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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 307-310, abr. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559673

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis es una infección de alta incidencia en Latinoamérica. Su presentación como infección activa está determinada por factores de riesgo del hospedero. Comunicamos el caso clínico de una mujer joven que presentó una forma grave de tuberculosis pulmonar. Al explorar sus factores de riesgo se confirmó un estado de inmunosupresión profundo, causado por un linfoma de células T, asociada a una co-infección por virus linfotrópico T humano tipo 1. Se destacan los aspectos microbiológicos y de pronóstico de la co-infección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y HTLV-1


Tuberculosis is a high-incidence infection in Latin America. Its presentation as an active infection is determined by risk factors in the host. We report the case of a young woman who presented a severe form of pulmonary tuberculosis. When exploring her risk factors, a profound state of immunosuppression was found, caused by T-cell lymphoma, associated with co-infection with human lymphotropic virus. Microbiological and prognostic aspects of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HTLV-1 co-infection are highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , HTLV-I Infections/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , HTLV-I Infections/diagnostic imaging , Leukemia, T-Cell/complications , Immunocompromised Host , Fatal Outcome , Coinfection , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
2.
Crit. Care Sci ; 36: e20240208en, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between driving pressure and tidal volume based on predicted body weight and mortality in a cohort of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study that included patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19 admitted to two intensive care units. We performed multivariable analyses to determine whether driving pressure and tidal volume/kg predicted body weight on the first day of mechanical ventilation, as independent variables, are associated with hospital mortality. Results: We included 231 patients. The mean age was 64 (53 - 74) years, and the mean Simplified Acute and Physiology Score 3 score was 45 (39 - 54). The hospital mortality rate was 51.9%. Driving pressure was independently associated with hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.21, 95%CI 1.04 - 1.41 for each cm H2O increase in driving pressure, p = 0.01). Based on a double stratification analysis, we found that for the same level of tidal volume/kg predicted body weight, the risk of hospital death increased with increasing driving pressure. However, changes in tidal volume/kg predicted body weight were not associated with mortality when they did not lead to an increase in driving pressure. Conclusion: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19, exposure to higher driving pressure, as opposed to higher tidal volume/kg predicted body weight, is associated with greater mortality. These results suggest that driving pressure might be a primary target for lung-protective mechanical ventilation in these patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre driving pressure e volume corrente ajustado pelo peso predito com a mortalidade em uma coorte de pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo por COVID-19. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo e observacional que incluiu pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo por COVID-19 admitidos em duas unidades de terapia intensiva. Foi realizada análise multivariada para determinar se a driving pressure e o volume corrente/kg de peso predito, aferidos no primeiro dia de ventilação mecânica, associavam-se de forma independente com a mortalidade hospitalar. Resultados: Foram incluídos 231 pacientes. A mediana de idade foi de 64 (53 - 74) anos, e a mediana do Simplified Acute and Physiology Score 3 foi de 45 (39 - 54). A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 51,9%. A driving pressure se associou de forma independente com a mortalidade hospitalar (razão de chance de 1,21; IC95% de 1,04 - 1,41 para cada cm H2O de aumento da driving pressure, p = 0,01). Com base na análise de dupla estratificação, encontrou-se que, para o mesmo nível de volume corrente/kg de peso predito, o risco de mortalidade hospitalar aumentava com o incremento da driving pressure. No entanto, mudanças no volume corrente/kg de peso predito não se associaram com a mortalidade quando não resultavam em aumento da driving pressure. Conclusão: Em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo por COVID-19, exposição a maior driving pressure, ao contrário da exposição a maior volume corrente/kg de peso predito, associou-se com maior mortalidade hospitalar. Os resultados sugerem que a driving pressure poderia ser o alvo primário para a condução da ventilação mecânica protetora nesses pacientes.

3.
Crit. Care Sci ; 36: e20240229en, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557663

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare two methods for defining and classifying the severity of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin classification, which uses the relationship between the partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of inspired oxygen, and the classification of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference, which uses the oxygenation index. Methods This was a prospective study of patients aged 0 - 18 years with a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome who were invasively mechanically ventilated and provided one to three arterial blood gas samples, totaling 140 valid measurements. These measures were evaluated for correlation using the Spearman test and agreement using the kappa coefficient between the two classifications, initially using the general population of the study and then subdividing it into patients with and without bronchospasm and those with and without the use of neuromuscular blockers. The effect of these two factors (bronchospasm and neuromuscular blocking agent) separately and together on both classifications was also assessed using two-way analysis of variance. Results In the general population, who were 54 patients aged 0 - 18 years a strong negative correlation was found by Spearman's test (ρ -0.91; p < 0.001), and strong agreement was found by the kappa coefficient (0.62; p < 0.001) in the comparison between Berlin and Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. In the populations with and without bronchospasm and who did and did not use neuromuscular blockers, the correlation coefficients were similar to those of the general population, though among patients not using neuromuscular blockers, there was greater agreement between the classifications than for patients using neuromuscular blockers (kappa 0.67 versus 0.56, p < 0.001 for both). Neuromuscular blockers had a significant effect on the relationship between the partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of inspired oxygen (analysis of variance; F: 12.9; p < 0.001) and the oxygenation index (analysis of variance; F: 8.3; p = 0.004). Conclusion There was a strong correlation and agreement between the two classifications in the general population and in the subgroups studied. Use of neuromuscular blockers had a significant effect on the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar dois métodos para definição e classificação de gravidade na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo pediátrica: a classificação de Berlim, que utiliza a relação entre pressão parcial de oxigênio e fração inspirada de oxigênio e a classificação do Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference, que utiliza o índice de oxigenação. Métodos Estudo prospectivo com pacientes de 0 - 18 anos com diagnóstico de síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo e ventilados mecanicamente de forma invasiva, que forneceram de uma a três amostras de gasometria arterial, totalizando 140 medidas válidas. Essas medidas foram avaliadas quanto à correlação pelo teste de Spearman e à concordância pelo coeficiente kappa entre as duas classificações, inicialmente usando a população geral do estudo e, depois, subdividindo-a em pacientes com e sem broncoespasmo e com e sem o uso do bloqueador neuromuscular. Também foi verificado o efeito desses dois fatores (broncoespasmo e bloqueador neuromuscular) de forma separada e conjunta sobre ambas as classificações por meio da análise de variância para dois fatores. Resultados Na população geral, composta de 54 pacientes com idades de 0 - 18 anos, foi encontrada forte correlação negativa pelo teste de Spearman (ρ -0,91; p < 0,001) e forte concordância pelo coeficiente kappa (0,62; p < 0,001) na comparação entre Berlim e Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference. Nas populações com e sem broncoespasmo e com e sem o uso do bloqueador neuromuscular, os coeficientes de correlação mantiveram valores semelhantes aos da população geral. Entretanto, para os pacientes sem uso do bloqueador neuromuscular, houve maior concordância entre as classificações em relação aos pacientes com uso do bloqueador neuromuscular (kappa 0,67 versus 0,56 com p < 0,001 em ambos). Acrescenta-se ainda o efeito significativo do uso do bloqueador neuromuscular sobre a relação entre pressão parcial de oxigênio e fração inspirada de oxigênio (análise de variância; F: 12,9; p < 0,001) e o índice de oxigenação (análise de variância; F: 8,3; p = 0,004). Conclusão Houve forte correlação e concordância entre as duas classificações na população geral e nos subgrupos estudados, entretanto, há efeito significativo do uso do bloqueador neuromuscular sobre as classificações de gravidade da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo.

4.
Crit. Care Sci ; 36: e20240210en, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Driving pressure has been suggested to be the main driver of ventilator-induced lung injury and mortality in observational studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether a driving pressure-limiting strategy can improve clinical outcomes is unclear. Objective: To describe the protocol and statistical analysis plan that will be used to test whether a driving pressure-limiting strategy including positive end-expiratory pressure titration according to the best respiratory compliance and reduction in tidal volume is superior to a standard strategy involving the use of the ARDSNet low-positive end-expiratory pressure table in terms of increasing the number of ventilator-free days in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: The ventilator STrAtegy for coMmunIty acquired pNeumoniA (STAMINA) study is a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial that compares a driving pressure-limiting strategy to the ARDSnet low-positive end-expiratory pressure table in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to community-acquired pneumonia admitted to intensive care units. We expect to recruit 500 patients from 20 Brazilian and 2 Colombian intensive care units. They will be randomized to a driving pressure-limiting strategy group or to a standard strategy using the ARDSNet low-positive end-expiratory pressure table. In the driving pressure-limiting strategy group, positive end-expiratory pressure will be titrated according to the best respiratory system compliance. Outcomes: The primary outcome is the number of ventilator-free days within 28 days. The secondary outcomes are in-hospital and intensive care unit mortality and the need for rescue therapies such as extracorporeal life support, recruitment maneuvers and inhaled nitric oxide. Conclusion: STAMINA is designed to provide evidence on whether a driving pressure-limiting strategy is superior to the ARDSNet low-positive end-expiratory pressure table strategy for increasing the number of ventilator-free days within 28 days in patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we describe the rationale, design and status of the trial.


RESUMO Contexto: Em estudos observacionais sobre a síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo, sugeriu-se que a driving pressure é o principal fator de lesão pulmonar induzida por ventilador e de mortalidade. Não está claro se uma estratégia de limitação da driving pressure pode melhorar os desfechos clínicos. Objetivo: Descrever o protocolo e o plano de análise estatística que serão usados para testar se uma estratégia de limitação da driving pressure envolvendo a titulação da pressão positiva expiratória final de acordo com a melhor complacência respiratória e a redução do volume corrente é superior a uma estratégia padrão envolvendo o uso da tabela de pressão positiva expiratória final baixa do protocolo ARDSNet, em termos de aumento do número de dias sem ventilador em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo devido à pneumonia adquirida na comunidade. Métodos: O estudo STAMINA (ventilator STrAtegy for coMmunIty acquired pNeumoniA) é randomizado, multicêntrico e aberto e compara uma estratégia de limitação da driving pressure com a tabela de pressão positiva expiratória final baixa do protocolo ARDSnet em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada a grave devido à pneumonia adquirida na comunidade internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. Esperamos recrutar 500 pacientes de 20 unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras e duas colombianas. Eles serão randomizados para um grupo da estratégia de limitação da driving pressure ou para um grupo de estratégia padrão usando a tabela de pressão positiva expiratória final baixa do protocolo ARDSnet. No grupo da estratégia de limitação da driving pressure, a pressão positiva expiratória final será titulada de acordo com a melhor complacência do sistema respiratório. Desfechos: O desfecho primário é o número de dias sem ventilador em 28 dias. Os desfechos secundários são a mortalidade hospitalar e na unidade de terapia intensiva e a necessidade de terapias de resgate, como suporte de vida extracorpóreo, manobras de recrutamento e óxido nítrico inalado. Conclusão: O STAMINA foi projetado para fornecer evidências sobre se uma estratégia de limitação da driving pressure é superior à estratégia da tabela de pressão positiva expiratória final baixa do protocolo ARDSnet para aumentar o número de dias sem ventilador em 28 dias em pacientes com síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo moderada a grave. Aqui, descrevemos a justificativa, o desenho e o status do estudo.

5.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 37: e37118, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557762

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19 can vary and be influenced by comorbidities. The position is a treatment strategy for critically ill patients; however, it is unclear what the physiological response is and which patients benefit. Objective To determine whether the prone position (PP) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) are associated with the time of orotracheal intubation (OTI) and with the death rate in patients on mechanical ventilation with moderate to severe ARDS. Methods An observational, longitudinal, retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary public hospital in the city of São Paulo. Data were collected from the medical records of all patients diagnosed with COVID-19, with a positive PCR, admitted to the ICU and intubated, from April 2020 to July 2021. Pearson's chi-square and Fischer's exact tests were used to compare sample data, and distributions in the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Results There was no statistically significant difference for ICU length of stay, OTI time and death rate between patients who were prone versus non-prone [13 (4.0 - 23.0) vs. 13.5 (7.2 - 17.0), p = 0.453; 12 (3.0 - 13.0) vs. 10 (6.0 -15.5), p = 0.772; 71 vs. 68%, p = 0.817, respectively]. Conclusion This study did not demonstrate an association between PP and days of OTI, days of hospitalization and mortality in patients with severe hypoxemia.


Resumo Introdução A gravidade da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA) ocasionada pela COVID-19 pode variar e ser influenciada por comorbidades presentes. A postura prona é estratégia de tratamento para pacientes graves, no entanto, não está claro qual é a resposta fisiológica e quais pacientes se beneficiam. Objetivo Verificar se existe associação da postura prona (PP) com o tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), tempo de intubação orotraqueal (IOT) e taxa de óbito em pacientes em ventilação mecânica com SDRA de moderada a grave. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo observacional, longitudinal e retrospectivo, realizado em hospital público terciário no município de São Paulo. Foram coletados dados dos prontuários de todos os pacientes com diagnóstico de COVID-19, com PCR positivo, internados na UTI e intubados, no período de abril de 2020 a julho de 2021. Os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e exato de Fischer foram utilizados para comparar dados da amostra, e as distribuições nos dois grupos foram comparadas por meio do teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para o tempo de internação na UTI, tempo de IOT e taxa de óbito entre os pacientes que foram pronados versus os não pronados [13 (4,0 - 23,0) vs. 13 (7,2 - 17,0), p = 0,453; 12 (3,0 - 13,0) vs. 10 (6,0 - 15,5), p = 0,772; 71% vs. 68%, p = 0,817, respectivamente]. Conclusão Este estudo não demonstrou associação da PP com os dias de IOT, dias de internação na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com hipoxemia grave.

6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(5): e20231464, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558940

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the predictors of survival among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who underwent tracheal intubation, as part of a hospital cohort study. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study in the Rio do Sul County Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil, from April 2020 to May 2021, focused on patients aged 18 years or older intubated for coronavirus disease 2019. We assessed the 90-day survival of intubated patients by estimating the hazard ratio using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: The study included 132 participants, with an average age of approximately 60 years. Tracheal intubation was successfully accomplished in 97% of cases within two attempts. The overall mortality rate was 62.9%. Notably, mortality rates were significantly higher in patients aged over 60 years (hazard ratio=2.57; 95%CI 1.54-4.29; p<0.001), those with blood oxygen saturation below 85% (hazard ratio=1.92; 95%CI 1.03-3.57; p=0.04), instances where tracheal intubation was carried out using a conventional laryngoscope (hazard ratio=2.59; 95%CI 1.22-5.48; p=0.013), and when performed by emergency physicians (hazard ratio=3.96; 95%CI 1.51-10.4; p=0.005). CONCLUSION: Our analysis unveiled that the risk of death in intubated coronavirus disease 2019 patients is four times higher when an emergency physician, as opposed to an anesthesiologist, leads the tracheal intubation team.

7.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 51: e20243690, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559019

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: fat embolism syndrome (FES) is an acute respiratory disorder that occurs when an inflammatory response causes the embolization of fat and marrow particles into the bloodstream. The exact incidence of FES is not well defined due to the difficulty of diagnosis. FES is mostly associated with isolated long bone trauma, and it is usually misdiagnosed in other trauma cases. The scope of this study was to identify and search the current literature for cases of FES in nonorthopedic trauma patients with the aim of defining the etiology, incidence, and main clinical manifestations. Methods: we perform a literature search via the PubMed journal to find, summarize, and incorporate reports of fat embolisms in patients presenting with non-orthopedic trauma. Results: the final literature search yielded 23 papers of patients presenting with fat embolism/FES due to non-orthopedic trauma. The presentation and etiology of these fat embolisms is varied and complex, differing from patient to patient. In this review, we highlight the importance of maintaining a clinical suspicion of FES within the trauma and critical care community. Conclusion: to help trauma surgeons and clinicians identify FES cases in trauma patients who do not present with long bone fracture, we also present the main clinical signs of FES as well as the possible treatment and prevention options.


RESUMO Introdução: a síndrome da embolia gordurosa (SEG) representa um distúrbio respiratório agudo que ocorre quando uma resposta inflamatória leva a uma embolização de partículas de gordura e medula na corrente sanguínea. A incidência exata da SEG não está bem estabelecida devido à dificuldade de diagnóstico. Tal síndrome está associada principalmente a traumas isolados de ossos longos e geralmente é diagnosticada erroneamente em outros casos de trauma. O escopo deste estudo foi de realizar uma pesquisa e identificar na literatura atual casos de SEG em pacientes com trauma de natureza não ortopédica com o objetivo de definir a etiologia, a incidência e as principais manifestações clínicas. Métodos: foi realizada uma pesquisa na literatura utilizando como base de dados o PubMed a fim de identificar os relatos e series de casos de embolias gordurosas em pacientes vítimas de traumas de natureza não ortopédica. A pesquisa final resultou em 23 artigos de pacientes que apresentaram embolia gordurosa/SEG devido a trauma não ortopédico. Resultados: a apresentação e a etiologia dessas embolias gordurosas são variadas e complexas, diferindo de paciente para paciente. Nesta revisão, destacamos a importância de manter uma suspeita clínica de SEG para pacientes vítimas de trauma que se encontrem sob cuidados intensivos. Conclusão: para ajudar os cirurgiões de trauma e os clínicos a identificar casos de SEG em pacientes com trauma que não apresentam fratura de ossos longos, foram destacados os principais sinais clínicos de SEG, bem como as possíveis opções de tratamento e prevenção.

8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 22(spe1): eRW0352, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To review the long-term outcomes (functional status and psychological sequelae) of survivors of critical illnesses due to epidemic viral pneumonia before the COVID-19 pandemic and to establish a benchmark for comparison of the COVID-19 long-term outcomes. Methods This systematic review of clinical studies reported the long-term outcomes in adults admitted to intensive care units who were diagnosed with viral epidemic pneumonia. An electronic search was performed using databases: MEDLINE®, Web of Science™, LILACS/IBECS, and EMBASE. Additionally, complementary searches were conducted on the reference lists of eligible studies. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The results were grouped into tables and textual descriptions. Results The final analysis included 15 studies from a total of 243 studies. This review included 771 patients with Influenza A, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. It analyzed the quality of life, functionality, lung function, mortality, rate of return to work, rehospitalization, and psychiatric symptoms. The follow-up periods ranged from 1 to 144 months. We found that the quality of life, functional capacity, and pulmonary function were below expected standards. Conclusion This review revealed great heterogeneity between studies attributed to different scales, follow-up time points, and methodologies. However, this systematic review identified negative long-term effects on patient outcomes. Given the possibility of future pandemics, it is essential to identify the long-term effects of viral pneumonia outbreaks. This review was not funded. Prospero database registration: (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) under registration ID CRD42021190296.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006522

ABSTRACT

@#Objective     To explore the efficacy of prone positioning ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (STAAD) surgery. Methods     From November 2019 to September 2021, patients with ARDS who was placed prone position after STAAD surgery in the Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital of Xiamen University were collected. Data such as the changes of blood gas, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamic indexes before and after prone positioning, complications and prognosis were collected for statistical analysis. Results    A total of 264 STAAD patients had surgical treatment, of whom 40 patients with postoperative ARDS were placed prone position. There were 37 males and 3 females with an average age of 49.88±11.46 years. The oxygen partial pressure, oxygenation index and peripheral blood oxygen saturation 4 hours and 12 hours after the prone positioning, and 2 hours and 6 hours after the end of the prone positioning were significantly improved compared with those before prone positioning ventilation (P<0.05). The oxygenation index 2 hours after the end of prone positioning which was less than 131.42 mm Hg, indicated that the patient might need ventilation two or more times of prone position. Conclusion     Prone position ventilation for patients with moderate to severe ARDS after STAAD surgery is a safe and effective way to improve the oxygenation.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013346

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo evaluate the clinical efficacy of modified Houpo Dahuangtang in moderate and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients with phlegm-heat accumulation,and monitor the pulmonary ventilation changes of patients before and after treatment by electrical impedance tomography(EIT). MethodThe 62 cases of moderate and severe ARDS patients with phlegm-heat accumulation who required mechanical ventilation in the department of intensive care unit (ICU) in Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from September 2021 to June 2022 were selected,and divided into an experimental group(31 cases)and a control group(31 cases)using a random number table. On the basis of regular Western medicine treatment,the experimental group received modified Houpo Dahuangtang and the control group received warm water by a nasogastric tube for seven days. The changes in the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM),the oxygenation index[arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen(FiO2),P/F],lactic acid(Lac),acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ) score,compliance,plateau pressure,gas distribution parameters monitored by EIT(Z1,Z2,Z3 and Z4),inflammatory factors[interleukin-6 (IL-6),IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] of both groups before and after treatment were recorded. Besides, the mechanical ventilation time, length of stay in ICU, 28-day mortality and incidence of adverse reactions(delirium,abdominal pain and diarrhea)in the two groups were also observed. ResultThere was no significant difference in the baseline indexes of patients in the two groups,and thus the two groups were comparable. After treatment for one week, the total effective rate for TCM syndromes in the experimental group was 90.30%(28/31), higher than the 67.74%(21/31)in the control group(Z=-2.415,P<0.05).Compared with the same group before treatment, the plateau pressure and Lac decreased (P<0.01)and the compliance and P/F increased (P<0.01) in experimental group, while the Lac decreased (P<0.05)and the P/F increased (P<0.05), and the compliance and plateau pressure did not change significantly in the control group. After treatment,the plateau pressure and inflammatory factors in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group(P<0.05), but the compliance and P/F in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05), and the gas distribution parameters Z1,Z2,Z3,Z4,Z1+Z2,and Z3+Z4 monitored by EIT in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mechanical ventilation time, ICU hospitalization time, 28-day mortality, delirium, abdominal pain, diarrhea and other adverse reactions between the two groups. ConclusionModified Houpo Dahuangtang can significantly improve the P/F,pulmonary ventilation in gravity-dependent regions and pulmonary compliance,reduce the release of inflammatory factors in moderate and severe ARDS patients. Compared with conventional methods,EIT can timely monitor the pulmonary ventilation changes in ARDS patients,which suggests its clinical feasibility.

11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535461

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lesión pulmonar aguda (TRALI) y la sobrecarga circulatoria (TACO) son las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad relacionadas con la transfusión. La TRALI se presenta durante o después de las transfusiones de plasma y sus derivados, o por inmunoglobulinas en alta concentración intravenosa; se asocia a procesos sépticos, cirugías y transfusiones masivas. La TACO es la exacerbación de manifestaciones respiratorias en las primeras 6 horas postransfusión. Reporte caso: Paciente de sexo masculino de 38 días de vida, ingresó al servicio de urgencias con un cuadro clínico de 8 días de evolución, caracterizado por dificultad respiratoria dado por retracciones subcostales y aleteo nasal sin otro síntoma asociado, con antecedentes de importancia de prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer. El reporte de hemograma arrojó cifras compatibles con anemia severa, por lo que requirió transfusión de glóbulos rojos empaquetados desleucocitados. El paciente presentó un cuadro respiratorio alterado en un periodo menor a 6 horas, por lo que se descartaron causas infecciosas y finalmente se consideró cuadro compatible con TRALI. Conclusiones: Se debe considerar una lesión pulmonar aguda relacionada con una transfusión de sangre si se produce una insuficiencia respiratoria aguda durante o inmediatamente después de la infusión de hemoderivados que contienen plasma.


Introduction: Acute lung injury (TRALI) and circulatory overload (TACO) are the main causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. TRALI occurs during or after transfusions of plasma or its derivatives, or by immunoglobulins in high intravenous concentration; it is associated with septic processes, surgeries, and massive transfusions. TACO is the exacerbation of respiratory manifestations in the first 6 hours post transfusion. Case report: A 38-day-old male was admitted to the emergency department with clinical symptoms experienced over the course of 8 days and characterized by respiratory distress due to subcostal retractions and nasal flaring with no other associated symptoms. Important antecedents included prematurity and low birth weight. The hemogram report showed figures compatible with anemia, which benefited from transfusion of packed red blood cells without leukocytes. In a period of less than 6 hours, the patient presented altered respiratory symptoms, practitioners ruled out infectious causes and finally considered clinical signs compatible with TRALI. Conclusion: Acute lung injury related to blood transfusion should be considered if acute respiratory failure occurs during or immediately after infusion of plasma-containing blood products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Infant, Premature , Transfusion Reaction , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Signs and Symptoms , Anemia
12.
Crit. Care Sci ; 35(4): 386-393, Oct.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528483

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the effect of atelectasis during mechanical ventilation on the periatelectatic and normal lung regions in a model of atelectasis in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomized into the following four groups, each with 6 animals: the Saline-Control Group, Lipopolysaccharide Control Group, Saline-Atelectasis Group, and Lipopolysaccharide Atelectasis Group. Acute lung injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. After 24 hours, atelectasis was induced by bronchial blocking. The animals underwent mechanical ventilation for two hours with protective parameters, and respiratory mechanics were monitored during this period. Thereafter, histologic analyses of two regions of interest, periatelectatic areas and the normally-aerated lung contralateral to the atelectatic areas, were performed. Results: The lung injury score was significantly higher in the Lipopolysaccharide Control Group (0.41 ± 0.13) than in the Saline Control Group (0.15 ± 0.51), p < 0.05. Periatelectatic regions showed higher lung injury scores than normally-aerated regions in both the Saline-Atelectasis (0.44 ± 0.06 x 0.27 ± 0.74 p < 0.05) and Lipopolysaccharide Atelectasis (0.56 ± 0.09 x 0.35 ± 0.04 p < 0.05) Groups. The lung injury score in the periatelectatic regions was higher in the Lipopolysaccharide Atelectasis Group (0.56 ± 0.09) than in the periatelectatic region of the Saline-Atelectasis Group (0.44 ± 0.06), p < 0.05. Conclusion: Atelectasis may cause injury to the surrounding tissue after a period of mechanical ventilation with protective parameters. Its effect was more significant in previously injured lungs.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da atelectasia durante a ventilação mecânica nas regiões periatelectáticas e pulmonares normais em um modelo de atelectasia em ratos com lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por lipopolissacarídeo. Métodos: Foram distribuídos aleatoriamente 24 ratos em quatro grupos, cada um com 6 animais: Grupo Salina-Controle, Grupo Lipopolissacarídeo-Controle, Grupo Salina-Atelectasia e Grupo Lipopolissacarídeo-Atelectasia. A lesão pulmonar aguda foi induzida por injeção intraperitoneal de lipopolissacarídeo. Após 24 horas, a atelectasia foi induzida por bloqueio brônquico. Os animais foram submetidos à ventilação mecânica por 2 horas com parâmetros ventilatórios protetores, e a mecânica respiratória foi monitorada durante esse período. Em seguida, foram realizadas análises histológicas de duas regiões de interesse: as áreas periatelectásicas e o pulmão normalmente aerado contralateral às áreas atelectásicas. Resultados: O escore de lesão pulmonar foi significativamente maior no Grupo Controle-Lipopolissacarídeo (0,41 ± 0,13) do que no Grupo Controle-Solução Salina (0,15 ± 0,51), com p < 0,05. As regiões periatelectásicas apresentaram escores maiores de lesão pulmonar do que as regiões normalmente aeradas nos Grupos Atelectasia-Solução Salina (0,44 ± 0,06 versus 0,27 ± 0,74, p < 0,05) e Atelectasia-Lipopolissacarídeo (0,56 ± 0,09 versus 0,35 ± 0,04, p < 0,05). O escore de lesão pulmonar nas regiões periatelectásicas foi maior no Grupo Atelectasia-Lipopolissacarídeo (0,56 ± 0,09) do que na região periatelectásica do Grupo Atelectasia-Solução Salina (0,44 ± 0,06), p < 0,05. Conclusão: A atelectasia pode causar lesão no tecido circundante após um período de ventilação mecânica com parâmetros ventilatórios protetores. Seu efeito foi mais significativo em pulmões previamente lesionados.

13.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530278

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pandemia de COVID-19 produjo una alta mortalidad en el mundo. Sin embargo, las presentaciones más críticas de la enfermedad han sido poco caracterizadas en nuestra región. Objetivo: estudiar la presentación clínica, evolución y mortalidad en pacientes ingresados en la unidad de medicina intensiva de un centro COVID-19 de referencia. Pacientes y método: estudio clínico, prospectivo, observacional de SARS-CoV-2 durante las primeras etapas de la pandemia en Uruguay. Se definió mortalidad en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) como desenlace primario. Resultados: en 274 pacientes, la edad mediana fue de 65 años (IQR 54-73), el sexo masculino representó el 57% y el índice de Charlson tuvo una mediana de 3 (IQR 2-5). La mortalidad en UCI fue 59,9%. Las principales causas de muerte fueron: hipoxemia refractaria, disfunción orgánica múltiple y shock refractario. La edad (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1,06; IC de 95% 1,03 - 1,09), ocupación de camas (OR = 1,04, IC 95%: 1,02 - 1,07), sexo masculino (OR = 2,14, IC 95%: 0,93 - 5,06), ventilación mecánica invasiva (OR = 51,7, IC 95%: 16,5 - 208,6), coinfección al ingreso (OR = 2,34, IC 95%: 0,88 - 6,77) y enfermedad renal crónica previa (OR = 13,1, IC 95%: 2,29 - 129,2) fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad. La primera ola de la pandemia se produjo por la circulación de las variantes P.6 y P.1 del coronavirus, en una población con muy bajo porcentaje de vacunación (8%). Conclusiones: estos resultados en pacientes críticos aportan una descripción detallada del impacto de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en un centro de referencia y constituyen una base para enfrentar futuros eventos epidémicos.


Introduction: COVID-19 has caused high mortality worldwide. However, the most critical presentations of the disease have been poorly characterized in our region. Objective: to study the clinical presentation, progression, and mortality in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a COVID-19 Reference Center. Patients and methods: clinical, prospective, observational study of SARS-CoV-2 during the early stages of the pandemic in Uruguay. ICU mortality was defined as the primary outcome. Results: in 274 patients, the median age was 65 years (IQR 54-73), male gender accounted for 57%, and the Charlson Index was 3 (IQR 2-5). ICU mortality was 59.9%. The main causes of death were refractory hypoxemia, multiple organ dysfunction, and refractory shock. Age (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 - 1.09), bed occupancy (OR= 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02 -1.07), male gender (OR= 2.14, 95% CI 0.93 - 5.06), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR= 51.7, 95% CI 16.5 - 208.6), coinfection at admission (OR= 2.34, 95% CI 0.88 - 6.77), and pre-existing chronic kidney disease (OR= 13.1, 95% CI 2.29 - 129.2) were independent predictors of mortality. The first wave of the pandemic was driven by the circulation of the P.6 and P.1 variants of the coronavirus in a population with a very low vaccination percentage (8%). Conclusions: these results in critical patients provide a detailed description of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a reference center and serve as a foundation for addressing future epidemic events.


Introdução: a COVID-19 causou alta morbimortalidade em todo o mundo, embora as formas graves da doença tenham sido pouco caracterizadas nos países da América Latina. Objetivos: analisar o quadro clínico, a evolução e a mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19 atendidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) em um Centro de Referência. Métodos: Estudo clínico, prospectivo e observacional de pacientes com SARS-CoV-2 durante a primeira onda da pandemia no Uruguai. A mortalidade na UTI foi o resultado primário. Resultados: oram estudados 274 pacientes, com uma mediada de idade de 65 anos (IQR 54-73), sendo a maioria do sexo masculino (57%). O índice de Charlson foi de 3 (IQR 2-5). A mortalidade geral na UTI foi de 59,9%. As principais causas de morte foram hipoxemia refratária, disfunção orgânica múltipla e choque refratário. A idade (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1,06; IC 95% 1,03-1,09), ocupação de leitos (OR = 1,04; IC 95%: 1,02-1,07), sexo masculino (OR = 2,14; IC 95%: 0,93-5,06), ventilação mecânica invasiva (OR = 51,7; IC 95%: 16,5-208,6), coinfecção na admissão (OR = 2,34; IC 95%: 0,88-6,77) e doença renal crônica pré-existente (OR = 13,1; IC 95%: 2,29-129,2) foram preditores independentes de mortalidade. A primeira onda da pandemia foi impulsionada pela circulação das variantes P.6 e P.1 do SARS-CoV-2 em uma população com uma taxa de vacinação muito baixa (8%). Conclusões: esses resultados em pacientes críticos fornecem uma descrição detalhada do impacto da pandemia SARS-CoV-2 em um Centro de Referência e constituem uma base para o enfrentamento de futuros eventos epidêmicos.

14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(6): 626-633, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La mortalidad por pacientes por COVID-19 grave que desarrollaban neumonía grave y síndrome de dificultad respiratoria agudo (SDRA) grave ha sido significativa a pesar del tratamiento oportuno. Es importante determinar predictores tempranos de enfermedad que nos ayuden a estratificar aquellos pacientes con mayor riesgo de fallecer. Se pretende estudiar el comportamiento del puntaje APP (APPS) como predictor de ello, basados en algunos reportes de uso y utilidad en el SDRA. no COVID-19. OBJETIVO: Determinar si el APPS es útil como predictor de mortalidad en SDRA. por COVID-19 grave. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio tipo cohorte retrospectivo, incluyendo pacientes de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), con SDRA. por COVID-19 grave, que ingresaron a la UCI del Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo (HRDT) en el período abril 2020- abril 2021. Se evalúo la utilidad del APPS como predictor de mortalidad em dicha población. RESULTADOS: El APPS demostró ser un factor asociado a mortalidad en pacientes con SDRA. y COVID-19 grave (RPa 1,34; IC 95% 1,16 a 1,56; p < 0,001). Además, encontramos que, al realizar un modelo de predicción ajustado por edad, sexo, SOFA, APPS, shock, Indice de Charlson (ICh), se comportan como factores asociados a mortalidad el APPS, el sexo masculino (RPa: 1,48; IC 95% 1,09 a 2,049; p < 0,05) y el ICh (RPa: 1,11; IC 95% 1,02 a 1,21; p < 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El APPS, el sexo masculino y el ICh son predictores de mortalidad en SDRA. por COVID-19 grave.


BACKGROUND: Mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 who developed severe pneumonia and severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) has been significant despite timely treatment. It is important to determine early predictors of disease that help us to stratify those patients with a higher risk of death. It is intended to study the behavior of the APPS score as a predictor of this, based on some reports of use and usefulness in non-COVID-19 ARDS. AIM: To determine if the APP score is useful as a predictor of mortality in ARDS due to severe COVID-19. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was carried out, including patients from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with ARDS due to severe COVID-19 who were admitted to the ICU of the Trujillo Regional Teaching Hospital (HRDT) in the period March 2020 to March 2021. The usefulness of the APP score as a predictor of mortality in mentioned population was evaluated. RESULTS: The APP score proved to be a factor associated with mortality in patients with ARDS and severe COVID-19 (APR 1.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56; p < 0.001). We also found that when performing a prediction model adjusted for age, sex, SOFA, APP score, shock and Charlson Index (ICh) we found that the APP score, male sex (APR: 1.48; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.049; p < 0.05) and the ICh behave as factors associated with mortality (RPa: 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The APP score, male sex, and ICh are predictors of mortality in ARDS due to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Intensive Care Units
15.
Vive (El Alto) ; 6(17): 451-463, ago. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515629

ABSTRACT

Muchos años han pasado hasta hoy, donde las plantas medicinales juegan un papel importante en tratamiento de muchas enfermedades y aún falta investigar más sobre sus propiedades. Objetivo. Determinar la relación que hay entre consumo de plantas medicinales y alivio de enfermedades respiratorias de trabajadores del mercado el Milagro. Materiales y métodos. Se basó en estudio descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo, prospectivo y observacional, se enfocó en edades de 20 a 60 años, ambos sexos quienes participaron voluntariamente. Se tomó datos desde junio hasta setiembre del 2021 de muestra de 60 trabajadores. Se recolectaron datos de dimensiones del consumo de plantas medicinales y relación entre plantas y alivio de enfermedades respiratorias por semana, luego se promedió por mes de allí se procesaron mediante estadísticas básicas y correlación. Resultados. Se pudo determinar que consumieron plantas medicinales como eucalipto, escorzonera y huamanripa para afecciones respiratorias en agosto con 3% y setiembre con 5% eucalipto para COVID-19; consumieron hierbas medicinales como eucalipto, escorzonera y huamanripa como infusiones destacó agosto con 7%; consumieron hierbas medicinales para enfermedades respiratorias destacó julio con 25% y setiembre con 64 % para COVID-19; consumieron hierbas para aliviar síntomas del coronavirus sobresalió setiembre con 80% y correlación entre consumo de hierbas y alivio de síntomas de COVID-19 obtuvo r = 0.8946. Conclusiones. Se pudo establecer que existe una alta relación entre consumo de plantas medicinales y alivio de síntomas este virus y afecciones respiratorias; por lo tanto, los consumos de hierbas en muchos casos conjuntamente con terapia médica mejoraron las dolencias de estas enfermedades.


Many years have passed until today, where medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of many diseases and there is still a lack of research on their properties. Objective. To determine the relationship between the consumption of medicinal plants and the relief of respiratory diseases in workers of the El Milagro market. Materials and methods. It was based on a descriptive study with a quantitative, prospective and observational approach, focused on ages from 20 to 60 years, both sexes, who participated voluntarily. Data were collected from June to September 2021 from a sample of 60 workers. Data were collected on the dimensions of consumption of medicinal plants and the relationship between plants and relief of respiratory diseases per week, then averaged by month and processed by basic statistics and correlation. Results. It was determined that they consumed medicinal plants such as eucalyptus, scorzonera and huamanripa for respiratory diseases in August with 3% and September with 5 % eucalyptus for COVID-19; they consumed medicinal herbs such as eucalyptus, scorzonera and huamanripa as infusions in August with 7%; consumed medicinal herbs for respiratory diseases, July stood out with 25% and September with 64% for COVID-19; consumed herbs to alleviate symptoms of coronavirus, September stood out with 80% and correlation between consumption of herbs and relief of COVID-19 symptoms obtained r = 0. 8946. Conclusions. It was possible to establish that there is a high relationship between consumption of medicinal plants and relief of symptoms of this virus and respiratory diseases; therefore, the consumption of herbs in many cases together with medical therapy improved the ailments of these diseases.


Muitos anos se passaram até hoje, onde as plantas medicinais desempenham um papel importante no tratamento de muitas doenças e ainda são necessárias mais pesquisas sobre suas propriedades. Objetivo. Determinar a relação entre o consumo de plantas medicinais e o alívio de doenças respiratórias em trabalhadores do mercado El Milagro. Materiais e métodos. Este foi um estudo descritivo com uma abordagem quantitativa, prospectiva e observacional, com foco em trabalhadores com idade entre 20 e 60 anos, de ambos os sexos, que participaram voluntariamente. Os dados foram coletados de junho a setembro de 2021 de uma amostra de 60 trabalhadores. Os dados foram coletados sobre as dimensões do consumo de plantas medicinais e a relação entre as plantas e o alívio de doenças respiratórias por semana, depois calculados em média por mês e processados usando estatísticas básicas e correlação. Resultados. Foi determinado que eles consumiram plantas medicinais como eucalipto, scorzonera e huamanripa para doenças respiratórias em agosto com 3% e setembro com 5%, eucalipto para COVID-19; eles consumiram ervas medicinais como eucalipto, scorzonera e huamanripa como infusões em agosto com 7%; consumiram ervas medicinais para doenças respiratórias em julho com 25% e setembro com 64% para COVID-19; consumiram ervas para aliviar os sintomas do coronavírus, setembro se destacou com 80% e a correlação entre o consumo de ervas e o alívio dos sintomas da COVID-19 obteve r = 0. 8946. Conclusões. Foi possível estabelecer que existe uma alta correlação entre o consumo de plantas medicinais e o alívio dos sintomas desse vírus e das doenças respiratórias; portanto, o consumo de ervas em muitos casos, em conjunto com a terapia médica, melhorou os males dessas doenças.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged
16.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(1): 62-66, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451250

ABSTRACT

Los riesgos asociados a la neumonía por (SARS-CoV-2) es la generación de insuficiencia respiratoria secundaria que en algunos casos desencadenara al tan temido síndrome de distres respiratorio (SDRA); Informes sobre atención clínica, indican que tiene una incidencia (SDRA) de 3-10 % con necesidad de Asistencia Respiratoria Mecánica (ARM) en pacientes hospitalizados; por lo que dispositivos de oxigenación no invasivos siguen siendo una opción atractiva, de forma inicial. Caso clínico: mujer de 47 años con insuficiencia respiratoria secundario a neumonía por COVID-19, por la gravedad se indica su ingreso a terapia intensiva, pero por razones de falta de unidad es manejada en unidad respiratoria, con el uso de dispositivos de oxigenación de armado ARTESAL, de manera exitosa, con la utilización de CNAF-artesanal, se pretende mejorar el trabajo respiratorio, índices de oxigenación, mientras se da tratamiento a la infección por el COVID-19; el objetivo del presente caso es reportar el presente caso con evolución favorable a la literatura disponible. Discusión: El uso de terapia de oxigenación con dispositivo de Cánula Nasal de Alto Flujo, aún no ha sido normatizado en pacientes con COVID-19, pero existe evidencia clínica sobre los efectos beneficiosos en la insuficiencia respiratoria en neonatos mas no en adultos. Conclusión: El uso temprano de la CNAF-artesanal en la insuficiencia respiratoria resulta muy atractivo, más aún con dispositivo de confección artesanal, da una opción más al paciente fuera de UTI, pudiendo apoyar en evitar la intubación y su ingreso a ventilación mecánica.


The risks associated with pneumonia (SARS-CoV-2) is the generation of secondary respiratory failure that in some cases will trigger the much feared respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); Reports on clinical care indicate that it has an incidence (ARDS) of 3-10% with the need for Mechanical Respiratory Assistance (ARM) in hospitalized patients; so non-invasive oxygenation devices remain an attractive option, initially. Clinical case: a 47-year-old woman with respiratory failure secondary to covid-19 pneumonia. Due to the severity, her admission to intensive care is indicated, but for reasons of lack of unity, she is managed in a common room, with the use of high-pressure oxygenation devices. ARTISAL assembly, successfully, with the use of CNAF-artisanal, is intended to improve the work of breathing, and oxygenation indices, while treating the infection by COVID-19; The objective of this case is to report the present case with a favorable evolution based on the available literature. Discussion: The use of oxygenation therapy with a High Flow Nasal Cannula device has not yet been standardized in patients with COVID-19, but there is clinical evidence on the beneficial effects in respiratory failure in neonates but not in adults. Conclusion: The early use of the artisan HFNC in respiratory failure is very attractive, even more so with an artisanal device, it gives the patient another option outside the ICU, being able to help avoid intubation and admission to mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged
17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222319

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory process in the lungs that results in hypoxemia and decreased lung compliance. Invasive mechanical ventilation and prone positioning have proven benefits in the management of patients with severe ARDS. Post-extubation rehabilitation programs are equally important for the recovery of these patients. We are reporting the case of a 30-year-old male with severe ARDS where lung protective ventilation, timely intubation, early prone positioning, multidisciplinary communication, and post-discharge follow-up with teleconsultation were used under expert supervision in the successful management of the case

18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(2): 105-111, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430709

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Among the mechanisms proposed for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the increase in the pulmonary inflammatory process and oxidative stress. Thus, the control of this process may result in improvements in bronchopulmonary dysplasia-related outcomes. This study aims to analyze the current scientific evidence regarding the use of budesonide, a potent anti-inflammatory drug, associated with a pulmonary surfactant to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed on the Embase and MEDLINE platforms, and studies that compared budesonide with pulmonary surfactant versus pulmonary surfactant for treating respiratory distress syndrome were included. The primary outcome was a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death. Results: Four randomized clinical trials and two observational studies were included in this systematic review. Three of the randomized clinical trials found a reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death in the use of budesonide with the surfactant, all the other studies (1 clinical trial and 2 observational studies) found no statistical differences between the groups for the primary outcomes. The three main studies showed a reduction in the primary outcome; however, all studies showed great heterogeneity regarding the type of surfactant (poractant or beractant) and the method of administration. Conclusion: Robust clinical studies, in a heterogeneous population, using porcine surfactant associated with budesonide, with administration by a minimally invasive technique are necessary for there to be a recommendation based on scientific evidence for its widespread use.

19.
Curitiba; s.n; 20230323. 165 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1438148

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico para construção e validação de um cenário simulado com abordagem interprofissional, que permitirá a utilização no ensino e na educação permanente de profissionais da saúde por meio da metodologia ativa de simulação clínica. Este estudo foi realizado em uma universidade pública da região Sul do Brasil, objetivando construir e validar um cenário simulado para a pronação de pacientes críticos com Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório Agudo (SDRA). Para isto, o estudo ocorreu em duas etapas: revisão de conteúdo, construção do cenário e de validação de conteúdo e de aparência por juízes. A revisão da literatura permitiu conhecer melhor sobre o manejo do paciente com SDRA, bem como subsidiar o desenvolvimento do caso clínico para o cenário. Um protocolo de pronação segura de um hospital universitário foi adotado. A partir desta revisão, a construção do cenário foi realizada considerando um roteiro validado. Como parte desta construção, surgiram como resultados: a descrição do cenário; a relação de materiais e equipamentos necessários para o desenvolvimento do cenário; o roteiro para o ator simulado; o guia de apoio ao facilitador; o guia de apoio ao participante; o quadro de apoio para tomada de decisão e o checklist de observação do desenvolvimento de competências e habilidades para cada profissão envolvida no cenário. Onze juízes participaram do estudo. Em relação ao perfil sociodemográfico dos juízes, a amostra foi predominantemente de enfermeiros (63,6%), seguido por fisioterapeutas (18,1%), médico (9%) e docente de enfermagem (9%). Para medir o percentual de concordância entre os juízes, adotou-se o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo (IVC) para os itens, que foram agrupados de acordo com unidades de significância. Após a leitura do cenário, os juízes responderam a um questionário do tipo Likert com 37 itens, que abordaram sobre a "Experiência Prévia do Participante/Briefing", "Conteúdo/Objetivos"; "Recursos Humanos"; "Preparo do Cenário", "Desenvolvimento do Cenário" e "Avaliação". Todos os itens obtiveram IVC superior ao desejável (0,80) e, portanto, foram considerados válidos. Além disso, os juízes realizaram sugestões de melhorias no cenário, aos quais foram acatadas ou rejeitas e discutidas com a literatura disponível. Este estudo permitiu criar e validar um cenário que reflete a prática real, ao mesmo tempo que oportuniza um ambiente seguro para os participantes e responde aos objetivos da aprendizagem.


Abstract: This is a methodological study for the construction and validation of a simulated scenario with an interprofessional approach, which will allow the use in the teaching and continuing education of health professionals through the active methodology of clinical simulation. This study was carried out in a public university in the South region of Brazil, aiming to build and validate a simulated scenario for the pronation of critically ill patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). To this end, the study occurred in two stages: content review, scenario construction, and content and appearance validation by judges. The literature review provided a better understanding of the management of the ARDS patient, as well as a basis for developing the clinical case for the scenario. A safe pronation protocol from a university hospital was adopted. Based on this review, the scenario was built using a validated script. As part of this process, the following results emerged: the description of the scenario; the list of materials and equipment needed for the development of the scenario; the script for the simulated actor; the facilitator support guide; the participant support guide; the decision support framework; and the checklist for observing the development of competencies and skills for each profession involved in the scenario. Eleven judges participated in the study. Regarding the sociodemographic profile of the judges, the sample was predominantly nurses (63.6%), followed by physical therapists (18.1%), physicians (9%), and nursing professors (9%). To measure the percentage of agreement between the judges, the Content Validity Index (CVI) was adopted for the items, which were grouped according to significance units. After reading the scenario, the judges answered a Likert-type questionnaire with 37 items, which addressed "Prior Participant Experience/Briefing", "Content/Objectives"; "Human Resources"; "Scenario Preparation", "Scenario Development", and "Evaluation". All items scored higher than desirable CVI (0.80) and were therefore considered valid. In addition, the judges made suggestions for improvements in the scenario, which were accepted or rejected and discussed with the available literature. This study made it possible to create and validate a scenario that reflects actual practice, while providing a safe environment for participants and meeting the learning objectives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Patient Simulation , Interprofessional Education , COVID-19 , Learning
20.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2023 Feb; 121(2): 67-68
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-216679

ABSTRACT

Since the declaration of COVID-19 infection as Pandemic in March, 2020, There has been rise in Multisystem Complications apart from regular Acute Respiratory Syndrome which is hallmark of COVID-19 infection. As the second wave surge of COVID-19 has occurred, most of the patients already suffered from dyspnoea but also rare complications like CVA (Infarct and Haemorrhage) , Seizure and altered sensorium related to Hypoxic Brain Injury. COVID-19 frequently presents with a state of altered coagulability which increases the risk of pulmonary embolism and other Thrombotic events such as Cerebrovascular events. This case report is limited to Neurological complications seen in COVID-19 Infected patients

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