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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e224013, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354702

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cleaning of mandibular incisors with WaveOne Gold® (WO) under different preparation techniques. Methods: A total of 210 human mandibular incisors were selected and divided into seven groups (n = 30), prepared by WO single-files (Small 20/.07 ­ WOS; Primary 25/.07 ­ WOP; Medium 35/.06 ­ WOM; or Large 45/.05 - WOL) and sequential-file techniques (WOS to WOP; WOS to WOM; and WOS to WOL). Further subdivision was made according to irrigation protocol: control group (manual irrigation - CON), E1 Irrisonic® - EIR, and EDDY® - EDD. Debris removal and the smear layer were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by using Spearman's correlation test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: For debris and smear layer removal, WOS and WOP, EIR differed from CON and EDD (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regardless of the instrumentation used, the agitation of the irrigant solution provided better cleanability. These findings reinforce the need for agitation techniques as adjuvants in cleaning root canal systems in mandibular incisors


Subject(s)
Root Canal Irrigants , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Root Canal Preparation , Endodontics
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e038, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364592

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study measured the thickness of cementum/dentin in the danger zone of the mandibular molars after root canal preparation using novel cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) software. Eighty-four teeth were distributed into four groups: ProTaper Next, BioRace, Reciproc Blue, and WaveOne Gold. E-Vol DX® CBCT software was used to measure initial and final remaining cementum-dentin thicknesses after root canal preparation of the mesial root of mandibular molars at 1 and 3 mm from the furcation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test variable symmetry. The variables were described as mean and standard deviations, compared among the groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and within the groups using the Student t test. A generalized estimating equation model was used to compare the variation before and after root canal preparation. The level of significance was set at 5%. Differences between mean initial and final thicknesses of the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals were not statistically significant. The mean initial thickness was 3 mm (0.900 mm ± 0.191), considering that a mean lower than 1 mm (1.035 mm ± 0.184) indicates the danger zone. Although cementum/dentin is thinner at 3 mm from the furcation (0.715±0.186) after root canal preparation, the greatest amount of dentin removed was found at 1 mm (0.734 ± 0.191). The cementum-dentin remaining after preparation was thicker than 0.715 mm in root canals prepared using #35 (WaveOne Gold®) and #40 (ProTaper Next®, BioRace® and Reciproc Blue®) instruments. This confirms the safety of canal preparation in the danger zone using these systems.

3.
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 70: e20220005, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365289

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for conducting safe root canal treatment in pregnant women, illustrating with case reports treated in the extension project Maternal-Child Dental Care at the Federal University of Pelotas. The scientific bases address the main doubts of professionals when performing prenatal dental care: use of radiographic examination, local anesthetics, prescription of medications, among other essential factors in the care of pregnant women. The assisted pregnant women sought care with dental pain. In two cases symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was diagnosed, while a third was experiencing acute apical periodontitis. Endodontic procedures were performed under controlled and standardized conditions. The root canals were prepared in a single session, using mechanical instrumentation with reciprocating kinematics (Wave One® Gold Primary - Dentsply Sirona), and the root canal length was determined by an electronic apex locator FinePex (Schuster). Root canal filling was performed by the single cone technique with Wave One® gutta-percha points. After endodontic treatment, coronal sealing was performed with composite resin A2 Z350 XT (3M ESPE). The care related to the gestational condition is highlighted, and the patients remain under monitoring. It is concluded that the use of apical locators and mechanical instrumentation, using reciprocating files associated with the single cone obturation technique with a standardized cone for each system, represents advances for the accomplishment of endodontic treatment in pregnant patients due to the shorter clinical time and greater comfort of the procedure.


RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho é fornecer embasamento científico para condução do tratamento endodôntico em gestantes através de uma revisão de literatura e série de casos clínicos conduzidos em sessão única no projeto de extensão Atenção Odontológica Materno-infantil da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. As bases científicas abordam as principais dúvidas do profissional na condução do pré-natal odontológico: uso do exame radiográfico, anestésico local, prescrição de medicamentos, entre outros fatores essenciais no atendimento da gestante. As gestantes assistidas procuraram atendimento apresentando dor de origem dentária. Em dois casos foi diagnosticado pulpite irreversível sintomática, enquanto um terceiro se travava de periodontite apical aguda. Os procedimentos endodônticos foram realizados sob condições controladas e padronizadas, sob supervisão de um professor de Endodontia. O preparo dos canais radiculares foi realizado em sessão única, através de instrumentação mecanizada de cinemática reciprocante (Wave One® Gold Primary (Dentsply Sirona), sendo o comprimento dos canais determinado por meio de localizador foraminal FinePex (Schuster). A obturação dos canais foi realizada pela técnica do cone único com cones do sistema Wave One®. Após o tratamento endodôntico foi realizada blindagem coronária com resina composta cor A2 Z350 XT (3M ESPE). Os cuidados relacionados à condição gestacional estão destacados, sendo que as pacientes permanecem em acompanhamento no projeto. Conclui-se que o uso de localizadores foraminais e da instrumentação mecanizada, utilizando limas reciprocantes associadas à técnica de obturação com cone único padronizado para cada sistema representam avanços para a realização do tratamento endodôntico em pacientes gestantes devido ao menor tempo clínico e maior conforto do procedimento.

4.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(2): 1-14, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1370579

ABSTRACT

Objective: Various glide path preparation techniques have been introduced, providing easiness to the practitioners. Recent literature has shown that glide path preparation influences the levels of postoperative pain occurrence in individuals receiving endodontic therapy. This systematic review aims to compare the different glide path preparation system in reduction of postoperative pain. Material and Methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Scholar, and European PMC were searched for published articles until July 2020. The studies included were randomized control trial (RCT) studies published during this time frame with comparison of continuous glide path system with various other glide path systems in reducing postoperative pain. The studies were reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta­Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The studies were reviewed independently by two reviewers who had assessed the included studies, extracted data and the quality using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Results:544 studies were received from the initial search, 11 articles were included in full text appraisal, 4 studies were obtained for qualitative analysis. Mean VAS Scores showed an increased reduction of postoperative pain in continuous glide path treated individuals (1.90-0.20) compared to reciprocating glide path (2.00-0.50) and manual glide path (3.80-0.85). The consumptions of analgesics were seen to be as follows; Manual Glide Path > Reciprocating Glide Path > Continuous Glide Path. Three out of four studies showed an overall "high" risk of bias and another study showed an overall "unclear" bias. Conclusion: From the achieved results, continuous glide path with 5.25% NaOCl irrigation has shown better reduction of postoperative pain compared to other glide path systems. Individuals who had undergone manual glide path preparation showed higher incidence of postoperative pain compared to other systems. The consumption of analgesics was seen to be higher in manual glide path prepared individuals followed by reciprocating glide path and least being continuous glide path.(AU)


Objetivo: Várias técnicas de preparação do glide path têm sido introduzidas, permitindo maior facilidade aos profissionais. A literatura tem mostrado que a forma de preparação do glide path influencia nos níveis de dor pós-operatória em indivíduos que recebem tratamento endodôntico. Esta revisão sistemática tem como objetivo comparar os diferentes sistemas de preparação do glide path na redução de dor pós-operatória. Material e Métodos: Bases de dados eletrônicas como PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Escolar, e European PMC foram utilizadas para pesquisar artigos publicados até Julho de 2020. Os estudos incluídos foram ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados (ECRC) publicados até este período de tempo que compararam sistema de glide path contínuo com outros sistemas de glide path na redução de dor pós-operatória. Para revisão dos estudos, foi utilizado o 'Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines'. Dois revisores analisaram, independentemente, os estudos incluídos, os dados extraídos e a qualidade através da ferramenta de avaliação de risco de viés da Cochrane. Resultados: 544 estudos foram encontrados na pesquisa inicial, 11 artigos foram selecionados para avaliação de texto completo, 4 estudos foram obtidos para a análise qualitativa. A pontuação média do VAS mostrou um aumento na redução de dor pós-operatória em indivíduos nos quais foi utilizado o sistema de glide path rotatório contínuo (1.90-0.20) quando comparados àqueles nos quais foram utilizados o glide path reciprocante (2.00-0.50) e o glide path manual (3.80-0.85). A utilização de analgésicos foi vista da seguinte forma: Glide path Manual > Glide Path Reciprocante > Glide Path Contínuo. Três dos quatro estudos apresentaram um "alto" risco de viés geral e o outro estudo apresentou risco de viés geral "incerto". Conclusão: O glide path contínuo com irrigração de 5.25% de NaOCl mostrou a melhor redução de dor pós-operatória comparado aos demais sistemas de glide path. Indivíduos que foram submetidos à preparação de glide path pelo sistema manual apresentaram a maior incidência de dor pós-operatória. O consumo de analgésicos foi maior diante do uso do glide path manual, seguido pelo glide path reciprocante, e por último pelo glide path contínuo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pain , Sodium Hypochlorite , Root Canal Preparation , Endodontics , Analgesics
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e21378, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254637

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the apical extrusion of debris in flat-oval canals, using three reciprocating systems at two different working lengths (WL), 0 mm and 1 mm from the apical foramen. Methods: Ninety mandibular incisors were randomly divided into three groups based on the systems: WaveOne Gold #25.07 (WOG), ProDesign R #25.06 (PDR), and X1 Blue #25.06 (X1B). Extruded debris were collected and dried in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. Three consecutive weighings were performed for each tube, and the mean was calculated. If the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance were not met, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the amount of extruded debris between groups with the same WL, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison within groups for each WL. Results: All groups had extruded debris, with higher median values occurring at 1 mm. No significant difference regarding the amount of debris extrusion was observed at 0 mm (p>0.05) and 1 mm (p>0.05) between groups. However, within the groups, at different WL, there was greater extrusion at 1 mm (p<0.05), with PDR differing significantly from the other systems (p<0.05). Conclusion: The extrusion of debris occurred regardless of the group, with higher values at 1 mm. However, using PDR at 1 mm from the apical foramen showed the highest values of extrusion


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Dental Pulp Cavity
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(6): 16-27, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355838

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study assessed the influence of apical preparation size and final irrigation protocol on the debridement of the apical third of oval root canals of mandibular molars. Seventy-seven distal roots were divided into 7 groups (n = 11): Control: without instrumentation or irrigation; Group 30CI: ProTaper Next (up to size 30; PTN) + conventional irrigation (CI); Group 30UAI: PTN + ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI); Group 30XPF: PTN + XP-endo Finisher (XPF); Group 40CI: PTN + ProDesign Logic (up to size 40; PDL) + CI; Group 40UAI: PTN + PDL + UAI; and Group 40XPF: PTN + PDL + XPF. The total volume of irrigating solutions used per root canal in all the experimental groups was 33 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 6 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After specimen processing and histological analysis under a digital microscope (100x), the percentages of untouched canal walls (UCW) and remaining debris (RD) were assessed using Image J software. A descriptive and exploratory analysis was conducted, indicating that the data failed to meet the assumptions of an analysis of variance. Therefore, generalized linear models were used to assess the effects of the different instrumentation and irrigation protocols, as well as the interaction among them, on the percentage of UCW and RD. No significant difference was found among the irrigation protocols regarding the percentage of UCW, irrespective of apical preparation size (p>0.05). However, UCW and RD were significantly lower in groups 40CI, 40UAI and 40XPF than in groups 30CI, 30UAI and 30XPF (p<0.05). The percentage of RD was significantly lower in the UAI and XPF groups than in the CI groups, irrespective of apical preparation size (p<0.05). The difference between preparation sizes 30 and 40, with respect to RD, was higher when CI was used (p<0.05). In conclusion, instrumentation up to apical preparation size 40 resulted in lower percentages of UCW and RD than up to apical preparation size 30. Use of UAI or XPF resulted in lower percentages of RD than CI.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou a influência do tamanho do preparo apical e do protocolo de irrigação final sobre o debridamento do terço apical de canais radiculares ovais de molares inferiores. Setenta e sete raízes distais foram selecionadas e divididas em 7 grupos (n = 11): Grupo controle: sem instrumentação nem irrigação; Grupo 30IC, ProTaper Next (até o tamanho 30; PTN) + irrigação convencional (IC); Grupo 30IAU, PTN + irrigação ativada ultrassonicamente (IAU); Grupo 30XPF, PTN + XP-endo Finisher (XPF); Grupo 40IC, PTN + ProDesign Logic (até o tamanho 40; PDL) + IC; Grupo 40IAU, PTN + PDL + IAU; e Grupo 40XPF, PTN + PDL + XPF. Os volumes totais dos irrigantes utilizados por canal radicular em todos os grupos experimentais foram 33 mL de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) a 2,5% e 6 mL de ácido etilenodiamino tetracético (EDTA) a 17%. Após o processamento dos espécimes e a análise das secções histológicas sob um microscópio digital (100x), as porcentagens de paredes não instrumentadas (PNI) e detritos remanescentes (DR) foram avaliadas utilizando-se o software Image J. Uma análise descritiva e exploratória foi realizada, indicando que os dados não atenderam aos pressupostos de uma análise de variância. Modelos lineares generalizados foram, portanto, utilizados para avaliar os efeitos dos diferentes protocolos de instrumentação e irrigação, bem como da interação entre eles, sobre as porcentagens de PNI e DR. Não houve diferença significativa entre os protocolos de irrigação final quanto à porcentagem de PNI, independentemente do tamanho do preparo apical (p>0,05). Entretanto, as porcentagens de PNI e DR foram significativamente menores nos grupos 40IC, 40IAU e 40XPF do que nos grupos 30IC, 30IAU e 30XPF (p<0,05). A porcentagem de DR foi significativamente menor nos grupos em que se utilizou a IAU ou o XPF do que naqueles em que se utilizou a IC, independentemente do tamanho do preparo apical (p<0,05). A diferença entre os tamanhos de preparo apical 30 e 40 com relação aos DR foi maior quando se utilizou a IC (p<0,05). Concluiu-se que a instrumentação até um preparo apical de tamanho 40 resultou em menores porcentagens de PNI e DR do que até um preparo apical de tamanho 30. A utilização da IAU ou do XPF resultou em uma menor porcentagem de DR do que a utilização da IC.

7.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 34(2): 166-172, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339041

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Adhesively cemented fiber-reinforced composite posts are commonly used to reconstruct endodontically treated teeth. Adhesion to intraradicular dentin is complex, and close contact between the resin cements and the dentin is essential. The removal of the smear layer following post space preparation (secondary smear layer) can improve this integration. Different mechanical systems have been used to activate the irrigant inside the root canal. The purpose of this study was to compare, ex-vivo, the removal of the smear layer from the walls of the immediate post space preparation by the action of three mechanized instruments. Forty premolar specimens with a single root canal were selected, endodontically treated, and shaped for glass fiber post cementation with Peeso reamer #1 (Dentsply Sirona, Switzerland) and Macrolock finishing drill #3 (RTD, France). The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): Group C (control); Group PUI (passive ultrasonic irrigation); Group CEP (Rotoprox brush, Hager Werken, Germany) and Group XP (XP-endo Finisher, FKG Dentaire, Switzerland). Post space surfaces were cleaned with 3mL of distilled water; each specimen root split longitudinally to expose the root canals, and prepared for examination in a scanning electron microscope at magnification 350X. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (p>0.05). RESULTS: Statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were found between Groups C and XP in all three root regions, but not between Groups C, CEP and PIU. Of these, Group CEP showed a better trend in the results of the coronary and middle thirds, without significant difference with Group XP. Although it was difficult to achieve a clean dentin surface after preparation for the fiberglass post, the XP-endo Finisher was the most efficient in removing secondary smear layer, followed by the Rotoprox conical brush.


RESUMEN La fijación adhesiva de postes de fibra es un procedimiento habitual en la rehabilitación de piezas tratadas endodónticamente. La adhesión a dentina radicular resulta compleja, y es fundamental el íntimo contacto entre el medio resinoso y el sustrato dentinario. La eliminación del barro dentinario posterior a la preparación del anclaje intrarradicular podría mejorar esta integración. Para lograr una adecuada limpieza, se han implementado diferentes sistemas mecánicos para la activación del irrigante en el interior del conducto radicular. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar ex-vivo la remoción del barro dentinario de las paredes de la preparación inmediata para poste por acción de tres instrumentos mecanizados. Se utilizaron 40 premolares inferiores unirradiculares tratados endodónticamente y preparados para anclaje intrarradicular con fresa Largo #1 (Dentsply Sirona, Suiza) y fresa piloto del sistema Macrolock Azul (RTD, Francia). Las piezas fueron divididas aleatoriamente en grupos (n=10): GC (control); G PIU (irrigación pasiva ultrasónica); G CEP (cepillo Rotoprox cónico, Hager Werken, Alemania) y G XP (XP-endo Finisher, FKG Dentaire, Suiza). Las preparaciones fueron irrigadas con 3ml de agua destilada; las piezas fueron seccionadas longitudinalmente en sentido proximal, metalizadas y observadas al microscopio electrónico de barrido a 350X. Las imágenes fueron analizadas bajo categorización ordinal y mediante las pruebas de Kruskall - Wallis y Friedman, estableciendo un p<0,05. Existió diferencia significativa (p<0,05) entre el grupo G C y G XP en todos los tercios radiculares, pero no entre G C, G CEP y G PIU. Entre estos grupos, el G CEP marcó una tendencia a mejores resultados en tercio coronario y medio sin diferencia significativa con el G XP. A pesar de la dificultad para lograr una superficie dentinaria limpia luego de preparaciones para poste, el XP- endo Finisher fue el más eficiente en la remoción del barro dentinario secundario, seguido por el cepillo cónico Rotoprox.

8.
Odontol. Clín.-Cient ; 20(3): 79-82, jul.-set. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1372467

ABSTRACT

A periodontite apical assintomática consiste na inflamação e na destruição do periodonto apical em decorrência de uma infecção no sistema de canais radiculares, após a necrose do tecido pulpar. O tratamento proposto para manutenção dos dentes que apresentam essa patologia é o tratamento endodôntico que pode ser realizado em sessão única ou múltiplas sessões. O objetivo desse estudo é relatar um caso clínico de regressão de uma periodontite apical assintomática, no dente 37, realizada em sessão única, com acompanhamento clínico e radiográfico de 60 e 90 dias. O preparo químico- -mecânico foi realizado com o sistema Reciproc blue (25.08 e 40.06) e uso do hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%, como substância química auxiliar. O acompanhamento clínico e radiográfico foi realizado 60 e 90 dias após o procedimento, no qual, foi possível verificar a ausência de sintomatologia dolorosa, edema ou fístula na região da mucosa. A imagem radiolúcida, na região periapical, apresentou uma redução progressiva, sugerindo a evolução do reparo tecidual. Dessa forma, dentes com periodontite apical assintomática, após uma efetiva limpeza química e mecânica, realizados em sessão única, apresentam redução nos sinais clínicos e radiográficos, podendo obter um reparo tecidual... (AU)


Asymptomatic apical periodontitis consists of inflammation and destruction of the apical periodontium due to an infection in the root canal system, after pulp tissue necrosis. The proposed treatment for the maintenance of teeth that present this pathology is endodontic treatment that can be performed in a single session or multiple sessions. The objective of this study is to report a clinical case of regression of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis, in tooth 37, performed in a single session, with clinical and radiographic follow-up for 60 and 90 days. The chemical-mechanical preparation was carried out with the Reciproc blue system (25.08 and 40.06) and the use of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite as an auxiliary chemical. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed 60 and 90 days after the procedure, in which it was possible to verify the absence of painful symptoms, edema or fistula in the mucosa region. The radiolucent image in the periapical region showed a progressive dimensional reduction, suggesting the evolution of tissue repair. Thus, teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis, after an effective chemical and mechanical cleaning, performed in a single session, present a reduction in clinical and radiographic signs, which can lead to tissue repair... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Periapical Periodontitis , Periapical Tissue , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Mucous Membrane
9.
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 72-77, Jan-Apr2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348251

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação é importante para a limpeza adequada no terço apical do canal radicular. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do tipo de agulha e fluxo de irrigação na limpeza do canal radicular e canais laterais simulados e na extrusão apical do irrigante. Métodos: Trinta e dois dentes de resina foram utiliza- dos. Após a instrumentação do canal radicular, foram feitos quatro canais laterais a 2 e 7 mm do ápice. Os canais radiculares foram preenchidos com solução de contraste. Os canais foram irrigados com dois tipos de agulha, 29G e 31G, com diferentes designs (abertura lateral e apical) e dois fluxos (2 ou 5 mL/min), a 1 mm aquém do comprimento de trabalho. O volume da solução de contraste nos canais principal e laterais após irrigação e a extrusão apical do irrigante (mm3 ) foi avaliado por micro-CT, em comparação com a análise inicial. Os dados em porcentagem foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA e Tukey (α=0,05). Resultados: não houve diferença entre os protocolos de irrigação para limpeza da solução de contraste. Maior volume de extrusão apical com agulha 29G com abertura apical e 5 mL/min foi observado, em comparação ao mesmo tipo de agulha e 2 mL/min (p<0,05). Conclusão: Todos os protocolos de irrigação foram associados à limpeza dos canais radiculares. Maior extrusão apical foi observada com agulha 29G ­ abertura apical com maior fluxo de irrigação (5 mL/min). Implicações clínicas: Irrigação endodôntica com agulha com abertura apical e maior fluxo da solução pode favorecer a extrusão dos irrigantes para os tecidos periapicais (AU).


Introduction: needle and irrigation flow rate are important for proper cleaning of the root canal. Aim: to evaluate the influence of type of needle and irrigation flow rate on cleaning of root canal and simulated lateral canals and the apical extrusion of irrigant. Methods: Thirty-two resin teeth were used. After root canal instrumentation, four lateral canals were made at 2 and 7 mm from the apex. Root canals were filled with contrast solution. The root canals were irrigated with two types of needle, 29G and 31G, with different designs (side and apical opening) and two flow rates (2 or 5 mL/min), at 1 mm short of the working length. The volume of the contrast solution in the main and lateral canals after irrigation and apical extrusion of the irrigant (mm3) were evaluated by Micro-CT, in comparison with the initial analysis. Data in percentage were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukeys tests (α = 0.05). Results: no difference among the irrigation protocols for contrast solution cleaning was observed. Higher volume of apical extrusion using needle 29G-apical opening and 5 mL/min in comparison with the same type of needle and 2 mL/min was observed (p < 0.05). Conclusion: all irrigation protocols were associated with root canals cleaning. Greater apical extrusion was observed for needle 29G-apical opening with higher irrigation flow rate (5 mL/min). Clinical implications: endodontic irrigation using a needle with apical opening and higher flow rate of solution may favor extrusion of irrigant to the periapical tissues (AU).


Subject(s)
Periapical Tissue , Root Canal Irrigants , X-Ray Microtomography , Needles , Dental Pulp Cavity , Housekeeping
10.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 34(1): 18-26, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between the roughness of 5 brands of stainless steel endodontic files and their resistance to fracture due to cyclic fatigue. The study includedfive different brands of stainless steel endodontic files: SybroEndo Triple-Flex Files (Kerr, Glendora, USA), Ready Steel K-Flexofile (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Mani Flexile Files (Mani, Tochigi- Ken, Japan), FKG K-Files (FKG, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and Zipperer Flexicut Files (VDW, Munich, Germany). Twelve files per brand (total 60 files) were evaluated. File surface roughness over an area (Sa) was quantified using a focus variation microscope. Then the files were subject to a cyclical fatigue test to determine the number cycles to fracture due to fatigue and length of fractured fragment. Finally, fractographic analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope. The electropolished Ready Steel K-Flexofile® files had the highest roughness according to Sa parameters, though they also had the highest resistance to fracture due to cyclic fatigue and the longest fractured fragment. Moderate positive correlation was found between fractured fragment length and roughness. The fractured surface showed characteristics of ductile fracture with cracks and plastic deformation. The electropolished stainless steel Ready Steel K-Flexofile® files werethe most resistant to fracture due to cyclic fatigue even though they had highest surface roughness.


RESUMEN El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la posible asociación entre la rugosidad de 5 marcas de limas endodónticas de acero inoxidable y su resistencia a la fractura por fatiga cíclica. Se incluyeron cinco grupos diferentes de limas endo-dónticas de acero inoxidable: SybroEndo Triple-Flex Files (Kerr, Glendora, EE. UU.), Ready Steel K-Flexofile (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Suiza), Mani Flexile Files (Mani, Tochigi-Ken, Japón), FKG K-Files (FKG, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Suiza) y Zipperer Flexicut Files (VDW, Munich, Alemania); se evaluaron doce instrumentos por grupo para un total de 60 limas. Mediante un microscopio de variación focal se cuantificó la rugosidad superficial por área (Sa) de los instrumentos, posteriormente fueron sometidos a una prueba de fatiga cíclica donde se determinó el número de ciclos de fractura por fatiga y la longitud del fragmento fracturado. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis fractográfico mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido. Las limas Ready Steel K-Flexofile® con electropulido mostraron el mayor valor de rugosidad en los parámetros Sa; sin embargo, también tenían la mayor resistencia a la fractura por fatiga cíclica y la mayor longitud del fragmento fracturado del instrumento. Además, se encontró una correlación moderada positiva entre la longitud del fragmento fracturado y la rugosidad. La superficie fracturada mostró características de fractura dúctil con grietas y deformación plástica. Las limas Ready Steel K-Flexofile® fabricadas en acero inoxidable con electropulido, fueron más resistentes a la fractura por fatiga cíclica a pesar de tener la mayor rugosidad superficial.

11.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(1): 1-7, feb. 24, 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282565

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the micro-push-out bond strength of a mineral-based root canal sealer, BioRoot RCS in canals prepared by K3XF rotary systems of two different tapers. Material and Methods: Eighty caries free maxillary central incisors were used in this study. The samples were allocated into 4 groups (n=20) according to the root canal sealer and taper of the rotary instruments. The samples were obturated using single cone obturation technique. From each root 1mm thick slices at coronal, middle and apical thirds were collected using hard tissue microtome under continuous water coolant. Push-out tests were done for these sections using a Universal testing machine (INSTRON 8801) at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the bond strengths within groups and Tukey's multiple post hoc analysis was used for pair-wise comparison of bond strengths. Results: AH Plus exhibited higher micro-push-out bond strength than BioRootRCS though they did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Preparation of root canals with 6% taper rotary instruments showed higher bond strength than 4% though they did not differ significantly (p>0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between micro-push-out bond strength values of BioRoot RCS and AH Plus. The bond strength values were high in 6% taper canals than 4% canals though the difference was not significant statistically.


Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la fuerza de unión por micro-expulsión de un sellador de conductos radiculares de base mineral, BioRoot RCS, en conductos preparados por sistemas rotativos K3XF con dos conos diferentes. Material y Métodos: En este estudio se utilizaron 80 incisivos centrales superiores libres de caries. Las muestras se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n = 20) de acuerdo al sellador del conducto radicular y al cono de los instrumentos rotativos. Las muestras se obturaron mediante la técnica de obturación de un solo cono. De cada raíz se recogieron rodajas de 1 mm de grosor en los tercios coronal, medio y apical utilizando un micrótomo de tejido duro con refrigeración continua por agua. Posteriormente, se realizó una prueba de expulsión para estas secciones utilizando una máquina de prueba universal (INSTRON 8801) a una velocidad del cabezal transversal de 1mm/min. Se utilizó el análisis de varianza unidireccional (ANOVA) para comparar las resistencias de la unión dentro de los grupos y el análisis post hoc multiple de Tukey se utilizó para la comparación por pares de las resistencias de la unión. Resultados: AH Plus exhibió una fuerza de unión de micro-expulsión más alta que BioRootRCS, aunque no difirieron significativamente (p>0,05). La preparación de los conductos radiculares con instrumentos rotativos ahusados al 6% mostró una fuerza de unión superior al 4%, aunque no difirieron significativamente (p>0,05). Conclusión: No hubo diferencias significativas entre los valores de fuerza de unión de micro-expulsión de BioRoot RCS y AH Plus. Los valores de la fuerza de unión fueron más altos en canales cónicos al 6% que en canales al 4%, aunque la diferencia no fue significativa estadísticamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Root Canal Obturation/methods , Dentin-Bonding Agents , Flexural Strength , Resins, Synthetic , Analysis of Variance , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Minerals
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837457

ABSTRACT

@#Root canal isthmus(RCI) is defined as a narrow, ribbon-shaped communication between two root canals that contains pulp or tissue derived from pulp. Any root that contains two or more root canals has the potential to contain an isthmus. The incidence of RCI from different tooth positions varies, with the highest RCI incidences usually found in the mesial root of the mandibular first molar and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar. The presence of RCI increases the difficulty of root canal therapy and introduces uncertainty regarding the prognosis for dental treatment. It is recommended to use CBCT and dental microscopy to identify teeth with suspected RCI in clinical practice. At the same time, for treatment of teeth with RCI, appropriate instruments should be selected, and enhanced root canal irrigation assisted by ultrasound should be considered to improve the success rate of root canal treatment and endodontic root-end surgery. The current technology still has some limitations regarding the cleaning and filling of RCI and additional research and development. Improvement of the corresponding technology and equipment is a current research hotspot and a future research direction.

13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143396

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the impact of distinctive instrumentation systems of the root canals on the endotoxin lessening through the root canals. Material and Methods: From the electronic databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google Scholar have been used to perform a systematic literature review between 2015 and 2020. Therefore, a software program (Endnote X9) has been utilized for managing electronic titles. Searches were performed with keywords, "root canal," "instrumentation," "endotoxin," "root canal preparation," "biofilm" "endodontics," and "lipopolysaccharide." This systematic review has been conducted on the basis of the key consideration of the PRISMA Statement-Preferred Reporting Items for the Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Results: Hence, 163 potentially important abstracts and research topics have been discovered by electronic searches and three studies (3 RCTs) have been included. According to the outputs, any statistically significant differences have been not found between the rotary files and reciprocation (SMD 0.51, 95% CI [0.11, 0.90], p=0.011) (I2 = 49.5%; p=0.138). Conclusion: Analyses indicated that instrumentation methods decreased the content of endotoxin from the root canals.


Subject(s)
Lipopolysaccharides , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Iran
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20200998, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286921

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of using gel and solution forms of NaOCI during the chemomechanical preparation of the root canals on postoperative pain at different time intervals. Methodology 114 patients with mandibular molar teeth and symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were included in the study. All patients were divided into two groups based on the irrigant used during root canal preparation (n=57): Group 1, 5.25% NaOCI, Group 2, 5.25% NaOCI gel. All groups were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus root canal sealer using single-cone technique. VAS scale (1-10) was used for postoperative pain assessment. After endodontic treatment, all patients were asked to record their postoperative pain levels at the 6th, 24th, 48th, 72nd hours, and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using Chi-Squared, Independent Samples T, Cochran Q and Friedman tests. Results Statistically significant difference was not found between the distributions of pain levels at different times according to the groups (p>0.050). A statistically significant difference was observed between the distributions of pain levels measured at different times in the solution group (p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of pain levels measured at different times in the gel group (p<0.001). In both groups, highest postoperative pain levels occurred in the first 6 hours. Pain levels of the gel group as 38,5% mild, 17.3% moderate, 5.8% severe and pain levels of the solution group were obtained as 46.2% mild, 26.9% moderate, 9.6% severe at the 6th hour. Conclusions The use of the gel form of NaOCI during the chemomechanical preparation of the root canals showed similar postoperative pain when compared to the solution form.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials , Sodium Hypochlorite , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Root Canal Obturation , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp , Dental Pulp Cavity , Molar
15.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e003, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132743

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The present study investigated the intracanal decontamination and apical extrusion of bacteria and debris from root canals instrumented with rotary and reciprocating systems (ProDesign Logic or ProDesign R), with different file diameters and using conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Eighty extracted mandibular premolars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and randomly assigned to eight experimental groups according to the root canal instrumentation and irrigation technique employed (n = 10): G1: Prodesign Logic 25.06; G2: Prodesign R 25.06; G3 and G4 were instrumented with the same single-file systems, respectively, using 35.05 diameters and CSI. G5, G6, G7, and G8 were instrumented like the previous groups, but with PUI. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed microtubes. The weight of the empty microtube was subtracted from the final weight to establish the amount of extruded debris. Bacteria from root canals and extruded debris were collected for a microbiological evaluation of colony forming units (CFU/mL). For statistical analyses, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn's tests were used (α = 0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris. For irrigation techniques, PUI promoted greater debris and bacterial extrusion (p < 0.05). The CFU/mL count indicated that the instrumentation of the experimental groups were equally effective in the decontamination of the root canal (p > 0.05). The systems tested (regarding file diameter and kinematics) were associated with similar amounts of apically extruded debris and root canal decontamination. PUI was associated with greater debris and bacterial extrusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Ultrasonics , Biomechanical Phenomena , Decontamination , Dental Pulp Cavity
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e008, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132748

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on the evaluation of debris accumulation after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in curved root canals prepared with rotary nickel-titanium files. Mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars with curvature between 25° and 35° were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). PUI was performed after root canal preparation of all root canals. The specimens were scanned using high-resolution (5 μm voxel size) micro-CT imaging before and after experimental procedures. The percentage of debris was analyzed in the middle and apical thirds using images with 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel sizes. Data were compared using unpaired and paired Student's t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests (α = 0.05). There were no differences among the debris analyses performed at different voxel sizes (5, 10 and 20 μm) (p > 0.05). The percentage of debris was similar between the root canals prepared by PDL and HEDM before and after PUI (p > 0.05). In both groups, the percentage of debris decreased in the middle third after PUI (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, it can be concluded that the voxel sizes evaluated did not have a significant impact on the analysis of accumulated debris. However, the results showed a tendency for detection of more debris in the analysis performed using a lower voxel size. PUI decreased the debris accumulation in the middle third of curved root canals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e064, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1249380

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci's type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Preparation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Biomechanical Phenomena , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography , Molar/diagnostic imaging
18.
Arq. odontol ; 57: 199-207, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348086

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar o aumento percentual da área da secção reta transversal de canais radiculares, no nível de 3 mm aquém do ápice radicular, após instrumentação com dois sistemas de instrumento único. Métodos: Dezenove primeiros molares inferiores extraídos tiveram as raízes mesiais seccionadas no nível de 3 mm aquém do ápice radicular, sendo os 2 milímetros finais de cada raiz removidos e descartados, para proceder a mensuração da área pré-operatória, através de estereomicroscopia. As raízes foram instrumentadas com os sistemas SAF e Reciproc R25.08 e procedeu-se nova mensuração para comparação do aumento percentual da área. O aumento percentual da área da secção reta transversal foi comparado e analisado estatisticamente pelo teste t de Student. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (p < 0,05). Resultados: O aumento percentual da área dos canais foi significativamente maior para o grupo Reciproc (p = 0,001) em comparação com o grupo SAF. Os canais instrumentados com o sistema SAF tiveram sua área aumentada em média 53,5%, enquanto que nos instrumentados com o sistema Reciproc a média foi 154,5%. Conclusão: O sistema Reciproc proporcionou um aumento percentual da área da secção reta transversal dos canais radiculares, no nível dos 3 mm apicais, 3 vezes maior que o sistema SAF.


Aim: To compare the percentage increase in the cross-sectional area of root canals, at the level of 3 mm from the root apex after instrumentation with two single instrument systems. Methods: The roots of 19 extracted mandibular first molars were sectioned 3 mm short of the apex level, with the final 2 millimeters of each root removed and discarded in order to enable the preoperative area to be measured by stereomicroscopy. Subsequently, the roots were instrumented with the SAF and Reciproc 25/.08 systems, alternating the technique used per canal from root to root, and a new measurement was performed. After, the percentage increase in area was calculated considering the values of the original and the final area. The Student'st-test was applied to the results, with a level of significance set at 5%. Results: The percentage increase in area of the root canals was significantly higher for the Reciproc (p = 0.001) when compared to the SAF group. In the canals instrumented with the SAF system, the mean increase in area was 53.5%, while in those using the Reciproc system, it was 154.5%. Conclusion:The Reciproc system produced a 3-fold higher percentage increase in the cross-sectional area of the root canals at the level of 3 mm from the root apex than did the SAF system.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Root/surgery , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/surgery , Dental Instruments
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e074, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339459

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the influence of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) voxel size on dentinal microcrack detection after root canal preparation using rotary heat-treated nickel-titanium files. Curved mesial root canals (n = 24) of mandibular molars were prepared using ProDesign Logic 30/.05 (PDL) or HyFlex EDM 25/.08 (HEDM). The specimens were scanned by micro-CT at 5 μm voxel size before and after root canal preparation. The percentage of microcracks was evaluated in images at 5, 10 and 20 μm voxel size, by two examiners at two moments. The Kappa and McNemar tests (α = 0.05) were used. The percentage of dentinal microcracks was similar before and after PDL and HEDM preparations, at 10 and 20 μm (p > 0.05). HEDM showed a higher percentage of dentinal microcracks in the middle third at 5 μm after preparation (p < 0.05). The detection of dentinal microcracks before and after instrumentation using PDL was more accurate at 5 μm than at 20 μm, in all thirds (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this ex vivo study, as expected, the results showed that different resolutions influence the micro-CT analysis of microcracks. The highest accuracy in detecting microcracks was observed for analyses performed at 5 μm voxel size. HyFlex EDM caused even more microcracks to develop in the middle third, detectable only by visualization of images made at 5 μm voxel size.

20.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1337652

ABSTRACT

Objective: Various glide path preparation techniques have been introduced, providing easiness to the practitioners. Recent literature has shown that glide path preparation influences the levels of postoperative pain occurrence in individuals receiving endodontic therapy. This systematic review aims to compare the different glide path preparation system in reduction of postoperative pain. Material and Methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Scholar, and European PMC were searched for published articles until July 2020. The studies included were randomized control trial (RCT) studies published during this time frame with comparison of continuous glide path system with various other glide path systems in reducing postoperative pain. The studies were reviewed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The studies were reviewed independently by two reviewers who had assessed the included studies, extracted data and the quality using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Results: 544 studies were received from the initial search, 11 articles were included in full text appraisal, 4 studies were obtained for qualitative analysis. Mean VAS Scores showed an increased reduction of postoperative pain in continuous glide path treated individuals (1.90-0.20) compared to reciprocating glide path (2.00-0.50) and manual glide path (3.80-0.85) The consumptions of analgesics were seen to be as follows: Manual Glide Path > Reciprocating Glide Path > Continuous Glide Path. Three out of four studies showed an overall "high" risk of bias and another study showed an overall "unclear" bias. Conclusion: From the achieved results, continuous glide path with 5.25% NaOCl irrigation has shown better reduction of postoperative pain compared to other glide path systems. Individuals who had undergone manual glide path preparation showed higher incidence of postoperative pain compared to other systems. The consumption of analgesics was seen to be higher in manual glide path prepared individuals followed by reciprocating glide path and least being continuous glide path (AU)


Objetivo: Várias técnicas de preparação do glide path têm sido introduzidas, permitindo maior facilidade aos profissionais. A literatura tem mostrado que a forma de preparação do glide path influencia nos níveis de dor pós-operatória em indivíduos que recebem tratamento endodôntico. Esta revisão sistemática tem como objetivo comparar os diferentes sistemas de preparação do glide path na redução de dor pós-operatória. Material e Métodos: Bases de dados eletrônicas como PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Google Escolar, e European PMC foram utilizadas para pesquisar artigos publicados até Julho de 2020. Os estudos incluídos foram ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados (ECRC) publicados até este período de tempo que compararam sistema de glide path contínuo com outros sistemas de glide path na redução de dor pós-operatória. Para revisão dos estudos, foi utilizado o 'Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines'. Dois revisores analisaram, independentemente, os estudos incluídos, os dados extraídos e a qualidade através da ferramenta de avaliação de risco de viés da Cochrane. Resultados: 544 estudos foram encontrados na pesquisa inicial, 11 artigos foram selecionados para avaliação de texto completo, 4 estudos foram obtidos para a análise qualitativa. A pontuação média do VAS mostrou um aumento na redução de dor pós-operatória em indivíduos nos quais foi utilizado o sistema de glide path rotatório contínuo (1.90-0.20) quando comparados àqueles nos quais foram utilizados o glide path reciprocante (2.00-0.50) e o glide path manual (3.80-0.85). A utilização de analgésicos foi vista da seguinte forma: Glide path Manual > Glide Path Reciprocante > Glide Path Contínuo. Três dos quatro estudos apresentaram um "alto" risco de viés geral e o outro estudo apresentou risco de viés geral "incerto". Conclusão: O glide path contínuo com irrigração de 5.25% de NaOCl mostrou a melhor redução de dor pós-operatória comparado aos demais sistemas de glide path. Indivíduos que foram submetidos à preparação de glide path pelo sistema manual apresentaram a maior incidência de dor pós-operatória. O consumo de analgésicos foi maior diante do uso do glide path manual, seguido pelo glide path reciprocante, e por último pelo glide path contínuo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pain , Sodium Hypochlorite , Root Canal Preparation , Endodontics , Analgesics
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