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1.
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 44-51, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360048

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La estimación precisa de curvas de selectividad de redes de enmalle en una población de peces es un requisito importante para la sostenibilidad de los stocks explotados. Sin embargo, los trabajos de selectividad para artes de pesca que operan en ecosistemas continentales de Colombia son muy escasos. Este estudio determinó los parámetros de selectividad de redes de enmalle utilizadas en la captura del bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae). El diseño experimental evaluó tres tamaños de malla (5,72; 6,35 y 8,89 cm) y las capturas se realizaron en diferentes sitios de pesca de la ciénaga de Zárate. Con la utilización del método SELECT se estimaron los parámetros de selectividad y mediante un análisis de Kruskall Wallis se determinaron las diferencias en la captura por unidad de esfuerzo. Además, el tamaño de malla óptimo fue calculado a partir del principio de similaridad geométrica de Baranov. Los resultados muestran que el modelo normal con varianza proporcional al tamaño de malla es el que mejor ajuste presentó para la captura de bocachico. Las longitudes modales calculadas con el modelo normal con varianza proporcional al tamaño de malla fueron 22,90, 25,45 y 35,63 cm para tamaños de malla de 5,72, 6,35 y 8,89 cm, respectivamente. El tamaño de malla óptimo calculado fue 6,99 cm. Los resultados indican que las redes con tamaños de malla de 5,72 cm e inferiores tienen un efecto sobre la estructura de tamaños del bocachico. Estas redes requieren ser priorizadas en la formulación de medidas de manejo basadas en la ordenación de este arte de pesca, lo que permitirá la sostenibilidad de la pesquería.


ABSTRACT Accurate estimation of gillnet selectivity curves in a fish population is an important requirement for the sustainability of exploited stocks. However, selectivity studies for fishing gear operating in Colombia's inland ecosystems is very rare. This study determined the gillnet selectivity parameters used in the catch of the bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae). The experimental design evaluated three mesh sizes (5.72, 6.35 and 8.89 cm) and the catches were made in different fishing sites at the Zárate swamp. With the use of the SELECT method, the selectivity parameters were estimated and the Kruskall Wallis test determined the differences in the catch per unit effort. Furthermore, the optimal mesh size was calculated from Baranov's principle of geometric similarity. The results show that the normal model (scale) presented the best fit for the catch of bocachico. The modal lengths calculated with the normal scale model were 22.90, 25.45, and 35.63 cm for mesh sizes of 5.72, 6.35, and 8.89 cm, respectively. The calculated optimal mesh size was 6.99 cm. The results indicate that nets with mesh sizes of 5.72 cm and lower influences the size structure of the bocachico. These nets need to be prioritized in the formulation of management measures based on the regulation of this fishing gear, which will allow the sustainability of the fishery.

2.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 487-491, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIV E To investigate the calculation method of drug market share in budget impact analysis (BIA)in order to provide new ideas for BIA research. METHODS In view of the situation that some drugs had multiple indications or the indications in the drug instructions were not clear enough and inconsistent with the indications in the reimbursement catalogue , starting from the concept of “times per person ”,the parameters such as sample hospital and average treatment time per person for each time were introduced to develop a new market share calculation method. At the same time ,the calculation process was demonstrated by taking the treatment drugs for liver cirrhosis as an example. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS Taking treatment drugs of liver cirrhosis as an example ,the calculation results of market share showed that the results of the two calculation methods were quite different. The market share calculated on the basis of “the number of people ”was mostly higher than that calculated on the basis of “times per person ”. Compared with the traditional calculation method based on “the number of people ”,the calculation method of market share based on “times per person ”could calculate the market share more accurately ,which could solve the problem that the traditional method didn ’t fully consider that most drugs had multiple indications ,the indications of drug instructions were not clear enough and inconsistent with the reimbursement catalogue ,resulting in inaccurate calculation of market share;at the same time ,this method could also be used to try to solve the problem that the total number of patients could not be obtained from epidemiological data based on the average treatment time per person of each time in the sample hospital. This method can be considered when the indications of the target drug are not clear enough or there are multiple indications ,or when the researchers collect clinical ,epidemiological and medical insurance data to estimate the number of target population ,the prediction results of market capacity do not conform to the theoretical logic or actual situation due to the lack of necessary data ,or when the target disease has the characteristics of repeated attacks and short course of disease.

3.
Rev Soc Peru Med Interna ; 35(1): 13-18, 20220000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361416

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la relación que entre la anemia padecida por una generación cuando eran niños y su rendimiento en la prueba PISA a los 15 años de edad. Material y métodos: Se relacionó el puntaje que los jóvenes de cada país obtuvieron en la prueba PISA 2018 con la prevalencia de anemia infantil en 2005, el Ingreso Nacional Bruto per cápita y los Años Esperados de Escolaridad del Índice de Desarrollo Humano del año 2018. Resultados: El puntaje obtenido en la prueba PISA se relaciona con la anemia cuando niños, el Ingreso Nacional Bruto per cápita y los Años Esperados de Escolaridad (Esfuerzo Educativo) con coeficientes de determinación (r2) de 0.5168, 0.1951 y 0.3536, respectivamente. Conclusión: El puntaje obtenido en la prueba PISA se asocia con más fuerza con la prevalencia de anemia que padeció esa generación cuando eran niños que con cualquier otro factor económico o social actuales.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 36(3): 270-275, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365550

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução: A mamoplastia redutora feminina visa restaurar o volume fisiológico das mamas em casos de hipertrofia mamária, de modo a manter a simetria e com um número mínimo de complicações. Embora tal procedimento seja usual, a literatura carece de dados epidemiológicos e descritivos acerca da cirurgia de redução de mama. Desse modo, esse estudo tem como objetivo descrever a prevalência da mamoplastia redutora no Brasil dos anos de 2015 a 2019; comparar a prevalência de mamoplastia redutora entre as regiões do Brasil de 2015-2018 com a do ano de 2019; e avaliar a relação entre a renda familiar regional e a prevalência da mamoplastia redutora feminina no país de 2015-2019. Métodos: Estudo ecológico de base populacional cujos dados foram coletados por meio do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde e censos demográficos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Foram coletados dados de 2015 a 2019. Resultados: A prevalência de mamoplastia redutora no Brasil no ano de 2019 foi de 0.08%, enquanto que nos anos de 2015 a 2018, essa prevalência foi de 0.07%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparadas as prevalências regionais dos anos de 2015 a 2018 com a prevalência de 2019. As prevalências de mamoplastia redutora nas regiões do Brasil de 2015-2019 apresentaram correlação positiva moderada com renda domiciliar média per capita. Conclusão: A prevalência de mamoplastia redutora feminina no Brasil apresenta uma tendência de estabilidade temporal ao longo dos anos de 2015-2019 e-m âmbito nacional e regional. Sugere-se uma correlação positiva entre a renda familiar per capita regional e a prevalência desse procedimento.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Female reducing mammoplasty aims to restore the physiological volume of the breasts in cases of breast hypertrophy, to maintain symmetry and with a minimum number of complications. Although such a procedure is usual, the literature lacks epidemiological and descriptive data on breast reduction surgery. Thus, this study aims to describe the prevalence of reducing mammoplasty in Brazil from 2015 to 2019; to compare the prevalence of reducing mammoplasty among the regions of Brazil from 2015-2018 with that of 2019, and to evaluate the relationship between regional family income and the prevalence of female reduction mammoplasty in the country of 2015-2019. Methods: Population-based ecological study whose data were collected through Informatics Department of the Unified Health System and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics demographic censuses. Data were collected from 2015 to 2019. Results: The prevalence of reducing mammoplasty in Brazil in 2019 was 0.08%, while from 2015 to 2018, this prevalence was 0.07%. There was no statistically significant difference compared to the regional prevalence from 2015 to 2018 with the prevalence of 2019. The prevalence of reducing mammoplasty in the regions of Brazil from 2015-2019 showed a moderate positive correlation with average household income per capita. Conclusion: The prevalence of female reduction mammoplasty in Brazil shows a trend of temporal stability over the years 2015-2019 at national and regional levels. A positive correlation between regional per capita family income and the prevalence of this procedure is suggested.

5.
Palliative Care Research ; : 231-239, 2021.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887231

ABSTRACT

Methadone is a difficult medicine to assess the efficacy at an initial stage because the blood concentration of it varies greatly among individuals and it takes days to reach a steady state and cannot be increased for 7 days. Nevertheless, there are few reports of blood concentration together with effects after administration of methadone about Japanese cancer patients. In this study, we investigated changes in blood concentration and pain score (NRS), and factors that affect blood concentration. Dose per body weight was only correlated with blood concentration of methadone. In the effective cases, NRS decreased chronologically until the 7th day after treatment initiation, and significantly decreased from the 1st day compared to before treatment initiation, but in the ineffective cases, it tended to decrease until the 3rd day, but there was no change thereafter. The blood concentration increased to 110 ng/ml on the 7th day in the effective cases, and in the ineffective cases, it reached the concentration on the 3rd day. Thus there was no correlation between the blood concentration and the drug efficacy. The individual blood concentrations tended to increase slightly or decrease after the 3rd day, but in only one case, it continued to increase. From the above-mentioned, it was shown that the effect could be judged at an early stage, however, since there was a case in which the blood concentration continued to rise until the 7th day, it was considered that the early dose increase within 7 days after initiation should be performed carefully.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 763-780, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881168

ABSTRACT

Intestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapeutics has become an important reason for the interruption of therapy and withdrawal of approved agents. In this study, we demonstrated that chemotherapeutics-induced intestinal damage were commonly characterized by the sharp upregulation of tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN)-kynurenic acid (KA) axis metabolism. Mechanistically, chemotherapy-induced intestinal damage triggered the formation of an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) positive feedback loop, which accelerated kynurenine pathway metabolism in gut. Besides, AHR and G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) negative feedback regulates intestinal damage and inflammation to maintain intestinal integrity and homeostasis through gradually sensing kynurenic acid level in gut and macrophage, respectively. Moreover, based on virtual screening and biological verification, vardenafil and linagliptin as GPR35 and AHR agonists respectively were discovered from 2388 approved drugs. Importantly, the results that vardenafil and linagliptin significantly alleviated chemotherapy-induced intestinal toxicity

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 488-504, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881149

ABSTRACT

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a common yet highly heterogeneous childhood malignant brain tumor, however, clinically effective molecular targeted therapy is lacking. Modulation of hedgehog (HH) signaling by epigenetically targeting the transcriptional factors GLI through bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) has recently spurred new interest as potential treatment of HH-driven MB. Through screening of current clinical BRD4 inhibitors for their inhibitory potency against glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI) protein, the BRD4 inhibitor

8.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(3): 189-194, Dezembro/2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1141296

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estimar o custo de tratamento das novas terapias de combinação tripla com lenalidomida no manejo dos pacientes com mieloma múltiplo recidivado/refratário (MMRR) sob a perspectiva do sistema de saúde privado brasileiro. Métodos: Os custos associados da combinação de lenalidomida + dexametasona com carfilzomibe (KRd), daratumumabe (DRd), elotuzumabe (ERd) e ixazomibe (IRd) foram comparados. Para cada terapia, a duração de tratamento foi estimada pela média do tempo de sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP) restrita a três anos a partir de dados de SLP dos estudos pivotais das respectivas terapias. Os custos de tratamento foram estimados para a duração de tratamento, considerando a posologia específica dos regimes terapêuticos. Os preços dos medicamentos foram baseados no preço fábrica de abril de 2020. Não foi considerado o compartilhamento de doses. O custo total do tratamento, o custo médio por ciclo e o custo por taxa de resposta objetiva (TRO) em três anos foram comparados. Resultados: A duração de tratamento no período de três anos foi de 23,3, 27,6, 20,3 e 20,9 meses para KRd, DRd, ERd e IRd, respectivamente. O custo médio total de tratamento foi estimado em 975.557 reais (BRL) para KRd, 1.507.544 BRL para DRd (+55% versus KRd), 1.207.899 BRL para ERd (+24% versus KRd) e 983.917 para IRd (+1% versus KRd). KRd teve o menor custo médio por mês de SLP (horizonte de três anos) entre as terapias, 41.957 BRL versus 54.709 BRL para DRd (+30% versus KRd), 59.635 BRL para ERd (+42% versus KRd) e 47.147 para IRd (+12% versus KRd). Similarmente, o custo por TRO foi 31% menor para KRd (1.119.770 BRL), comparado ao DRd (1.621.015 BRL), 27% menor, comparado ao ERd (1.528.986 BRL), e 11% menor, comparado ao IRd (1.256.064). Conclusões: Resultados da presente análise indicam que KRd está associado a um menor custo médio de tratamento, acompanhado de maior previsibilidade, menor custo por TRO e por mês de SLP, comparado ao DRd, ERd e IRd no horizonte de três anos sob a perspectiva do sistema de saúde privado brasileiro. Os resultados estão associados com alguma incerteza em razão das diferenças nas populações dos estudos, desenho dos estudos (duração fixa de carfilzomibe vs. tratamento até a progressão para daratumumabe, elotuzumabe e ixazomibe) e porque a duração de tratamento é tipicamente menor do que a SLP.


Objective: To estimate treatment costs for novel triple-combination therapies with lenalidomide in the management of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients from the Brazilian private healthcare perspective. Methods: Treatment costs associated with lenalidomide + dexamethasone combinations with carfilzomib (KRd), daratumumab (DRd), elotuzumab (ERd) and ixazomib (IRd) were compared. For each therapy, treatment duration was estimated as the mean progression-free survival (PFS) time restricted to three years using published PFS data from pivotal trials available for these treatments. Treatment costs were estimated for the modeled treatment duration considering therapy-specific dosing schedules. Drug prices were based on April 2020 Brazilian list prices. No vial sharing was assumed. Total treatment costs, average cost per cycle, and cost per overall response rate (ORR) over the three-year period were compared. Results: Modeled treatment duration over the three-year period was 23.3, 27.6, 20.3 and 20.9 months for KRd, DRd, ERd and IRd respectively. Corresponding average total treatment costs were estimated to be 975,557 Brazilian Real (BRL) for KRd; 1,507,544 BRL for DRd (+55% versus KRd); 1,207,899 BRL for ERd (+24% versus KRd) and 983,917 for IRd (+1% versus KRd). KRd had the lowest average cost per month of restricted PFS (3-year time frame) among the therapies, 41,957 BRL versus 54,709 BRL for DRd (+30% versus KRd); 59,635 BRL for ERd (+42% versus KRd); and 47,147 for IRd (+12% versus KRd). Similarly, the cost per achieved ORR was lower for KRd (1,119,770 BRL) than that for DRd (1,621,015 BRL); ERd (1,528,986 BRL); and IRd (1,256,064) by 31%, 27% and 11%, respectively. Conclusions: Results of the present analysis indicate that KRd is associated with lower mean treatment costs and more predictable costs, lower cost per ORR and per month in PFS than DRd, ERd and IRd over a relevant three-year time horizon from the Brazilian private healthcare perspective. The results are associated with some uncertainty due to differences in trial populations, trial design (fixed duration for carfilzomib vs treatment till progression for daratumumab, elotuzumab and ixazomib) and because treatment duration is typically shorter than PFS.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Costs and Cost Analysis , Supplemental Health , Lenalidomide , Multiple Myeloma
9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215282

ABSTRACT

Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding (UGIB) is one of the common complaints with which patients present to casualty. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aetiological spectrum of UGIB is variable in different geographical regions. Our study aimed to analyse the aetiology, endoscopic profile, mortality, Rockall score and predictors of mortality in patients with UGIB, in North East India. METHODSThis cross-sectional study was conducted at Assam Medical College and Hospital in North East India. We enrolled patients with age 12 years and above, who were admitted between July 2019 and January 2020 with a history suggestive of UGIB. Demographic data of the patients was collected, after which they underwent clinical examination, and upper GI endoscopy. Mean ± standard deviation was used to express continuous variables. Frequency and percentage were used to express categorical variables. Test of significance for qualitative data was assessed by Chi-square test (for 2 x 2 tables). P value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTSWe analysed 117 patients diagnosed with UGIB [80.34 % male, 19.60 % female], ratio of male to female of [4.08:1] was seen. The most common symptom was melena 87 patients (74.15 %), endoscopy finding showed that 48.71 % had oesophageal and / or gastric varices, 26.49 % had peptic ulcers, 17.94 % had gastric erosions / duodenal erosions / erosive gastritis, 1.7 % had Mallory-Weiss tear, 1.7 % had gastric malignancy, 1.7 % had GJ stoma bleed, 1.7 % had both oesophageal varices and peptic ulcer disease. Partial gastric outlet obstruction was observed in peptic ulcer disease in 2 patients (6.45 % of total peptic ulcer disease patients). 73.75 % patients had Rockall score < 5 and 26.49 % patients had Rockall score > 6. H. pylori infection (assessed by RUT) was an independent predictor of upper GI bleed in both variceal and non-variceal bleed [p < 0.001]. The mortality in our study was 7.69 %. Predictors of mortality in the study population were, patients with variceal bleed [p = < 0.001], Rockall score > 6 [p = 0.013], and chronic liver disease [p < 0.001]. The average duration of hospital admission of the study population is about 4.6 + / - 0.4 days. CONCLUSIONSThe study reported oesophageal varices was the most common cause of UGIB, followed by peptic ulcer in North East India. H. pylori was an independent predictor of both variceal and non-variceal bleed. Partial gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) was one of the common benign complication of peptic ulcer disease. Variceal bleed, Rockall score > 6, chronic liver disease were predictors of mortality.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207939

ABSTRACT

Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester and major cause of reduced reproductive potential. Early detection of EP by improved ultrasonography modalities has decreased the rate of rupture and consequent maternal morbidity. Aim was to study the predisposing risk factors in modern scenario and choose the appropriate management available.Methods: A retrospective study on clinical diagnosis and management of EP of patients was carried out between January 2018 to February 2020. Investigations included CBC, UPT, serum β-hCG and TVS. Management was decided after thorough evaluation.Results: Out of 7,780 deliveries, 70 were EP (0.9%). Women with age 21-30 year had highest incidence (85.7%). Common symptoms were abdominal pain (94%), amenorrhea (87%), bleeding per vagina (48%). Most common risk factor associated with EP was PID (28.5%). Tubal EP was most common (84.2%) involving ampulla (66%), isthmus (15%), fimbria (12%), interstitial (7%). Scar ectopic was reported in 10% of cases and ovarian, rudimentary horn and abdominal pregnancy in 1.4% each. About 52.8% of ectopic was ruptured and salpingectomy was done in 74.3% and salpingo-oophorectomy in 2.8%. Five cases of scar EP required hysterotomy and 1 case was managed by methotrexate (MTX).Conclusions: EP remains a major challenge to the obstetrician worldwide. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely intervention in the form of medical or surgical treatment will definitely help in reducing the morbidity and mortality.

11.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(3): 71-74, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130985

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Substance use and smoking exert devastating impact on sleep, especially hindering the ease of falling asleep, compromising the sleep maintenance, and distorting the sleep cycles. PERIOD genes are believed to play a role in individual differences in sleep timing by influencing circadian. Objective The aim of this study was to ascertain whether Per3 VNTR variant affects suspectibility of individuals to substance use disorder (SUD) and smoking status in a Turkish population. Methods A total of 549 subjects, including 212 SUD patients, 160 smoker, and 177 healthy controls, matched by ethnicity, age, and gender, were recruited in a case-control study. Genotyping of Per3 variant was performed using PCR method. Results When the SUD, smoker groups and controls were compared in terms of 5R/5R, 5R/4R, 4R/4R genotypes, no significant difference was observed. Besides, allele frequencies of Per3 VNTR were similar among the groups. Discussion Our data indicate that Per3 VNTR variant is not associated with the risk of SUD and smoking status in our population.

12.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207659

ABSTRACT

Background: Abruptio placentae is very frequently seen in our population. Few studies have reported maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. No work has been done on abruptio placentae in our setup. The data generated will help to improve maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality by planning prompt management of future cases of placental abruption. Objective of this study was to study possible etiological factors of abruptio placentae, analyse maternal outcome, perinatal outcome in the form of maternal morbidity and mortality and discuss possible preventive measures and future management optionMethods: The retrospective observational study it was included all cases presenting with ante partum haemorrhage during the study period. Subjects selected for the study were all cases diagnosed as having abruptio placentae. All other causes of APH like placenta previa and other extraplacental causes were excluded.Results: In the present study incidence of abruptio placentae is higher in 25-30 year that were 42.5% and more in 2nd gravida patient. PIH was accounting for 50%, most of the patients (95%) were anaemic at admission and majority of them required blood transfusion.one maternal mortality (2.5%) occurred, perinatal mortality was 75%.Conclusions: Abruptio placentae serious condition with manifestation of significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Complications can be reduced by provisional antenatal care to every woman and with improvement in medical facilities, availability of blood transfusion, proper management of shock. With liberalization of caesarean section, the rate of maternal morbidity and mortality is gradually on the decline.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212094

ABSTRACT

Background: Catheter associated complications are very common in the emergency departments of medicine, general surgery, orthopaedics and in community. They mostly occur in patients with neurological afflictions because of inexperience of the first handlers as they lack the insight of altered physiology and anatomy in the lower urinary tract because of neurological lesions and also because of an inadequate advice at the time of discharge regarding the catheter care. Objectives of this study were to find the prevalence of per-urethral catheter associated injuries in patients with neurological lesions in a tertiary care centre of south-eastern Punjab and their prevention in completely recoverable neurological afflictions.Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted in urology department from 1st August 2017-31st August 2018. The data was taken from medicine, general surgery and orthopedic emergency departments. A total of 82 patients were taken from 19-78 years and 49 patients had per-urethral catheter placement. Analysis was done using Statistical Program of Special Sciences, version 20.Results: It was observed that overall neurological lesions are more common in males (80.48%) as compared to females (19.51%) and distributed over an age range of 19-84 years in both sexes. Out of total patients, 59.75% required per urethral catheterization. The prevalence of per-urethral catheter associated complications was 20.40%.Conclusions: Insertion of per-urethral catheter is a simple procedure but an error of omission on the part of health professionals’ results in a serious complication in a neurological patient. Proper insertion technique and catheter care are to be followed to prevent avoidable complications in this subset of patients.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207525

ABSTRACT

Background: Bleeding per vaginum in the first trimester is a common obstetric entity. Four major causes of pathological bleeding in 1st trimester are miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, implantation bleeding of pregnancy and cervical pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the effect of first trimester vaginal bleeding on maternal and perinatal outcomes in the local population to which our hospital serves. Objective of this study was to estimate the degree of association between first-trimester bleeding and miscarriage, pregnancy outcomes in women with threatened abortion, various maternal complications and outcome of labor in pregnancy complicated by first-trimester bleeding and adverse fetal outcomes affected with first trimester bleeding.Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out on 110 women attending hospital with history of first trimester vaginal bleeding at a tertiary health center - sola civil hospital Ahmedabad for a period of twelve months.Results: Majority (69%) of first trimester bleeding occurs in age group of 21-30 years and majority of patients were primigravida constituting 53% out of 110 patients, 48 patients presented with abortions, out of which 26 had threatened abortion and 22 had other abortions. Primi para with previous history of bleeding per vaginum had more chances to go in full term in present pregnancy.Conclusions: Patients presenting with heavy bleeding per vaginum ended up in pregnancy loss and thus a poor outcome. In the presence of sub-chorionic hematoma, the prognosis of pregnancy is greatly affected as the risk of pre-term, IUGR and especially miscarriages increase significantly.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204390

ABSTRACT

Background: Burden of malnutrition is much higher in South Asia as compared to that in Africa and rest of the World. South Asia contributes to about 60% of the cases. Education of women has been seen to be the most effective in improving child's health. Present study is done to evaluate social demographic pattern in cases of severe acute malnutrition.Methods: Present study is prospective observational comparative study conducted at Department of Pediatrics included 175 cases after taking a informed written consent from the parent. Out of which 22 were lost to follow up and remaining 153 cases were analysed and further evaluated in the studyResults: Cases who were from 6 month to 24 months of age were 73.2% (n=112) and rest of them were above 24 months of age. Girls were 53.6 % and 46.4% were boys. Percentage of illiterate mother was 41.2%, till primary were 28.8% and Only 10.4% of mothers were graduate. Nearly 50% of the households had per capita income less than or equal to 1000.Conclusions: SAM was more common in children < 24 months of age, boys and girls were almost equally affected. Maternal literacy and low per capita income was an important factor associated with SAM patients.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212728

ABSTRACT

Background: Per anal and perianal surgeries are one of the bread and butter surgeries in a surgeons life, and satisfaction of patient matters a lot. Early miraculous recovery has always been patient’s expectations hence we decided to study standard IV method of diclofenac as analgesic with diclofenac suppository and compared their effects on patients with the help of pain scale of 0 to 10.Methods: 200 common per anal surgeries were considered in the study, and were divided in two groups group A post operatively IV diclofenac was given 12 hourly and in group B cases diclofenac suppository 100 mg was started daily twice and the pain score was noted for a week.Results: Diclofenac suppositories resulted in early pain relief and thus early discharges of these patients. The pain score had decreased to a larger extent by day 3 and was almost negligible by day 5 and a few cases to day 7. The hospital stay reduced as patient could manage suppository at home by themselves. IV site complications like thrombophlebitis leading to pain and fever could be easily avoided.Conclusions: Thus diclofenac suppositories proved to be an effective way to give a pain free satisfaction compared to intravenous painful analgesics, thus decreased their hospital stay and also it was a patient friendly.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212692

ABSTRACT

Background: Per anal diseases and the pain management in such cases have always been a problematic solution for surgeons. There are various pain management methods for per anal cases, however we wanted a cheaper yet effective way and patient friendly method for pain management where no expertise would be required, hence we opted to see results of diclofenac suppositories which were easily available, patient could insert it without anyone’s help or assistance and hence need not be hospitalized for any intravenous analgesics.Methods: A study was conducted over 2000 cases over a span of 6 years in a tertiary centre. A control group A of 1000 patients was made where, oral (tablet diclofenac) plus local analgesics (xylocaine gel) were opted for whereas the other group B of 1000 patients was treated with diclofenac suppository 100 mg twice a day with glycerin as lubricant at anal verge. The pain score was noted in both the groups. All acute fissure in ano cases, we included in this study.Results: The pain score of the group B cases was much lower than the group A cases, and also the duration of results acquired was much lesser than group A.Conclusions: Diclofenac suppository 100 mg twice a day proved to be an excellent pain management method for acute fissure in ano cases in outpatient department care.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1453-1475, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828796

ABSTRACT

Angiokinases, such as vascular endothelial-, fibroblast- and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (VEGFRs, FGFRs and PDGFRs) play crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenesis therapy using multi-angiokinase inhibitor has achieved great success in recent years. In this study, we presented the design, synthesis, target identification, molecular mechanism, pharmacodynamics (PD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) research of a novel triple-angiokinase inhibitor WXFL-152. WXFL-152, identified from a series of 4-oxyquinoline derivatives based on a structure-activity relationship study, inhibited the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes by blocking the angiokinase signals VEGF/VEGFR2, FGF/FGFRs and PDGF/PDGFR simultaneously . Significant anticancer effects of WXFL-152 were confirmed in multiple preclinical tumor xenograft models, including a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model. Pharmacokinetic studies of WXFL-152 demonstrated high favourable bioavailability with single-dose and continuous multi-dose by oral administration in rats and beagles. In conclusion, WXFL-152, which is currently in phase Ib clinical trials, is a novel and effective triple-angiokinase inhibitor with clear PD and PK in tumor therapy.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 33-41, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781552

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is an infection-induced systemic inflammatory syndrome. The immune response in sepsis is characterized by the activation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. When sepsis occurs, the expression and activity of many inflammatory cytokines are markedly affected. Xenobiotic receptors are chemical-sensing transcription factors that play essential roles in the transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Xenobiotic receptors mediate the functional crosstalk between sepsis and drug metabolism because the inflammatory cytokines released during sepsis can affect the expression and activity of xenobiotic receptors and thus impact the expression and activity of DMEs. Xenobiotic receptors in turn may affect the clinical outcomes of sepsis. This review focuses on the sepsis-induced inflammatory response and xenobiotic receptors such as pregnane X receptor (PXR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), DMEs such as CYP1A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4, and drug transporters such as p-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRPs) that are affected by sepsis. Understanding the xenobiotic receptor-mediated effect of sepsis on drug metabolism will help to improve the safe use of drugs in sepsis patients and the development of new xenobiotic receptor-based therapeutic strategies for sepsis.

20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1334-1345, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826843

ABSTRACT

Lycopene, as a high value-added terpene compound, has been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad. Firstly, the ability of lycopene synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model strains S288c and YPH499 was analyzed and compared. The results showed that YPH499 was more suitable for lycopene synthesis as yeast chassis. Subsequently, the effects of constitutive promoters GPDpr, TEF1pr and inducible promoters GAL1pr, GAL10pr on Lycopene synthesis were compared. The results showed that when GPDpr and TEF1pr were used as promoters of crtE, crtB and crtI in lycopene synthesis pathway, the production of lycopene was 15.31 mg/L after 60 h fermentation in shaking flask. When GAL1pr and GAL10pr were used as promoters, the production was 123.89 mg/L, which was 8.09 times higher. In addition, the methylvaleric acid (MVA) pathway was further modified to overexpress the key enzyme gene of N-terminal truncation, tHMG1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The lycopene production was 265.68 mg/L, and the yield per cell was 72.79 mg/g. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain designed and constructed in this study can express lycopene in high yield per cell, thus could be used in the industrial production of lycopene after further construction and optimization.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Lycopene , Metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism , Species Specificity
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