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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907050

ABSTRACT

Objective @#To investigate the status of occupational stress and analyze its influencing factors among frontline employees working in a chemical fiber manufacturing enterprise, so as to provide insights into the development of occupational stress interventions. @*Methods @#The frontline employees working in a chemical fiber manufacturing enterprise were selected as the study subjects using a cluster sampling method in October 2018. The status of occupational stress was investigated using the Chinese version of the effort-reward imbalance ( ERI ) questionnaire. The influencing factors for occupational stress were identified using a multivariable logistic regression model. @*Results @#A total of 1 780 questionnaires were sent out, and 1 115 valid ones ( 62.64% ) were recovered. Among the 1 115 respondents, there were 427 men ( 38.30% ) and 688 women ( 61.70% ), and 71.22% were at ages of 21 to 39 years. There were 561 respondents with < 1 year of service ( 50.31% ), and the longest length of service was 11 years. In addition, there were 1 069 respondents ( 95.87% ) exposed to high noise, and 346 respondents ( 31.03% ) were diagnosed at a high occupational-stress state and 769 ( 68.97% ) at a low state. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified 5 years or longer of service ( OR=1.540, 95%CI: 1.057-2.245 ) and exposure to high noise ( OR=1.917, 95%CI: 1.004-3.659 ) as risk factors for occupational stress among frontline employees in the chemical fiber manufacturing enterprise. @*Conclusions @#There are 31.03% of frontline employees at a high occupational-stress state in the chemical fiber manufacturing enterprise, and a high occupational-stress state is associated with exposure to high noise and 5 years or longer of service.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920379

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the characteristics of noise hazards in automobile sand casting industry and understand the impact of noise on the health of automobile foundry workers, and to provide scientific data support for the control of noise hazards. Methods An automobile sand casting enterprise was selected as the research object. The post noise intensity test results from 2010 to 2019, the noise spectrum test results of each post in 2019, and the prevalence of occupational noise deafness in the 10 years from 2010 to 2019 were analyzed and sorted out. Using chi-square test and t-test the noise hazard characteristics and noise intensity changes were statistically analyzed. Results 1. The noise LEX.8h exceeding standard rate of foundry enterprises in the 10 years from 2010 to 2019 was not statistically significant(χ2=6.76, P=0.66), and the mean value of noise LEX.8h fluctuated horizontally in the 10 years, which was basically stable between 80 - 90 dB (A). 2. The mean value of noise intensity of sand falling, sand preparation, cleaning and shot blasting in the first five years was significantly different compared to that in the last five years. There was no statistically significant difference in other posts. 3. Among all posts in the foundry sand casting industry, the noise spectrum of core-making and cleaning posts was mainly medium and high frequency, while the noise spectrum of other posts was mainly medium and low frequency. 4, Cases of occupational noise deafness were mainly concentrated in cleaning and polishing workers, melting chemical workers, inspectors and other types of workers. Conclusions The noise hazards in the automobile foundry sand casting industry are mainly concentrated on the posts of molding, and sand falling, and the noise intensity and the over standard rate remain high in the past 10 years. The noise of each post is mainly medium and low frequency, and the noise of a few individual posts is mainly medium and high frequency. In recent years, due to the automatic renewal of equipment, the noise intensity of some posts such as sand dropping, sand mixing, cleaning and shot blasting has decreased, but the overall noise exceeding standard rate has basically not changed, and the noise hazard is still serious. The noise hazard of foundry sand casting enterprises is difficult to be controlled, and the risk of hearing loss of foundry workers is still high.

3.
Medisur ; 19(3): 530-535, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287335

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento el ruido se incluye dentro de los cinco principales factores de riesgo de naturaleza física para la salud en el medio laboral. Objetivo determinar si la contaminación acústica de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Glucosas, Almidón y Derivados del Maíz, de Cienfuegos sobrepasa los valores máximos admisibles establecidos en la NC 871/11 de Seguridad y Salud en el trabajo. Métodos se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Glucosas, Almidón y Derivados del Maíz de Cienfuegos, en el mes de febrero de 2018. En la empresa laboraban 287 trabajadores, de ellos 247 directos a la producción. Las mediciones del nivel sonoro en el área de trabajo se realizaron según la metodología que establece la Norma Cubana vigente NC 19-01-14/83. Se analizaron las variables: nivel sonoro equivalente continuo, expresado en decibeles (dB(A)) y el tiempo de exposición (en horas). Para medir el ruido se utilizó un sonómetro integrador clase 2. Las mediciones se realizaron durante la jornada laboral. Resultados en el generador de vapor, caldera de compresores, área de molinación y generación, recepción de maíz y limpieza, empaque fábrica de pienso, secadores y centrífugas los niveles de ruido sobrepasan los 90 db(a) de exposición. En los previos 2 y 3 del área molinación y generación, los niveles de ruido fueron superiores a los 100 db(a) de exposición. Conclusiones: los niveles de ruido encontrados sobrepasan el valor máximo admisible, lo que pudiera ocasionar consecuencias nocivas en la salud de los trabajadores por lo que se hace necesario intervenir en este medio laboral.


ABSTRACT Foundation: noise is included among the 5 risk factors of physical origin for health in the working environment. Objective: to determine if sound pollution at the Cienfuegos Manufacturing and Marketing Company of glucose, starch and other corn byproducts, exceeds maximum admissible values on NC 871/11 of Health Safety and Health at Work. Methods: a cross descriptive study at the Cienfuegos Manufacturing and Marketing Company of glucose, starch and other corn byproducts was conducted, on February 2018. A number of 287 persons were working, out of them 247 directly in production processes. Measurements of sound levels in the working areas were done according to the valid Cuban standard NC 19-01-14/83. Variables continues equivalent sound level, express in decibels (dB(A) and time of exposure in hours. To measure noise, it was used and integrative sonometer type 2. Measurements were done the during working hours. Results: in the steam generator, compressor boiler, grinding and generation areas, corn reception and cleaning, animal feed factory, dryers and centrifugal equipment noise levels exceed 90 db (a) of exposition. Conclusion: the levels of noise found exceed the admissible maximum which might produce harmful health consequences on workers therefore it is necessary to intervene this working environment


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Noise Monitoring/analysis , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive
4.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 69(2): e205, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Dentists are a population at high risk of hearing loss due to their constant exposure to instruments that can generate noise of up to 100 dB during their practice. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge of dentists working in Chile regarding hearing loss caused by exposure to noise generated by dental instruments. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 114 dentists, who completed a virtual survey of 22 questions regarding the perception and level of knowledge about hearing loss due to exposure to loud noises and about national regulations on occupational noise exposure. Differences between perception and knowledge levels were evaluated taking into account the years of professional practice and the average weekly workload in dental treatment rooms. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-squared test) were used for data analysis. Results: Most participants were Chilean (99.1%); 58.8% were women, and 72.8% had less than 10 years of professional experience. In addition, 97.4% were unaware of national regulations on occupational noise exposure and 50% of the sample reported having experienced hearing loss; of these, 57.9% (n = 32) associated it with their practice. Conclusions: A very low percentage of participants knew that there are regulations regarding occupational noise exposure. For this reason, it is important that, both during their training and their professional practice, dentists in Chile have greater access to information about these regulations and hearing protection measures.


Resumen Introducción. Los odontólogos son una población con un alto riesgo de desarrollar pérdida auditiva debido a la constante exposición a instrumentales que deben usar en su práctica profesional y que pueden generar ruidos de hasta 100 dB. Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de conocimiento de odontólogos laboralmente activos en Chile respecto a la pérdida auditiva causada por la exposición al ruido generado por maquinarias dentales. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado en 114 odontólogos, quienes diligenciaron una encuesta virtual de 22 preguntas relativas a la percepción y el nivel de conocimiento sobre pérdida auditiva por exposición a ruidos fuertes y sobre la normativa nacional respecto a exposición ocupacional al ruido. Se evaluaron las diferencias entre percepción y niveles de conocimiento según los años de ejercicio profesional y la carga promedio de trabajo semanal en boxes de atención. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial (prueba de chi-cuadrado). Resultados. La mayoría de participantes eran chilenos (99.1%); el 58.8% fueron mujeres, y el 72.8% tenía menos de 10 años de ejercicio profesional. Además, el 97.4% desconocía las regulaciones nacionales sobre exposición ocupacional al ruido y el 50% reportó haber experimentado pérdida auditiva; de estos, 57.9% (n=32) lo asoció a su profesión. Conclusiones. Un muy bajo porcentaje de los participantes sabe que hay disposiciones sobre exposición ocupacional al ruido, por lo que es importante que, tanto en su formación, como durante su ejercicio profesional, los odontólogos en Chile tengan un mayor acceso a información relativa a estas normativas y a medidas ocupacionales de protección auditiva.

5.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(1): e1468, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251746

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La audiometría de altas frecuencias (9000-20 000 Hz) puede ser de gran utilidad en el diagnóstico precoz de hipoacusia inducida por ruidos en contraste con la audiometría convencional (125-8000 Hz). Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la audiometría de altas frecuencias en el diagnóstico precoz de la hipoacusia inducida por ruidos en adolescentes. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en 85 adolescentes expuestos a ruidos; 45 cursaban el décimo grado en un preuniversitario de la provincia La Habana, en el curso escolar 2013-2014 y 40, el primer año de la carrera de medicina, en una facultad de La Habana en el curso escolar 2015- 2016. A todos se le realizó una encuesta, examen físico de otorrinolaringología, audiometría convencional y audiometría de alta frecuencia. Resultados: La audiometría convencional fue normal en todos los casos. En la audiometría de altas frecuencias en todos los adolescentes estudiados comenzó a disminuir la audición a partir de los 13 000 Hz y se apreció una hipoacusia neurosensorial en aumento hasta 85 decibeles en oído derecho y 78 decibeles en oído izquierdo en 20 000 Hz de frecuencia. Conclusiones: Los adolescentes evaluados tienen hábitos auditivos que pueden perjudicar su audición, todos ya poseen signos de daño que no se manifiestan a través de la audiometría convencional pero sí a través de la audiometría de alta frecuencia en las diferentes exposiciones a ruidos de altos decibeles. Lo anterior demuestra la utilidad de esta audiometría, no solo dentro del campo de la audiología, sino también en la medicina preventiva(AU)


Introduction: High frequency audiometry (9000-20 000 Hz) can be really useful in the early diagnosis of deafness induced by noises, in contrast with conventional tonal audiometry (125-8000 Hz). Objective: Assess the usefulness of high frequency audiometry in the early diagnosis of deafness induced by noises in adolescents. Methods: Descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study in 85 adolescents exposed to noises; 45 of them were studying the 10th grade in a high school of Havana province, and 40 of them were in the first year of Medicine in a faculty of Havana province during school year 2015-2016. All of them took a survey, a physical examination of otolaryngology, liminar total audiometry and high frequency audiometry. Results: Tonal audiometry was normal in all the cases. In high frequency audiometry of all the studied adolescents started to decrease audition from 13000 HZ and it was noticed an increasing neurosensorial deafness up to 85 decibels in the right ear and 78 decibels in the left ear in 20 000 Hz of frequency. Conclusions: The adolescents assessed have auditive habits that can jeopardize their audition; all of them already have signs of damage that are not noticed in the tonal audiometry but in the high frequency audiometry in the different exposures to noises of high decibels. This proves the usefulness of this kind of audiometry not only in the field of audiology, but also in preventive medicine(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Audiometry , Education, Primary and Secondary , Early Diagnosis , Hearing , Noise , Physical Examination , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910451

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare and analyze the image quality, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of T 1WI_Star_VIBE_FS sequence in MRI simulation of neck tumors with different scanning methods, aiming to determine the optimal scanning method. Methods:A retrospective analysis of 78 patients receiving MRI contrast scan was performed. All patients were randomly divided into three groups according to three different scanning methods including bolus mode (group A, n=23), segmentation splicing mode (group B, n=18) and the combination mode (group C, n=37). The image quality, SNR and CNR of the anterior soft tissues of neck were statistically compared. Results:A higher image quality score was obtained in group C. The mean SNR and CNR in three groups were calculated as 214.70±148.78, 91.95±59.26, 307.61±127.80, and 208.74±148.27, 85.79±59.50, 301.58±127.48, respectively. The image quality score, SNR and CNR in group C were significantly better compared with those in group A and B (all P<0.01). Conclusion:Combination of bolus and segmentation splicing modes is a recommended approach in MRI simulation during radiotherapy of neck tumors.

7.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 1029-1035, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910264

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the stability and feasibility of improved silent MRA technique based on hybrid-arterial spin labeling(ASL) for imaging intracranial arterial stenosis.Methods:From September 2019 to May 2020, totally 35 patients with suspected intracranial vascular stenosis in Department of Neurology of Northern Jiangsu People′s Hospital were enrolled in this study. Silent MRA and improved silent MRA based on hybrid-ASL technique were performed respectively. The acquisition noise (noise measurement and subjective score) of two kinds of MRA examination were evaluated respectively. Two neuroradiologists performed image quality scoring and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement of intracranial arteries (including internal carotid artery, vertebrobasilar artery, anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and posterior cerebral artery) in the two kinds of MRA images using a double-blind, completely randomized method. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the image quality and SNR of two kinds of MRA images in each segment. Two experts assessed the degree of stenosis at the site of confirmed intracranial artery stenosis. Kappa test was used to assess interobserver and intermodel agreement. Results:There was no significant difference in acquisition noise between improved silent MRA and silent MRA ( P>0.05). In all five segments measured, the image quality scores of internal carotid artery [(4.40±0.49)scores], anterior cerebral artery[(4.30±0.33)scores] and middle cerebral artery [(4.46±0.34)scores] in improved silent MRA were higher than those in silent MRA images [(4.02±0.43)scores, (4.02±0.31)scores, (4.02±0.31)scores; t=2.825, 2.877, 1.683, all P<0.05)]. The SNR of internal carotid artery (9.11±1.23) and middle cerebral artery (8.77±1.87) in improved silent MRA images was higher than that in silent MRA images (7.83±1.33, 8.06±2.67, respectively; t=11.154, 3.268, both P<0.05). A total of 24 patients (38 lesions) with intracranial vascular stenosis were diagnosed by CTA. Improved silent MRA (Kappa=0.89, 95%CI 0.82-0.95) and silent MRA (Kappa=0.85, 95%CI 0.77-0.92) were highly consistent among observers in evaluating the degree of cerebrovascular stenosis.The results of improved silent MRA were highly consistent with those of CTA (Kappa=0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.98), and those of silent MRA were highly consistent with those of CTA (Kappa=0.85, 95%CI 0.77-0.92). Conclusions:The improved silent MRA is feasible to improve the imaging quality and signal uniformity through efficient marking based on keeping the low noise features. In the diagnosis of intracranial stenosis and occlusive disease, the stability of improved silent MRA imaging improves the diagnostic efficiency of stenosis to a certain extent.

8.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 529-534, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909353

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effects of noise, bright light and mechanical stimulation on sleep, blood-brain barrier and cognitive function in septic rats.Methods:Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected and intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish sepsis model. 0, 30, 45, 60, 75 dB noise stimulation or 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 Lux light stimulation were given to rats (all n = 4). The serum levels of cortisol and melatonin, and the cerebral content of Evans blue (EB) were measured 96 hours after the stimulation to determine the optimal intensity of intervention. The other 40 SD rats were randomly divided into control group (Con group), LPS group, noise intervention group (LPS+60 dB group), 200 Lux light intervention group (LPS+200 Lux group) and mechanical stimulation group (LPS+MS group), with 8 rats in each group. The open fields test and fear conditioning test were used to evaluate the exploratory behavior and cognitive function 96 hours after corresponding stimulation. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect cerebral level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum levels of cortisol and melatonin. The blood-brain barrier integrity was assessed by EB staining. The protein levels of ZO-1, Claudin-5 and caspase-3 in the hippocampus were detected by Western blotting to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity and neuronal apoptosis. Results:Compared with 0 dB group or 0 Lux group, the serum melatonin concentration in 60 dB group and 200 Lux group were significantly reduced, while the serum cortisol concentration and cerebral EB content were significantly increased. Therefore, 60 dB noise and 200 Lux light were selected in the subsequent experiments. Compared with Con group, the horizontal score and vertical score in the open field test in LPS group were significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in the proportion of freezing time, the cerebral contents of EB and IL-6, the serum levels of melatonin and cortisol, and the hippocampal expressions of ZO-1, Claudin-5 and caspase-3. Compared with LPS group, the horizontal score, vertical score and the percentage of freezing time in LPS+60 dB group, LPS+200 Lux group and LPS+MS group were significantly reduced [horizontal score: 73.8±9.7, 80.3±9.4, 64.5±8.3 vs. 103.6±15.5; vertical score: 9.4±1.7, 11.2±1.9, 6.8±0.9 vs. 15.9±2.8; the percentage of freezing time: (45.3±4.7)%, (53.3±5.8)%, (42.1±5.1)% vs. (66.1±6.3)%], the serum level of melatonin was significantly decreased (ng/L: 53.62±6.20, 44.25±6.41, 45.33±5.84 vs. 74.39±7.54), the serum level of cortisol was significantly increased (nmol/L: 818.34±95.53, 710.04±65.41, 989.73±91.63 vs. 398.82±72.59), the levels of EB, IL-6 in the brain tissue were significantly increased [EB (μg/g): 2.80±0.35, 2.38±0.31, 3.24±0.42 vs. 1.59±0.26; IL-6 (ng/g): 31.56±4.11, 26.69±3.75, 37.47±4.56 vs. 16.28±2.69], the expressions of ZO-1 and Claudin-5 were significantly decreased (ZO-1/β-actin: 0.37±0.04, 0.32±0.05, 0.24±0.04 vs. 0.80±0.09; Claudin-5/β-actin: 0.62±0.08, 0.47±0.06, 0.35±0.05 vs. 0.97±0.20), and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was significantly increased (caspase-3/β-actin: 0.56±0.06, 0.39±0.04, 0.72±0.12 vs. 0.20±0.03), with statistically significant differences (all P < 0.05). Conclusion:60 dB noise, 200 Lux light or mechanical stimulation for 96 hours could inhibit the secretion of serum melatonin, promote the secretion of cortisol, and activate neuroinflammation in septic rats, and lead to neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and hyper-permeability of blood-brain barrier, which in turn could cause sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment.

9.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 407-411, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923208

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status and association of anxiety, depression, tinnitus and sleep quality in patients with occupational noise-induced deafness(ONID). METHODS: A total of 302 ONID patients were selected as research subjects using judgment sampling method. Their status of anxiety, depression, tinnitus and sleep quality were investigated using questionnaires of Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: Among the study subjects, there were 123 cases with no anxiety or depression, 46 cases with simple anxiety or depression, and 133 cases with combined anxiety and depression, accounting for 40.7%, 15.3% and 44.0%, respectively. The incidence of tinnitus and sleep disorder were 77.8%(235/302) and 48.0%(145/302), respectively. The total scores of tinnitus and sleep quality in simple anxiety or depression group were higher than those with no anxiety or depression(all P<0.01). The total scores of tinnitus and sleep quality in combined anxiety and depression group were higher than that with no anxiety and depression, and simple anxiety or depression group(all P<0.01). Among the research subjects, the incidence of tinnitus and sleep disorder from high to low were combined anxiety and depression group, simple anxiety or depression group, and no anxiety and depression group(tinnitus: 85.7% vs 76.1% vs 69.9%, sleep disturbance: 82.0% vs 37.0% vs 15.5%, all P<0.01). The standard scores of anxiety and depression in ONID patients were positively correlated with the total scores of tinnitus and sleep quality(correlation coefficients were 0.63, 0.72, 0.63, 0.69, all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: ONID patients can be accompanied by varying degrees of anxiety and depression. The existence of anxiety and depression may lead to increased tinnitus and decreased sleep quality in ONID patients.

10.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 351-355, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of surveillance results of key occupational diseases in Nanning City.METHODS: The occupational health monitoring data of key occupational diseases of Nanning City from 2015 to 2019 were collected using judgment sampling method and analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. RESULTS: A total of 38 cases of key occupational diseases were reported in Nanning City during the past 5 years.The main diseases were occupational pneumoconiosis and occupational noise-induced deafness(ONID). The rate of occupational health examination was 40.06%, showing an increasing trend with the increase of years(P<0.01). The detection rate of occupational pneumoconiosis was higher than that of ONID(0.19% vs 0.01%, P<0.01). However, the abnormal detection rate of occupational health special examination in noise-exposed workers was higher than that in dust-exposed workers(10.98% vs 0.35%, P<0.01). The detection rate of pneumoconiosis-like changes in dust-exposed workers was the highest in private enterprises(P<0.01). The detection rate of binaural high frequency average hearing threshold ≥40 dB was highest in small and micro enterprises and private enterprises(all P<0.01). The detection rate of blood lead level >400 μg/L was 24.75%, and 98.80% of the abnormal workers were concentrated in medium-sized foreign-funded enterprises. The detection rates of abnormal leukocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts in benzene-exposed workers were 1.17%, 3.21% and 0.26% respectively. CONCLUSION: Among the key occupational disease risk factors in Nanning City, the number of workers exposed to dust and noise is relatively high, which results in serious consequences and harm. But the hazards of lead and benzene cannot be ignored. Emphasis should be placed on strengthening the supervision and management of key occupational diseases in small and medium-sized micro-enterprises and private enterprises.

11.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 587-590, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and distribution characteristics of newly-reported occupational diseases from 2006 to 2018 in Changsha City. METHODS: The data of newly-reported occupational diseases from 2006 to 2018 in Changsha City were collected using retrospective analytic method. The distribution of disease type, region, and enterprise industry, size and economic type of the cases was descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: There were 676 cases of newly-reported occupational diseases, involving 35 types in 8 categories from 2006 to 2018 in Changsha City. Newly-reported occupational pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases accounted for the greatest number(56.2%) of total cases, followed by occupational otorhinolaryngology and oral diseases(31.4%) and occupational chemical poisoning(9.3%). Occupational silicosis(79.2%) and coal worker′s pneumoconiosis(9.2%) were the main occupational pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases, and occupational noise-induced deafness was the main occupational otorhinolaryngology and oral disease(96.2%).The top three regions were Yuelu District of Changsha City, Ningxiang City and Liuyang City. The top three enterprises industry were manufacturing industry(40.1%), public administration, social security and social organizations(31.7%) and mining industry(22.8%). The main enterprise size was small enterprises(57.1%) and medium-sized enterprises(30.6%), and the main enterprise economic type was state-owned economy(68.8%) and private economy(26.0%). CONCLUSION: The main newly-reported occupational diseases in Changsha City are occupational pneumoconiosis and occupational noise-induced deafness. It is necessary to strengthen occupational health supervision and management in manufacturing, mining and other key industries as well as small and medium-sized enterprises.

12.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 571-576, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923090

ABSTRACT

At present, the methods for verifying the attenuation of hearing protective devices(HPDs) mainly include real-ear attenuation at threshold(REAT), microphone in real ear(MIRE), and acoustical test fixture(ATF). Among them, the REAT is the gold standard, but its testing requirements are strict and there is a physiological noise masking effect. The test results of MIRE need to be modified by transfer function of the open ear, which has the advantage of convenient operation without being affected by subjective feelings. The ATF method is mainly used to verify the shape and quality of customized HPDs since its artificial ear design cannot truly reflect the real-ear test situation. The HPD fit testing has been well developed and widely applied abroad, which has been proved to be able to accurately verify and effectively improve the attenuation of workers wearing HPDs. However, relevant research and applications have only been carried out in China in recent years. At present, the main problems in the verification of the protective effect of HPDs in China are as follows: firstly, the measurement is only limited in attenuation and fail to comprehensively consider the applicability and comfort of the HPDs; secondly, a-weighted sound pressure level is mostly used in noise monitoring in China, while the choice of HPDs is based on C-weighted-sound pressure level. The transition between these two has not been established. Future research should be devoted to solve the above problems and help the use of HPDs in preventing the hearing loss of noise-exposed workers.

13.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 502-509, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of intermittent and persistent noise exposure-induced anxiety and depression-like behavior in rats. METHODS: The specific pathogen free male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, four times/day intermittent noise exposure group, two times/day intermittent noise exposure group and persistent noise exposure group, with 15 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were housed in natural environment(background noise ≤50 dB), and the rats in other three exposure groups were exposed to noise with intensity of(95±2) dB of 20 to 20 000 Hz noise for four hours per day for 14 days; rats in the four times/day intermittent noise exposure group entered a five-hour quiet period every one hours of noise exposure, four times/day; rats in the two times/day intermittent noise exposure group entered a 10-hour quiet period every two hours of noise exposure, two times/day; rats in the persistent noise exposure group entered a 20-hour quiet period every four hours of noise exposure. After exposure, anxiety like behavior was evaluated by open field test and elevated cross maze test. The depression like behavior was evaluated by sugar preference test and forced swimming test. The pathological changes of neurons in the hippocampus were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the ultrastructural changes of hippocampal tissues were observed by transmission electron microscope. Chemiluminescence and colorimetry were used to detect the levels of reactive oxygen species(ROS), malondialdehyde, glutathione(GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD). RESULTS: In the behavioral experiment, the percentage of exercise time in the central area decreased in the three noise exposure groups(all P<0.01). The exercise distance in the central area and sugar preference index decreased in the persistent noise exposure group(both P<0.01). The percentage of open arm exercise time and open arm exercise distance decreased in the two times/day intermittent noise exposure group and persistent noise exposure group compared with the control group(all P<0.01). The open arm distance of rats in the persistent noise exposure group were lower than those in the four times/day intermittent noise exposure group(P<0.05), while the immobility time was longer than in control group and the four times/day intermittent noise exposure group(both P<0.05). The HE staining showed that the neuronal spacing in CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats was significantly widened, and the pyramidal cells showed degeneration and necrosis in the persistent noise exposure group. There was no obvious necrosis found in the neurons of the other three groups. The ultrastructure of neurons showed that most mitochondria of cells in the hippocampus of rats in the two times/day intermittent noise exposure group were swollen. In the persistent noise exposure group, some neurons of the hippocampus of rats were necrotic, the cell membrane was discontinuous, the mitochondria were swollen, and the cristae were broken, dissolved or even disappeared. The mitochondrial structure of the hippocampus of rats in the other two groups was normal. The activity of SOD in the hippocampus of rats decreased in the four times/day intermittent noise exposure group(P<0.05), and the activity of SOD and the level of GSH in the hippocampus of rats decreased in the two times/day intermittent noise exposure group(both P<0.05), compared with the control group. The level of ROS and malondialdehyde in the hippocampus of rats in the persistent noise exposure group increased(all P<0.05), while the SOD activity and GSH level decreased(all P<0.05), compared with the other three groups. CONCLUSION: Intermittent noise exposure causes less anxiety and depression-like changes in rats than persistent noise exposure. Noise may cause anxiety and depression in rats through oxidative stress pathways.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922090

ABSTRACT

Isogenic cells growing in identical environments show cell-to-cell variations because of the stochasticity in gene expression. High levels of variation or noise can disrupt robust gene expression and result in tremendous consequences for cell behaviors. In this work, we showed evidence from single-cell RNA sequencing data analysis that microRNAs (miRNAs) can reduce gene expression noise at the mRNA level in mouse cells. We identified that the miRNA expression level, number of targets, target pool abundance, and miRNA-target interaction strength are the key features contributing to noise repression. miRNAs tend to work together in cooperative subnetworks to repress target noise synergistically in a cell type-specific manner. By building a physical model of post-transcriptional regulation and observing in synthetic gene circuits, we demonstrated that accelerated degradation with elevated transcriptional activation of the miRNA target provides resistance to extrinsic fluctuations. Together, through the integrated analysis of single-cell RNA and miRNA expression profiles, we demonstrated that miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators for reducing gene expression noise and conferring robustness to biological processes.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922041

ABSTRACT

We developed a portable non-specific low back pain measurement system EasiLBP and evaluated its performance in collecting EMG signals:during the wearer's movement without the assistance of a doctor, the collection of EMG signals by portable devices met problems such as large noise interference, difficulty in accurately calibrating the start and end points of the action interval, and imbalanced samples for feature recognition, et al. To challenge these problems, we proposed a small group-based noise removal method, a dynamic dual-threshold automatic method for identifying the start and end points of the motion interval, and a sampling method to balance group samples, respectively. Portable device and a medical EMG acquisition equipment Thought Technology FlexComp Infiniti 10 were used to perform EMG measurements on 15 patients with non-specific low back pain and 15 normal people. Clinical experiments and statistical analysis show that the portable EMG acquisition system has significant differences in EMG signal characteristics between normal people and non-specific low back pain patients, and it has good measurement consistency and accuracy with the medical EMG acquisition equipment.


Subject(s)
Electromyography , Humans , Low Back Pain , Motion , Movement , Pain Measurement
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888295

ABSTRACT

Occupational noise is one of the most common occupational hazards in the workplace. Long-term exposure to occupational noise could not only lead to the damage of the hearing system, but also may cause a certain impact on the cardiovascular system. Studies have shown that occupational noise exposure was positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. However, the results of studies on occupational noise exposure and stroke are still controversial. This paper reviews the relationship between occupational noise exposure and hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction by summarizing the epidemiological data of domestic and foreign population in recent years. Our study could provide evidence for the design and implementation of well-designed epidemiological and mechanism studies, and the recognition of the role of occupational noise exposure in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases, so as to better protect workers' health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Humans , Hypertension/etiology , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888294

ABSTRACT

Non-steady state noise has become the main type of workplace noise. Compared with steady state noise, non-steady state noise may cause more serious hearing loss. This paper reviews the new situation of occupational hearing loss caused by non-steady state noise exposure, the overview of international noise exposure assessment standards and new challenges, and the new evidence of non-steady state noise induced hearing loss, so as to provide the basis for the future research of non-steady state noise induced hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Auditory Threshold , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Humans , Noise , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888276

ABSTRACT

According to the research on the pathogenesis of the hidden hearing loss in recent years, the occurrence of the hidden hearing loss is earlier than the permanent hearing threshold shift. This paper reviews the risk factors of hidden hearing loss, the pathogenesis of noise-induced hidden hearing loss, and the detection methods of hidden hearing loss. To explore the significance of hidden hearing loss in occupational health surveillance, and to provide reference for hearing protection of workers exposed to noise and hearing loss early in the future.


Subject(s)
Hearing , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Humans , Noise, Occupational , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health
19.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 118-120, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnosis of occupational disease and the detection status of suspected occupational disease and occupational contraindication in recent years in a petrochemical enterprise. METHODS: The data of new cases of occupational disease reported by a petrochemical enterprise from 2008 to 2019, the cases of suspected occupational disease and occupational contraindication from 2015 to 2019 were collected. The related data was descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 30 new cases of occupational disease were reported in this petrochemical enterprise from 2008 to 2019. Among them, there were 16 cases of occupational noise deafness, 10 cases of chronic occupational benzene poisoning, 2 cases of occupational leukemia caused by benzene, 1 case of occupational solvent gasoline poisoning and 1 case of occupational pneumoconiosis. Among the 30 cases of occupational diseases, 28 cases(93.3%) were related to benzene and noise exposure, and 19 cases(63.3%) came from the chemical and oil refining divisions. From 2015 to 2019 in this petrochemical enterprise, 24 cases of suspected occupational disease were reported, of which 17(70.8%) suspected cases were diagnosed as occupational disease, and 63 cases of occupational contraindication were reported, including 47(74.6%) cases of occupational contraindication caused by noise. CONCLUSION: Benzene and noise should be taken as the key factors of occupational hazard for prevention and control in the petrochemical enterprises, and control measures should be adopted for special operation links and job posts to control the hidden dangers of benzene and noise that exceeds the standard limits.

20.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 107-114, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881981

ABSTRACT

Complex noise with impulse or impact property is common in workplace, and its damage on the auditory system is greater than that of steady-state noise. At present, the noise exposure measurement and evaluation indicators widely used in the world mainly include the equivalent continuous sound level and the cumulative noise exposure, both are based on the equal energy hypothesis(EEH). EEH only considered the damage of noise energy on the auditory system, but ignored the effect of temporal characteristics of noise, and underestimated the degree of hearing loss associated with complex noise. This paper first introduced the limitations of current noise exposure assessment standards at home and abroad, then introduced the definition of temporal kurtosis and the calculation method of its related energy indexes(such as cumulative noise exposure and equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level), and further summarized the effectiveness of temporal kurtosis as an auxiliary parameter of noise energy in assessing the risk of hearing loss caused by complex noise, providing a rationale to supplement the existing noise assessment standards.

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