Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 195
Filter
Add filters








Year range
1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904633

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effectiveness and cost of 50% and 80% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (NESWP) and 26% metaldehyde and niclosamide suspension concentrate (MNSC) in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the selection of chemical molluscicides in hilly regions. Methods In September 2020, a wasteland in Guanshanqiao Village, Yanrui Township, Yushan County of Jiangxi Province was selected as the experimental region, which was sectioned into five blocks and defined as four experimental groups (A1, A2, B, C) and a blank control group (D). 80% NESWP were given at doses of 1 g/m2 and 1.5 g/m2 in groups A1 and A2 using the spraying method, 50% NESWP was given at a dose of 2 g/m2 in Group B using the spraying method, and 26% MNSC was at a dose of 4 g/m2 in Group C using the spraying method, while no chemical treatment was given in Group D. Snail survey was performed using a systematic sampling method before chemical treatment and 1, 3, 7 d and 15 d post-treatment to examine the molluscicidal effect, and all molluscicidal costs were estimated to calculate the cost of chemical treatment per 1 m2 and the cost of the reduction in the mean density of living snails per 1%. Results The highest mortality of snails was 78.95% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.2388 snails/0.1 m2 in the experimental groups within 7 d of chemical treatment, and the highest mortality of snails was 94.74% and the lowest density of living snails was 0.058 0 snails/0.1 m2 7 d post-treatment. There were no significant differences in the snail mortality among the A1, A2, B and C groups 1 (χ2 = 2.250, P > 0.05), 3 (χ2 = 1.779, P > 0.05) or 15 d post-treatment (χ2 = 2.286, P > 0.05), while a significant difference was detected in the snail mortality among the four groups 7 d post-treatment (χ2 = 7.990, P = 0.046). In addition, there were no significant differences in the snail mortality between A1 and A2 groups 1 (χ2 = 0.724, P > 0.05), 3 (χ2 = 0.584, P > 0.05), 7 (χ2 = 0.400, P > 0.05) or 15 d post-treatment (χ2 = 0.251, P > 0.05). The costs of chemical treatment per 1 m2 were 0.58, 0.60, 0.64 Yuan and 0.73 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, and the costs of the mean density of living snail per 1% reduction were 19.29, 20.44, 21.68 Yuan and 23.53 Yuan in groups A1, A2, B and C, respectively. Conclusion 80% NESWP shows a high molluscicidal efficacy and low cost in hilly schistosomiasis-endemic regions.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904621

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail-infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed-model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, −2.920 and −3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904619

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a deep learning-based visual model for intelligent recognition of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and evaluate the effects of different training strategies for O. hupensis image recognition. Methods A total of 2 614 datasets of O. hupensis snails and 4 similar snails were generated through field sampling and internet capture, and were divided into training sets and test sets. An intelligent recognition model was created based on deep learning, and was trained and tested. The precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, F1 score and Youden index were calculated. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model for snail recognition was plotted to evaluate the effects of “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies on the accuracy of the model for snail recognition. Results Under the “transfer learning + data enhancement” strategy, the precision, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index and F1 score of the model were 90.10%, 91.00%, 97.50%, 96.20%, 88.50% and 90.51% for snail recognition, which were all higher than those under both “new learning” and “transfer learning” strategies. There were significant differences in the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the model for snail recognition under “new learning”, “transfer learning” and “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategies (all P values < 0.001). In addition, the area under the ROC curve of the model was highest (0.94) under the “transfer learning + dataenhancement” training strategy. Conclusions This is the first visual model for intelligent recognition of O. hupensis based on deep learning, which shows a high accuracy for snail image recognition. The “transfer learning + data enhancement” training strategy is helpful to improve the accuracy of the model for snail recognition.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920747

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, so as to provide insights into the formulation of the strategy used to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements. Methods The annual schistosomiasis control working report and integrated schistosomiasis control data were collected in Changzhou City from 2015 to 2020, and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated schistosomiasis control measures. Results During the period from 2015 to 2020, a total of 112 061 person-time individuals received serological tests for S. japonicum infections in Changzhou City, and the sero-prevalence was 0.15% to 1.09% during the 6-year period, with a significant difference seen among years (χ2 = 288.11, P < 0.05). From 2015 to 2020, a total of 13 435 person-time individuals received stool examinations, with no egg-positives identified; among 5 840 herd-time livestock receiving schistosomiasis examinations, no positives were detected, while a 100% coverage of fencing livestock was seen each year. During the 6-year period, a total of 38.40 hm2 snail habitats were found, including 8.97 hm2 emerging snail habitats, and among the 2 344 snails dissected, no S. japonicum infection was found. Chemical treatment covered an area of 385.71 hm2, and environmental improvements covered an area of 200.39 hm2. The mean density of living snails was less than 0.1 snails/0.1 m2 in snail habitats found in Changzhou City each year from 2015 to 2020, and the coverage of harmless toilets was 100% in 2020. During the 6-year period, a total of 3.740 6 million person-time individuals were given schistosomiasis health education in Changzhou City. Conclusions Changzhou City is now at the post-elimination surveillance stage; however, there are still factors affecting schistosomiasis transmission. The schistosomiasis surveillance system remains to be improved to consolidate the schistosomiasis elimination achievements in Changzhou City.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876715

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, so as to provide insights into the assessment of the risk of schistosomiasis transmission and the scientific formulation of the schistosomiasis surveillance strategy. Methods From 2015 to 2019, a total of 19 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, including 4 fixed sites and 15 mobile sites. Snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling in combination with environmental sampling, and the infection of Schistosoma japonicum was detected by the crushing method combined with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Results From 2015 to 2019, snail habitats were detected at areas of 17 040 to 39 527 m2, including 6 214 m2 emerging snail habitats and 16 563 m2 re-emerging snail habitats. The overall mean density of living snails was 0.019 2 snails/0.1 m2 and the occurrence of frames with snails was 1.11% in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites; however, no S. japonicum infection was identified in snails. The area of snail habitats increased by 121.46% in the national surveillance sites in 2019 as compared to that in 2015; however, 50.34% (Z = −0.422, P > 0.05) and 42.85% (χ2 = 130.41, P < 0.01) reductions were seen in the overall means density of living snails and the occurrence of frames with snails. All snail habitats were distributed in the 4 fixed surveillance sites, and were mainly found in ditches, paddy fields and dry lands, with weeds as the primary vegetation type. Conclusions There are still risk factors leading to re-emergent transmission of schistosomiasis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, such as local snail spread, and the monitoring of schistosomiasis remains to be reinforced to further consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis elimination in the region.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876703

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the monitoring data of Oncomelania hupensis in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to understand the changes of Oncomelania snail status in the schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China and to provide the scientific evidence for Oncomelania snail control. Methods According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and Oncomelania snail status was monitored according to different epidemic types. In endemic areas, Oncomelania snail survey was performed by means of systematic sampling and environmental sampling, and the occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails and the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in Oncomelania snails were calculated, while in potential endemic areas, the risk of imported Oncomelania snails and Oncomelania snails in floating debris were monitored. Results Oncomelania snail survey was performed covering an area of 116 834.16 hm2 in the national schistosomiasis surveillance of China from 2015 to 2019, with 35 007.62 hm2 Oncomelania snail habitats identified. A total of 6 908 292 frames were surveyed during the 5-year period, and there were 364 555 frames detected with Oncomelania snails, with a 5.28% mean occurrence of frames with Oncomelania snails. Among 997 508 living Oncomelania snails captured, no S. japonicum infections were detected, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay detected 18 positive mixed Oncomelania snail samples. During the period from 2015 to 2019, 147.20 hm2 emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were identified, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in plain regions with waterway networks (0.12% to 92.00%), a tendency towards a rise followed by decline seen in marshland and lake regions (0 to 96.72%), and a large fluctuation in hilly regions (0 to 88.49%). A total of 831.10 hm2 re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats were found in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, with an overall tendency towards a rise seen in the proportion of re-emerging Oncomelania snail habitats in marshland and lake regions (16.05% to 79.66%), an overall tendency towards a decline seen in hilly regions (19.25% to 81.00%), and a minor fluctuation in plain regions with waterway networks (1.10% to 10.14%). During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, a total of 48 656 kg floating debris were captured in 4 surveillance sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and 2 204 snails were found, with no Oncomelania snails identified. Conclusions The areas of Oncomelania snail habitats tended to be stable in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China during the period from 2015 to 2019, however, there was a gradual rise in the area of Oncomelania snail habitats year by year, and LAMP assay identified positive Oncomelania snail samples, suggesting Oncomelania snail control is far from optimistic in China.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882028

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the molluscicidal activity of the of Bacillus Y6 strain against Oncomelania hupensis in laboratory, and to preliminarily investigate its mechanisms of molluscicidal actions. Methods Biological identification of the Y6 strain was performed based on analysis of its morphological and physiochemical features and homology analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequence. Bacillus Y6 suspensions were formulated at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL, and the molluscicidal activity of Bacillus Y6 suspensions against O. hupensis was tested in laboratory using the immersion method. In addition, the Bacillus Y6 content and glycogen content were detected in O. hupensis following exposure to Bacillus Y6 suspensions to preliminarily explore the molluscicidal mechanism of the Bacillus Y6 strain against O. hupensis. Results The colony of the Bacillus Y6 strain appeared non-transparent milky white, and mycoderma was produced on the surface of the nutrient agar liquid medium. The Y6 stain was Gram positive and rod-shaped, and the endospore was located at the center of the Bacillus Y6 strain and appeared an achromatic, transparent and refractive body, which was encapsulated by the Y6 strain. The Y6 strain was positive for the lecithinase test, and the 16S rDNA gene sequence showed a 100% homology with those of multiple B. velezensisis strains, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis. The Y6 strain was therefore identified as B. velezensisis. Following immersion in the Bacillus Y6 suspensions at concentrations of 0.005, 0.010 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL for 24, 48 h and 72 h, the mortality rates of Oncomelania snails were 28.3%, 31.7% and 81.6%, 43.3%, 58.3% and 93.3%, and 63.3%, 78.3% and 98.3%, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of the Bacillus Y6 suspensions increased with the suspension concentration and duration of immersion. Microscopy and colony counting revealed the highest Y6 content in dead snails and the lowest in living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions, and the mean glycogen contents were (0.68 ± 0.06), (1.09 ± 0.16) μg/mg and (2.56 ± 0.32) μg/mg in the soft tissues of dead, dying and living snails following immersion in Bacillus Y6 suspensions (F = 59.519, P < 0.05), and the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in living snails than in dead (t = 14.073, P < 0.05) and dying snails (t = 10.027, P < 0.05), while the mean glycogen content was significantly higher in dying snails than in dead snails (t = 5.983, P < 0.05). Conclusion The B. velezensisis Y6 strain shows a high molluscicidal activity against O. hupensis snails, and its invasion may cause glycogen metabolism disorders, leading to snail death.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873753

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails and changes of water levels in Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal following the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Methods The Oncomelania snails were monitored in the river banks and water bodies of Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal by means of systematic sampling combined with environmental sampling as well as collection of the floaters from 2014 to 2019, and the water levels were collected in Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal at the typical hydrological year before the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project and during the period between 2016 and 2019. Results A total area of 235.42 hm2 were investigated and a total of 75.8 kg floaters were collected in Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal from 2014 to 2019; however, no snails were found. The water level in Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal was predominantly high in the flood season and low in the dry season before the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and the water level was elevated in the dry season and relatively low in the flood season after the operation of the project. Conclusion Following the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the original river bank that is characterized by “land in winter and water in summer” has changed in Gaoyou sections of the Li Canal, which is not favorable for snail breeding.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829571

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snail habitats in three cities of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou along the Taihu Lake region, so as to provide technical supports for establishing a sensitive and highly effective surveillance and forecast system for schistosomiasis. Methods Snail distribution data were collected from Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, and the changing trend for snail habitats were described over years. In addition, the clusters of snail habitats were detected using Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis. Results The number of snail habitats appeared a single-peak distribution in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities from 1950 to 2018, which peaked in 1970 and then declined rapidly. There were 62.68% of snail habitats eliminated within 10 years after identification, of which 38.24% were eliminated at the year of identification. Kernel density analysis and SaTScan space-time scan analysis revealed that high-density clusters of snail habitats were mainly distributed in Kunshan City, Wuzhong District and Xiangcheng District from 1970 to 1980, and in Yixing City in 1990; since then, the clusters gradually shrank, and overall appeared a move from northeast to west of Taihu Lake. A total of 4 new clusters were detected after 1970, as revealed by space-time scanning of snail habitats. In current snail habitats, emerging snail habitats are mainly identified in Huqiu District (Dongzhu Town), Wuzhong District (Guangfu Town), Taicang City (Shaxi Town) and Jintan District, and re-emerging snail habitats are scattered in 7 districts. Conclusions The distribution of snail habitats are spatio-temporal aggregation in Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou cities. The monitoring and prediction of emerging and re-emerging snail habitats are the key points in the future.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829566

ABSTRACT

Before and after the construction of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, a number of studies have been conducted to assess the possibility of the northward spread of Oncomelania snails and schistosomiasis caused by the construction of the project, the survival and reproduction of snails moved north of their natural distribution, and the transmission of schistosomiasis by the survival snails moved north of their natural distribution. The effect of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of schistosomiasis is restricted along the Jiangsu section of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and the Water Transfer Project from the Yangtze River to Han River of the middle route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. It has been demonstrated the water diversion pattern via the pump stations and the ecological conditions in the water transfusion channels of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project are unlikely to result in the northward spread of Oncomelania snails or schistosomiasis, and no snails or schistosomiasis spread was found during the surveillance before and after the operation of the eastern route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, and the Water Transfer Project from the Yangtze River to Han River of the middle route project of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Nevertheless, sustainable surveillance of Oncomelania snails along the South-to-North Water Diversion Project will provide scientific support and safety guarantee for the construction and operation of the subsequent projects.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821652

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of Cu2+ and Cd2+ at different concentrations on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity in Oncomelania hupensis. Methods Cu2+- and Cd2+-containing solutions were prepared at 7 concentrations, and O. hupensis snails were exposed to the solutions for 24 h, of 15 snails in each concentration. Then, the snail body was collected following removal of the snail shell and homogenated, and the SOD, CAT and POS activities were detected in the supernatants. Results With the increase of the Cu2+ concentration, the SOD activity appeared a rise followed by a reduction in O. hupensis snails, and the CTA activity appeared a decline-rise-decline tendency, while the POD activity showed a tendency towards rise followed by decline. With the increase of the Cd2+ concentration, the SOD activity appeared a rise followed by a reduction in O. hupensis snails, and the CTA activity appeared a decline- rise- decline tendency, while the POD activity showed a decline-rise-decline tendency. Conclusion Exposure to Cu2+ and Cd2+ at high concentrations results in a decline in the activity of SOD, CAT and POD in O. hupensis at the same time.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821637

ABSTRACT

Oncomelania snail is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, and controlling snail breeding and spread is an important intervention for schistosomiasis control. This review summarizes factors affecting snail spread, characteristics of snail spread in various endemic areas, high-risk environments of snail spread and monitoring methods of snail spread, so as to provide insights into the prevention of snail spread.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821631

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the acute toxicity of Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ to Oncomelania hupensis. Methods Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ solutions were prepared at five concentrations, and 10 snails were exposed to each concentration for 24, 48, 72 h and 96 h. Then, the inhibition of snail activity and snail death was observed, and the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were estimated. Results The 24, 48, 72 h and 96 h EC50 values of Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ were 0.74, 0.56, 0.46, 0.37 mg/L, 4.79, 3.52, 1.70, 1.26 mg/L, 1.90, 1.49, 0.83, 0.76 mg/L and 21.40, 9.98, 7.90, 5.42 mg/L for snails, respectively. The 96 h LC50 values of Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ were 0.43, 2.96, 1.12 mg/L and 12.22 mg/L for snails, the safe concentrations were 0.004 3, 0.029 6, 0.011 2, 0.122 2 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion Cu2+ shows a high acute toxicity to snails, and Cd2+ and Hg2+ exhibit a moderate acute toxicity to snails, while Pb2+ is lowly toxic to snails.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821624

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails and infected snails in the endemic areas of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province. Methods Based on the snail survey data in Anhui Province in 2016, the distribution of snails and infected snails were analyzed, and the spatial distribution of snails and spatial cluster patterns of infected snails were investigated in snail habitats in Anhui Province from 1950 to 2016. Results A total of 22 757 snail habitats and 5 004 infected snail habitats were identified in Anhui Province from 1950 to 2016, which appeared single-peak and double-peak patterns, with an inflection point seen in 1970. There were 141 000 hm2 historically accumulative snail habitats, 88.08% of which were firstly identified from 1950 to 1979, and totally 114 500 hm2 snail habitats were eradicated, 77.17% of which were eradicated from 1970 to 1999. There were 4 830 snail habitats identified until 2016, in which 1 051 were once detected with infected snails. In addition, 78.12% of current snail habitats had been present for over 40 years, and infected snails had been eliminated in 65.75% of the infected snail habitats within 10 years. There was a spatial autocorrelation of the living snail density in current snail habitats in Anhui Province (Moran’s I = 0.196, Z = 139.63, P < 0.001), and local hotspot analysis showed spatial clusters of living snails density in snail habitats, with high-value clusters in south of the Yangtze River and low-value clusters in north of the Yangtze River. The 21 high-value clusters of living snail density with statistical significance were distributed along the Yangtze River basin and its branches. Spatiotemporal scan analysis revealed spatiotemporal clusters of infected snails in 4 current snail habitats. Conclusions The current snail habitats have been present for a long period of time, and snails are difficult to be eliminated by chemical treatment alone, which requires the combination of environment improvements. There are spatial clusters of living snail density in current snail habitats in Anhui Province. The epidemic factors and risk of human and animal infections still remain in some clusters of historical infected snail habitats revealed by spatiotemporal scan analysis, which should be consid- ered as the key target areas for snail control in Anhui Province.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821623

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of water body environments on the microbial community of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshlands of the eastern Dongting Lake where natural extinction of O. hupensis snails are found, so as to explore the correlation between the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails and the microbial community in snails. Methods Snails were caged water bodies in the Qianliang Lake marshland (Qianliang Lake regions) where natural extinction of snails was found and in the Junshan Park marshland (Junshan Park regions) in the eastern Dongting Lake for 30 days, and then all snails were collected and identified for survival or death. DNA sequencing of the fungi and bacteria was performed in snails before and after immersion in waters, and the biodiversity and abundance were analyzed. Results The survival rates of O. hupensis snails were 28.0% (70/250) and 64.8% (162/250) in Qianliang Lake regions and Junshan Park regions 30 days after immersion in waters, respectively (χ2 = 81.365, P < 0.01). The number of the fungal community and the biodiversity of the bacterial community were both greater in snails caged in Qianliang Lake regions post-immersion than pre-immersion, and there was a significant difference in the structure of the fungal and bacterial communities. The microbial community with a significant difference included Flavobacteriaceae,which was harmful to O. hupensis snails. Conclusion The water body environment affects the composition of the microbial community in O. hupensis snails in marshlands with natural snail distinction around the eastern Dongting Lake; however, further studies are required to investigate whether the natural distinction of snails is caused by water body environments-induced changes of the microbial spectrum in O. hupensis snails.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821633

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the morphological changes in the testes and ovaries of adult 12th-generation Oncomelania hupensis bred for 12 winters in Weishan Lake areas. Methods The offspring of the adult O. hupensis snails bred in the Weishan Lake that were originated from the Yangzhou section of the Yangtze River was defined as the experiment group, while uninfected, adult O. hupensis snails captured from the marshland of the Yangzhou section of the Yangtze River served as the control group. Snails were dissected and intact testicular and ovarian specimens were sampled, routinely fixed, dehydrated, embedded, polymerized in an oven and sliced on an ultramicrotome. The sections were visualized under a transmission electron microscope, and the ultrastructure of the snail gonad was compared between the experiment and control groups. Results Transmission electron microscopy showed “9 + 2” microtubules on the transverse sections of the tails of sperm cells in the testes of male snails in the control group, with triangular acrosomes and spiral, dense nuclei seen in the tip, while in the experiment group, the “9 + 2” microtubules disappeared on the transverse sections of the tails of sperm cells in the testes of male snails, with low chromatin density found in the tip. Transmission electron microscopy revealed clear nucleolus and nuclear membranes in the ova of female snail ovaries, and displayed yolk body, liposomes and endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, bilayer twists of nuclear membrane and a uniform nucleolus in the control group, while in the experiment group, smooth nuclear membrane and unclear nucleolus were observed in the ova of female snail ovaries, with few contents seen within cells. Conclusions Following breeding for 12 winters in the Weishan Lake, the 12th-generation O. hupensis snails fail to fully adapt to the natural environment in northern China, and the remarkable changes in the ultrastructure of the snail gonad may be a cause of gradual decline and even extinction of O. hupensis in the Weishan Lake areas.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819006

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of Oncomelania hupensis snails along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River, so as to provide evidence for eliminating schistosomiasis and formulating precision control measures in Jiangsu Province. Methods A total of 75 marshlands were randomly sampled from Nanjing, Zhenjiang and Yangzhou cities along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin, and the spatio-temporal distribution and changing patterns of O. hupensis snails were investigated using the spatial autocorrelation analysis, kernel density analysis and hotspot analysis during the period from 2015 through 2017. Results There was a spatial autocorrelation in the mean snail density along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin during the period from 2015 through 2017. The number of living snails and the density of living snails showed an overall decline in Yangzhou City; however, both showed a slight increase in 2016. Kernel density analysis and hotspot analysis showed that the hotspots of living snails were located in the regions neighboring the marshlands at the Yangzhou-Zhenjiang boundary areas along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin. Conclusion There is a spatial autocorrelation in the snail distribution with hotspots along the Jiangsu section of the Yangtze River basin, and the surveillance of snails should not be neglected in the marshlands in Jiangsu Province.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818999

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the molluscicidal effects and cost-effectiveness of 5% niclosamide ethanolamine salt granules (NEG) and 26% suspension concentrate of metalaldehyde and niclosamide ethanolamine salt (MNSC) . Methods Two plots with high Oncomelania hupensis snail density were selected as research areas in Nanjing Chemical Industry Zone, and 5% NEG (40 g/m2) and 26% MNSC (40 g/m2) were used by the spraying method for snail control in the two plots, and their molluscicidal effects and cost-effectiveness were investigated and statistically analyzed. Results There was no significant difference between 5% NEG and 26% MNSC in the molluscicidal effects. The cost of 5% NEG was 1.25 times higher than that of 26% MN-SC per ten thousand square meters in snail control. Conclusions The cost of 5% NEG is higher than that of 26% MNSC per ten thousand square meters in snail control. Their molluscicidal effects are similar.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818984

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the strategy of schistosomiasis elimination and its effects in Jinhu County, Jiangsu Province. Methods The data of schistosomiasis control in Jinhu County at different stages from 1970 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. Results From 1970 to 2017, there were three stages of schistosomiasis control, including transmission control, transmission interruption, and monitoring and elimination stages in Jinhu County. The main measures included Oncomelania hupensis snail control, infectious source control, and health education. A total of area of 290 691.78 hm2 was detected in Jinhu County, and the area with snails was 3 420.98 hm2. There were 8 729.37 hm2 area with snails was controlled. Since 2014, no O. hupensis snails were found. A total of 525 377 person-times were examined for schistosomiasis, with 2 815 schistosomiasis patients identified, and 2 844 person-times were treated by chemotherapy. In addition, 977 cases received the expand chemotherapy. Since 1990, no local schistosome-infected persons were found. In 2017, the awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the correct rate of health behavior were increased by 54.59% and 14.23% respectively compared with those in 1992. Conclusions The comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures implemented in Jinhu County at different periods have achieved remarkable outputs and accelerated the schistosomiasis elimination process. However, the precise control measures should be implemented in the future to consolidate the prevention and control achievements.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818983

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic trend of schistosomiasis in China from 2010 to 2017 so as to provide the scientific evidence for schistosomiasis elimination. Methods The information of schistosomiasis control nationwide from 2010 to 2017 was collected, including the endemic of population, status of livestock control, and Oncomelania hupensis snail control. Microsoft Excel was applied for datum management and analysis. Results From 2010 to 2017, the epidemic of schistosomiasis in China dropped significantly. The decreasing amplitude of estimated number of patients nationwide was 88.46%. Seventy-one acute schistosomiasis patients were reported and 12.68% (9/71) of them were imported. The decreasing rate of cultivated cattle was 50.09%, and the accumulative number of schistosome-infected cattle was 17 239, and the average positive rate of stool examinations decreased from 1.04% to 0.000 22%. The area with snails nationwide was 373 596.18 to 363 068.95 hm2, and the new detected area with snails was 46.71 to 1 346.73 hm2. The area with schistosome-infected snails was 171.68 hm2 in 2012 and it was 9.25 hm2 in 2013. In 72 key monitoring points of 7 endemic provinces, there were 17 schistosome positive points of water body in 2010 and 6 points in 2016. There were some high risk-factors related to schistosomiasis transmission including schisto-some-infected cattle, dogs, and field rats, and the field stools, and the pasture in the area with snails in schistosomiasis monitoring points. Conclusions The endemic status of schistosomiasis in China has dropped significantly, and the transmission level is very low. However, the infectious source and risk factors in the endemic environments have not be eliminated. Therefore, the infectious source control, health education, snail control, and transmission monitoring should be strengthened, so as to promote the progress of schistosomiasis elimination.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL