio nada por el poco acceso y disponibilidad a los alimentos, por las inadecuadas prácticas occidentales en el territorio y por la pérdida de las prácticas tradicionales como la siembra y el pastoreo.


Abstract Introduction: Child malnutrition is a public health problem that has affected the survival of some indige nous communities. Several studies have approached it from the biomedical perspective, although only a few have analyzed it from these communities' perspective. The objective of the present article is to under stand the community perspectives related to malnutrition in children aged 0-7 years in the Wayuu commu nities of Taiguaicat, Pañarrer, and Limunaka del Resguardo Manaure, La Guajira, Colombia. Development: A qualitative study was performed. Additionally, as a part of a participatory community-based research, 21 semi-structured interviews, 3 community forums, and a photovoice exercise were performed with 12 participants. The information was analyzed with analytical tools of the grounded theory. The findings around the community perspectives of child malnutrition were grouped into two analytical categories: (a) the Arijuna practices (or those carried out by non-indigenous people), from the loss of the ancestral to the disease of hunger, and (b) the disease of hunger and its relationship with the feeding of the moth er-child binomial during and after pregnancy. Conclusions: Child malnutrition in the Wayuu is a complex historical phenomenon, with a background of social inequalities and unjust power structures. According to the participants' responses, the survival of Wayuu children is threatened by malnutrition, which mainly affects the mother-child relationship caused by poor access to food and its limited availability, inadequate western practices in the territory, and the loss of traditional practices, such as planting and grazing.


Resumo Introdução: a desnutrição infantil é um problema de saúde pública que afeta a sobrevivência de algumas comunidades indígenas. Vários estudos têm abordado o tema a partir da perspectiva biomédica, mas pou cos são os estudos baseados na perspectiva dessas comunidades. O objetivo deste artigo é compreender as perspectivas da comunidade em relação à desnutrição em crianças de 0 a 7 anos nas comunidades Wayuu de Taiguaicat, Pañarrer e Limunaka del Resguardo Manaure, em La Guajira, na Colômbia. Desenvolvimento: foi realizado um estudo qualitativo no âmbito de uma pesquisa participativa de base comunitária, foram realizadas 21 entrevistas semiestruturadas, 3 fóruns comunitários e um exercício de fotovoz com 12 par ticipantes. As informações foram analisadas com ferramentas analíticas da Teoria Fundamentada. As des cobertas em torno das perspectivas da comunidade sobre a desnutrição infantil foram agrupadas em duas categorias analíticas: a) as práticas arijunas, da perda do ancestral à doença da fome, e b) a doença da fome: sua relação com a alimentação do binômio mãe-filho, durante e após a gestação. Conclusões: a desnutrição infantil nos wayuu é um fenômeno complexo e histórico, com um pano de fundo de desigualdades sociais e estruturas de poder injustas. Segundo os participantes, a sobrevivência das crianças wayuu está sendo ameaçada pela desnutrição, que atinge principalmente o binômio mãe-filho, causada pelo pouco acesso e disponibilidade de alimentos, pelas práticas ocidentais inadequadas no território e pela perda de práticas tradicionais como a semeadura e o pastejo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders , Population Groups , Colombia , Malnutrition , Maternal Nutrition , Indigenous Peoples , Food Supply , Acculturation
20.
Acta biol. colomb ; 26(2): 235-246, mayo-ago. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355535

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Uno de los retos que encara la humanidad es asegurar la alimentación y la adecuada nutrición para los cerca de ocho billones de habitantes del planeta. Las raíces de yuca constituyen la cuarta fuente más importante de calorías para la población humana siendo uno de los pilares de la seguridad alimentaria. Las raíces de yuca no poseen atributos nutricionales adecuados. Aunque existen variedades con valores relativamente altos de estos compuestos, sus valores están lejos de los necesarios para asegurar los requerimientos mínimos de la población humana. Las hojas de yuca poseen valores altos de contenido proteico, minerales y vitaminas, por lo que representan una fuente nutricional alternativa. Sin embargo, el consumo de hojas de yuca en América Latina es escaso o nulo como consecuencia de los altos niveles de cianuro que poseen. En algunos países de África y Asia las hojas se consumen a través de diversas recetas que incluye su cocción, eliminando así una gran cantidad del contenido cianógeno. En esta revisión se presenta un panorama general de la importancia nutricional de la yuca, las diferentes estrategias de mejoramiento genético clásico y no convencional destinados a incrementar los contenidos nutricionales de raíces y la importancia de la explotación de la variabilidad intrínseca de la yuca como una fuente de variedades y genes que puedan contribuir a la implementación de estrategias encaminadas a desarrollar materiales con los requerimientos nutricionales adecuados. Finalmente, se presenta el potencial que tienen las hojas de yuca para ser empleadas dentro de programas complementarios destinados a mejorar la calidad nutricional de la población humana.


ABSTRACT One of the challenges facing humanity is to ensure food and adequate nutrition for the nearly eight billion inhabitants of the planet. Cassava roots constitute the fourth most important source of calories for the human population, being one of the pillars of food security. Cassava roots do not have adequate nutritional attributes. Although there are varieties with relatively high values of these compounds, these are far from those necessary to ensure the minimum requirements of the human population. Cassava leaves have a high content of protein, minerals, and vitamins, so they represent an alternative nutritional source. However, their consumption in Latin America is scarce due to the high levels of cyanide they possess. In some countries of Africa and Asia, the leaves are consumed through various recipes that include cooking, thus eliminating a large amount of cyanogen content. This review presents an overview of the nutritional importance of cassava, the different strategies of classical and unconventional genetic improvement aimed at increasing the nutritional content of roots, and the importance of exploiting the intrinsic variability of cassava as a source of varieties and genes that can contribute to the development of strategies directed to developing materials with the appropriate nutritional requirements. Finally, the potential of cassava leaves to be used in complementary programs aimed at improving the nutritional quality of the human population is presented.

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