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1.
Infectio ; 26(2): 149-155, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356261

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Colombia, the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis varies throughout its regions, social classes, and living conditions. We performed a cohort study (2017-2018) on children from 1-10 years old in El Cedro, Ayapel, Colombia. We tested a convenience sampling of those who accepted and signed the consent form. The National Intestinal Parasite Survey was applied; feces and water source sampling were tested for coprological and microbiology analysis, respectively. Education and pharmacologic treatment to the minor and co-inhabitants were performed. After the recruiting, we followed up at 7 and 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM® SPSS22. Participants 47, 61,7% male, average age 5,7 years. The caretakers had a low educational background. The monthly income of 72,3% of households was < USD 87. The coprological test showed 61,7% with at least one type of parasite; 32,2% with two or more. Trichuris trichiura was the most frequent. Water sources were positive for Escherichia coli. The population tested showed a high frequency of parasitic infection. We did not find a reduction of intestinal parasitosis with educa tion and pharmacologic treatment at the end of the follow-up. It must be necessary to impact social determinants of public health to achieve intestinal parasitosis control.


Resumen En Colombia, la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal varía por regiones, clases sociales, condiciones de vida. Realizamos estudio de cohorte (2017-2018) en niños de 1-10 años en El Cedro, Ayapel, Colombia. Muestra por conveniencia, se incluyeron aquellos que aceptaron y firmaron el consentimiento. Se aplicó la Encuesta Nacional de Parásitos Intestinales; se analizaron muestras de heces y fuentes de agua para análisis coprológico y microbiológico, respectivamente. Se realizó educación y tratamiento farmacológico al menor y cohabitantes. Después del reclutamiento, seguimiento a los 7 y 12 meses. El análisis estadístico se realizó con IBM® SPSS22. Participantes 47, 61,7% hombres, promedio de edad 5,7 años. Cuidadores con bajo nivel educativo, ingreso mensual del 72,3% de los hogares fue <USD 87. La población analizada mostró una alta frecuencia de infección parasitaria, un 61,7% con al menos un tipo de parásito; 32,2% con dos o más. Trichuris trichiura fue el más frecuente. Las fuentes de agua fueron positivas para Escherichia coli. Al final del seguimiento, no se redujo la frecuencia de la parasitosis intestinal a pesar de educación y tratamiento farmacológico. Se requiere incidir en los determinantes sociales y de salud pública para lograr el control de las parasitosis intestinales.

2.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(288): 7814-7825, maio.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372437

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender as barreiras no acesso aos serviços de saúde por residentes de comunidades rurais. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada no período de agosto a novembro de 2021, nas bases de dados Scientific Eletronic Library Online, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online e ScienceDirect. Resultados: A busca nas bases de dados resultou em um total de 44 artigos selecionados. Aplicados os critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foi elencado para análise, o total de 21 artigos os quais foram lidos na íntegra. Destes, 3 foram excluídos, pois não contemplaram o objeto abordado e 18 artigos foram selecionados para integrar este estudo. Conclusão: Foi possível compreender a estrutura de acesso aos serviços de saúde primários pela população residente de comunidades rurais, identificando as barreiras e dificuldades enfrentadas, permite prover e pensar em estratégias que minimizem os impactos sobre a saúde desta população(AU)


Objective: to understand the barriers in accessing health services by residents of rural communities. Method: This is an integrative literature review, carried out from August to November 2021, in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and ScienceDirect databases. Results: The search in the databases resulted in a total of 44 selected articles. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 21 articles were listed for analysis, which were read in full. Of these, 3 were excluded, as they did not contemplate the object addressed and 18 articles were selected to integrate this study. Conclusion: It was possible to understand the structure of access to primary health services by the population residing in rural communities, identifying the barriers and difficulties faced, allowing to provide and think of strategies that minimize the impacts on the health of this population(AU)


Objetivo: comprender las barreras en el acceso a los servicios de salud por parte de los habitantes de las comunidades rurales. Método: Se trata de una revisión integrativa de la literatura, realizada de agosto a noviembre de 2021, en las bases de datos Scientific Electronic Library Online, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online y ScienceDirect. Resultados: La búsqueda en las bases de datos arrojó un total de 44 artículos seleccionados. Después de aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se listaron para su análisis un total de 21 artículos, los cuales fueron leídos en su totalidad. De estos, 3 fueron excluidos, por no contemplar el objeto abordado y 18 artículos fueron seleccionados para integrar este estudio. Conclusión: Fue posible comprender la estructura de acceso a los servicios primarios de salud por parte de la población residente en las comunidades rurales, identificando las barreras y dificultades enfrentadas, permitiendo brindar y pensar estrategias que minimicen los impactos en la salud de esta población(AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Rural Population , Rural Planning , Holistic Health
3.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e9808, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368492

ABSTRACT

O adoecimento pode revelar impactos e consequências das desigualdades sociais, econômicas e culturais. Avaliar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo HIV, Hepatites B e C e Sífilis e o comportamento sexual dos moradores do Projeto de Assentamento Nova Amazônia (PANA). Trata-se de estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo, quantitativo e qualitativo, envolvendo 246 moradores do PANA, realizado entre novembro de 2019 e setembro de 2020. Foi aplicado um questionário e realizados testes rápidos para HIV 1 e 2, Sífilis e Hepatites B e C. Foi possível observar a prevalência de 4,1% para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, estando associada estatisticamente com ser do gênero masculino (p = 0,04), ter mais de 40 anos (p = 0,003) e ter se relacionado com mais de 10 parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida (p = 0,03). Devido à identificação de condutas sexuais de risco, como baixíssima adesão ao uso do preservativo, faz-se necessária a realização de diagnóstico precoce e monitoramento de novos casos.


The illness can reveals impacts and consequences of social, economic and cultural inequalities. To evaluate the seroprevalence of HIV infection, Hepatitis B and C and Syphilis and sexual behavior of residents of the Nova Amazônia Settlement Project (PANA). Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative and qualitative study, involving 246 residents of PANA, carried out between November 2019 and September 2020. A questionnaire was applied and rapid tests were performed for HIV 1 and 2, Syphilis and Hepatitis B and C. A prevalence of 4.1% for sexually transmitted diseases was observed, statistically associated with being male (p = 0.04), being over 40 years old (p = 0.003) and having been related with more than 10 sexual partners throughout life (p = 0.03). Due to the identification of risky sexual behaviors, such as very low adherence to condom use, it is necessary to perform an early diagnosis and monitor new cases.

4.
Saúde debate ; 46(132): 148-162, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361146

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este estudo caracteriza condições de vida e situação de saúde das famílias que vivem da agricultura familiar e da pesca artesanal no sertão cearense. Trata-se de pesquisa descritiva quantitativa e delineamento transversal realizada mediante entrevistas com 152 agricultores(as) familiares e/ou pescadores(as) artesanais em Novo Oriente, Ceará, Brasil. A análise estatística foi realizada com frequência absoluta e relativa, média aritmética e desvio-padrão. Observaram-se algumas vulnerabilidades vivenciadas pelas famílias: 19,5% (n=29) com deficiência no tratamento da água para consumo, 25,7% (n=39) relataram existência de problemas ambientais, 26,6% (n=40) apresentando insatisfatória produção familiar, 34,6% (n=47) com baixa renda familiar, 75% (n=114) com inexistência na localidade de escolas e 88,2% (n=134) de creches, 51,3% (n=78) com carência de opções de lazer e 37,5% (n=57) em insegurança alimentar. Na análise da situação de saúde, destaca-se prevalência de doenças crônicas, como cardiovasculares e mentais. Essa realidade é contraditória com as metas propostas pelos Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável: fome zero; boa saúde e bem-estar; educação de qualidade; água limpa e saneamento; emprego digno e crescimento econômico; redução das desigualdades. Dessa forma, as ações de saúde não podem se desvincular dessas iniquidades, devendo-se buscar uma articulação entre governos, empresas e cidadãos para alcançar as metas da Agenda 2030.


ABSTRACT This study characterizes the living conditions and health situation of families who live from family farming and artisanal fishing in hinterlands of Ceará. This is a descriptive quantitative research and cross-sectional design conducted through interviews with 152 family farmers and / or artisanal fishermen in Novo Oriente, Ceará, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed with absolute and relative frequency, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. Some vulnerabilities experienced by the families were observed: 19.5% (n=29) with a deficiency in the treatment of drinking water, 25.7% (n=39) reported the existence of environmental problems, 26.6% (n=40) showing unsatisfactory family production, 34.6% (n=47) with low family income, 75% (n=114) with no schools in the locality and 88.2% (n=134) of day care centers, 51.3% ( n=78) with a lack of leisure options, and 37.5% (n=57) with food insecurity. Prevalence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and mental, stands out. This reality is contradictory with the goals proposed by the SDG: zero hunger; good health and welfare; quality education; clean water and sanitation; decent employment and economic growth; reduction of inequalities. Thus, health actions cannot be separated from these inequities, and a link between governments, companies, and citizens must be sought to achieve the goals of the 2030 Agenda.

5.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 185-189, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920583

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the relationship between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of junior middle school students in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, and to provide a reference for specific strategies for healthy eating behavior.@*Methods@#Stratified cluster random sampling was used to investigate the health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of 4 311 students in grades 7 to 8 from 50 middle schools in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, the relationship between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior was analyzed by Chi square test and Logistic regression.@*Results@#Health literacy of junior middle school students in rural areas (≥58 points) was 18.21%. Prevalence of unhealthy eating behavior was relatively high, among which irregular three meal time was the highest (62.33%), followed by high consumption of sugar sweetened beverage, insufficient dairy products consumption, breakfast skipping ever day and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 54.60%, 50.38 %, 36.23% and 19.53%, respectively. The risk of irregular meal time ( OR =1.35, 95% CI =1.11-1.65), breakfast skipping every day ( OR = 1.23 , 95% CI =1.01-1.49), insufficient dairy products consumption ( OR =1.29, 95% CI =1.07-1.55), insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables ( OR =1.45, 95% CI =1.10-1.92) and high consumption of sugar sweetened beverage ( OR =1.39, 95% CI = 1.15 -1.68) was higher than students with high health literacy ( P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#There is a correlation between health literacy and unhealthy eating behavior of junior middle school students in rural areas of Jiangxi Province, schools, families, governments and relevant departments can improve the health literacy level of junior high school students to improve their unhealthy eating behavior, so as to improve the health status of junior high school students.

6.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 203-208, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To provide re ference for accurate measurem ent of population health status ,pharmacoeconomic evaluation and guidance of health resource allocation. METHODS Using quota and convenient sampling ,five administrative villages were selected from the rural areas under the jurisdiction of Liuzhi special zone ,Qianxi city and Jianhe county of Guizhou province from July to September 2020. Based on the gender and age ratio quota of rural population in the results of the national census,330 respondents were selected for questionnaire survey. The contents of the questionnaire included the self-made scale containing sociodemographic characteristics and general health information ,five-level EuroQoL five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L,hereinafter referred to as the “new dimension scale ”)with cognitive dimensions (including attention ,memory, computing ability and learning ability )and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). The effects of reliability ,validity and new dimensions of new dimension scale on respond ents’quality of life were investigate ,and its measurement characteristics were verified;the application value of it in pharmacoeconomic hy_cheer@126.com evaluation and guiding the allocation of health resources were explored. RESULTS A total of 330 questionnaires weredistributed,320 were recovered and 320 were effective. The recovery rate and effective rate were 96.97% and 100% respectively. The ceiling effect of new dimension scale was 13.44%,the split-half reliability was 0.821,and the overall Cronbach ’s α was 0.852. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the new dimension scale was loaded with physiological ,cognitive and psychological factors ,and the cumulative contribution rate was 69.35%. The correlation coefficient between the new dimension and the dimension of MMSE scale were 0.19-0.61,showing a moderate or medium to strong correlation (P<0.01). Compared with EQ- 5D-5L,after adding each dimension ,the interpretation ability of the regression model was improved by 5.00%-17.50%. CONCLUSIONS The new dimension scale has high feasibility ,good reliability and validity ,significantly reduces the ceiling effect of EQ- 5D-5L,has higher sensitivity to the evaluation of people ’s quality of life,and can better evaluate the quality of life of rural population. It is suggested that it can be applied for quality of life evaluation,intervention effect analysis and related economic evaluation.

7.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 12: e14, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1371458

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as situações de vulnerabilidade e de proteção vivenciadas por mulheres com deficiência em contexto rural. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, realizado com dez mulheres com deficiência residentes em áreas rurais de cinco municípios das regiões norte e noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As entrevistas ocorreram nos domicílios nos meses de janeiro a junho de 2019. O material empírico foi gravado, transcrito e submetido à análise temática de conteúdo. Resultados: as vulnerabilidades desveladas foram: restrições de responsabilidade, educação, trabalho, renda, autonomia e benefício social. Quanto às condições potencializadoras de proteção às vulnerabilidades, observaram-se vínculos fortes com a Estratégia Saúde da Família Rural e a Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais e recebimento do Benefício de Prestação Continuada. Conclusão: ações de equipes de saúde rural articuladas na rede de atenção auxiliam na superação de fragilidades de mulheres com deficiência.


Objective: to analyze the situations of vulnerability and protection experienced by women with disabilities in the rural context. Method: qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study, carried out with ten women with disabilities living in rural areas of five municipalities in the north and northwest regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The interviews took place in the households from January to June 2019. The empirical material was recorded, transcribed and subjected to thematic content analysis. Results: the revealed vulnerabilities were: restrictions on responsibility, education, work, income, autonomy and social benefit. As for the conditions improving the protection against vulnerabilities, strong links were observed with the Rural Family Health Strategy and the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children, besides the receipt of the Continuous Cash Benefit. Conclusion: actions of rural health teams articulated in the care network help to overcome the weaknesses of women with disabilities.


Objetivo: analizar las situaciones de vulnerabilidad y protección que viven las mujeres con discapacidad en el contexto rural. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, realizado con diez mujeres con discapacidad residentes en áreas rurales de cinco ayuntamientos de las regiones norte y noroeste de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Las entrevistas tuvieron lugar en los hogares de enero a junio de 2019. El material empírico fue grabado, transcrito y sometido al análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: las vulnerabilidades reveladas fueron: restricciones de responsabilidad, educación, trabajo, ingreso, autonomía y beneficio social. En cuanto a las condiciones que potencian la protección contra las vulnerabilidades, se observaron fuertes vínculos con la Estrategia de Salud Familiar Rural y la Asociación de Padres y Amigos de los Excepcionales, además de la recepción del Beneficio de la Provisión Continua. Conclusión: las acciones de los equipos de salud rural articuladas en la red de atención ayudan a superar las debilidades de las mujeres con discapacidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Population , Women's Health , Disabled Persons , Gender and Health , Health Vulnerability
8.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e200179, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360807

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to verify the association between rural characteristics and the nutritional status of adolescents from the rural area of Macaé, a municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on secondary anthropometric data, collected at the Macaé Municipal Department of Education between 2013 and 2014. The database refers to the total number of adolescents in the only high school in the rural area of the city. Poisson logistic regression was performed, having excess weight (overweight or obesity- Body Mass Index-for-age equal to or greater than one Z-score) as the dependent variable, used dichotomously. The independent variables were sex, socioeconomic status and three "yes or no" variables that express rural characteristics. Results The adolescents (total=109) were between 14 and 18 years old (mean=16.6 years), 64.2% were girls, 52.3% had vegetable gardens or orchards in their household, 19.4% had animal breeding for consumption purposes and 17.6% had parents/guardians working in the agricultural sector. The prevalence of excess weight was 18.0% in boys and 20.0% in girls. Having a garden/orchard implied a significantly higher chance of having excess weight, both in the bivariate analysis and in the sex-adjusted model (Prevalence Ratio=2.95; Confidence Interval=1.17-7.44). Conclusions Based on a significant association at the municipal level, the results highlight nutritional differences between local and large-scale studies, as well as variations within the same rural area. These findings point out the need to evaluate rural aspects in more detail in studies on underlying determinants of nutritional status.


RESUMO Objetivo Este trabalho visou verificar a associação entre as características rurais e o estado nutricional de adolescentes da zona rural do município de Macaé, RJ. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal com dados antropométricos secundários, coletados no âmbito da Secretaria Municipal de Educação de Macaé entre 2013 e 2014. A base de dados refere-se ao total de adolescentes da única escola de ensino médio do meio rural da cidade. Fez-se regressão logística de Poisson, tendo o excesso de peso (sobrepeso ou obesidade - Índice de massa-corporal-para-idade igual ou maior que um escore-Z) como variável resposta, usada de forma dicotômica. As variáveis independentes foram: sexo, situação socioeconômica e três variáveis "sim ou não", que expressam características rurais. Resultados Os adolescentes (total=109) tinham idade entre 14 e 18 anos (média=16,6 anos); 64,2% eram meninas, 52,3% apresentavam com horta ou pomar em seus domicílios, 19,4% possuíam criação de animais para fins de consumo e 17,6% tinham pais/responsáveis com ocupação agrícola. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi 18,0% nos meninos e 20,0% nas meninas. Ter horta/pomar implicou em significativa maior chance de excesso de peso, tanto na análise bivariada quanto no modelo ajustado por sexo (Razão de Prevalência=2,95; Intervalo de Confiança=1,17-7,44). Conclusão Com base em uma associação significativa em nível municipal, os resultados ressaltam diferenças nutricionais entre estudos locais e de maior âmbito, bem como variações dentro de uma mesma área rural. Estes achados apontam a necessidade de se avaliar mais detalhadamente aspectos rurais em estudos sobre determinantes causais do estado nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Rural Population , Nutritional Status , Feeding Behavior , Adolescent , Overweight
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e58317, jan.-dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353630

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o atendimento a usuárias de álcool, em um serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde, na percepção das mulheres rurais. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, exploratório, cujos dados foram obtidos mediante entrevistas realizadas entre março e agosto de 2018, com 23 mulheres adultas em uso abusivo de álcool, moradoras em áreas rurais de um município da região Centro Ocidental do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise Temática, balizada pela teoria Bioecológica de Desenvolvimento Humano. Resultados: as abordagens em saúde estão majoritariamente centradas na medicalização e na clínica ginecológica, sem reconhecer o consumo abusivo de álcool como um problema que também acometem as mulheres. Conclusão: se faz necessário a reorientação do modelo de atenção à saúde no contexto do consumo de álcool entre mulheres rurais, por meio da restruturação de abordagens à saúde que priorizam a clínica ampliada.


Objective: to analyze care provided, in a Primary Health Care service, to rural women who use alcohol, as perceived by the women. Methods: in this exploratory, qualitative, descriptive study, data were obtained between March and August 2018, through interviews of 23 adult women who made abusive use of alcohol and lived in rural areas of a municipality in the CentreWest of Rio Grande do Sul. The data were subjected to Thematic Analysis, guided by the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. Results: health approaches focused mostly on medicalization and clinical gynecology, and not to recognize alcohol abuse as a problem that also affects women. Conclusion: it is necessary to reorient the health care model for the context of alcohol consumption among rural women, by restructuring health approaches that prioritize the expanded clinic.


Objetivo: analizar la atención brindada a usuarias de alcohol, en un servicio de Atención Primaria de Salud, en la percepción de las mujeres rurales. Métodos: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, cuyos datos se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas realizadas entre marzo y agosto de 2018, junto a 23 mujeres adultas que hacían un uso abusivo de alcohol, que viven en áreas rurales de un municipio en la región centro occidental de Rio Grande do Sul. Se sometieron los datos a Análisis Temático, fundamentado sobre la Teoría Bioecológica del Desarrollo Humano. Resultados: los enfoques de salud se centran, principalmente, en la medicalización y la clínica ginecológica, sin reconocer el consumo abusivo del alcohol como un problema que también afecta a las mujeres. Conclusión: es necesario reorientar el modelo de atención de salud en el contexto del consumo de alcohol entre las mujeres rurales, a través de la reestructuración de los enfoques de salud que prioricen la clínica ampliada.

10.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(4): 530-536, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365920

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRC) en una población rural expuesta al arsénico (As) en el agua de consumo en la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Materiales y métodos. Participaron 352 habitantes adultos. Se midió el consumo de arsénico en agua de bebida y se evaluó la presión arterial, el tabaquismo, el consumo de alcohol de riesgo y perjudicial, la ingesta de sal, la actividad física, el índice de masa corporal, la glucemia y la dislipidemia. El riesgo cardiovascular fue calculado usando el score de Framingham. Resultados. Se dividió la población en Grupo Expuesto (GE) n=90 y Grupo No Expuesto (GNE) n=262. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue 48,9 y 51,1%; tabaquismo 31,1 y 39,7%; consumo de alcohol de riesgo 22,2 y 17,9%; perjudicial 36,6 y 36,6%; ingesta de sal 100 y 100%; actividad física 16,7 y 18,7%; sobrepeso 43,3 y 43,9%; obesidad 25,5 y 25,6%; diabetes 24,4 y 32,8%; y dislipidemia 58,9 y 66,4%. El score de riesgo bajo, moderado o alto fue 50; 21,1; y 28,9% para GE, y 54,6; 19,1 y 26,3% para GNE, respectivamente. Conclusiones. La exposición al As no afecta la prevalencia de FRC. Se identifica una población rural en situación de vulnerabilidad con elevados FRC. La Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo no refleja lo que ocurre en zonas rurales. La escala de Framingham concuerda con los FRC encontrados. Se requiere la implementación de políticas de promoción de salud que permita mejorar el pronóstico de sufrir eventos cardiovasculares a corto y mediano plazo.


ABSTRACT Objective. To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) in a rural population exposed to arsenic (As) in drinking water in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. Materials and methods. A total of 352 adult inhabitants participated. Consumption of arsenic in drinking water was measured. Blood pressure, smoking, risk and harmful alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity, body mass index, glycemia and dyslipidemia were evaluated. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham score. Results. The population was divided into Exposed Group (EG) n=90 and Non-Exposed Group (NEG) n=262. The prevalence of hypertension was 48.9 and 51.1% in each group, respectively; for smoking it was 31.1 and 39.7%; for risky alcohol consumption, 22.2 and 17.9%; for harmful alcohol consumption, 36.6 and 36.6%; for salt intake, 100 and 100%; for physical activity, 16.7 and 18.7%; for being overweight, 43.3 and 43.9%; for obesity, 25.5 and 25.6%; for diabetes, 24.4 and 32.8%; and for dyslipidemia, 58.9 and 66.4%. The scores for low, moderate, or high-risk were 50; 21.1; and 28.9% in the EG, and 54.6; 19.1 and 26.3% in the NEG, respectively. Conclusions. Exposure to As does not affect the prevalence of CRFs. We identified a rural population in a vulnerable condition with high CRFs. The National Risk Factor Survey does not reflect what happens in rural areas. The Framingham scale is consistent with the found CRFs. The implementation of health promotion policies is required to improve the prognosis of suffering cardiovascular events in the short and medium term.

11.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 14(spe): 1-19, dez. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1350792

ABSTRACT

Este estudo objetivou clarificar o cenário de consumo de drogas em contextos rurais na América Latina e Caribe. Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática seguindo o protocolo Prisma nas bases de dados Lilacs, PePSIC, PsycINFO/PsycNET, PubMed e SciELO. A amostra final foi composta por 20 artigos, os resultados indicam uma prevalência em enxergar o "problema das drogas" a partir de uma perspectiva epidemiológica, mas que existem críticas e outras construções com visões mais integrativas; os contextos rurais se mostraram heterogêneos e perpassados por questões socioeconômicas. Nesse sentido, discute-se um olhar em que a história, a cultura, a geografia, o território e a população são fundamentais para a percepção dos agentes nesses contextos.


This study aimed to clarify the drug use in rural contexts in Latin America and Caribbean. This is a systematic review following the Prisma protocol in the databases: Lilacs, PePSIC, PsycINFO/PsycNET, PubMed e SciELO. The final sample consisted of 20 articles; the results indicate a prevalence in considering the "drug problem" from an epidemiological perspective; however, criticism and other constructions with more integrative visions still exist; the rural contexts are heterogeneous and crossed by socioeconomic issues. In this sense, we discussed a view in which history, culture, geography, territory and population are essential for the perception of agents in these contexts.


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Illicit Drugs , Psychology, Social , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug-Seeking Behavior
12.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(2): 54-63, DICIEMBRE, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344205

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: una de las estrategias que se consideraron a la hora de hacer frente a los problemas de salud mental durante la pandemia de COVID-19 fue la utilización de la telepsiquiatría. Objetivo: determinar si la procedencia urbana o rural se asocia al desarrollo de trastornos depresivos en pacientes que consultan a través de telepsiquiatría en un Hospital de referencia de Paraguay. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo de asociación cruzada, de corte transversal. Se realizó un muestreo no probabilístico, de casos consecutivos. Se utilizaron fichas electrónicas de pacientes tratados en el Servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital de Clínicas de la Universidad Nacional de Asunción entre marzo y junio de 2021. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva para todas las variables. Para la comparación de grupos con variables cualitativas nominales se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrado, calculando el odds ratio según sexo y área de residencia, considerando una p˂0,05 como significativa. Se utilizó, además, la prueba T de Student para comparar una variable nominal con una variable cuantitativa. Resultados: se analizaron 907 fichas clínicas, encontrándose 92 pacientes con trastornos del espectro depresivo. Al analizar la asociación entre el ambiente rural y urbano con la presencia de un episodio depresivo, se encontró una asociación significativa entre el ambiente rural y el diagnóstico de un trastorno depresivo (OR=7,81, χ2=63,33, p<0,001). Conclusión: nuestros resultados no condicen con estudios previos relacionados al tema. Esto podría deberse, al menos en parte, al impacto que las condiciones sociales y económicas tienen en el desarrollo de trastornos mentales, como la depresión.


ABSTRACT Introduction: one of the strategies considered when dealing with mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic was the use of telepsychiatry. Objective: to determine whether urban or rural origin is associated with the development of depressive disorders in patients consulting through telepsychiatry in a referral hospital in Paraguay. Methodology: observational, descriptive of cross-association, and cross-sectional study. A non-probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases was carried out. Electronic records of patients treated at the Psychiatry Service of the "Hospital de Clínicas" of the "Universidad Nacional de Asunción" between March and June 2021 were used. Descriptive statistics were applied for all variables. For the comparison of groups with nominal qualitative variables, the Chi-square test was used, calculating the odds ratio according to sex and area of residence, considering a p˂0.05 as significant. Student's t-test was also used to compare a nominal variable with a quantitative variable. Results: 907 clinical records were analyzed, finding 92 patients with depressive spectrum disorders. When analyzing the association between rural and urban environment with the presence of a depressive episode, a significant association was found between rural environment and the diagnosis of a depressive disorder (OR=7.81, χ2=63.33, p<0.001). Conclusion: our results do not agree with previous studies related to the subject. This could be due, at least in part, to the impact that social and economic conditions have on the development of mental disorders, such as depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult
13.
Av. enferm ; 39(3): 385-394, 01 de septiembre de 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1291405

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: presentar un plan de decisiones y acciones de enfermería basado en un enfoque transcultural a través del Modelo del Sol Naciente propuesto por Madeleine Leininger. Síntesis de contenido: investigación cualitativa tipo reporte de caso, en la que participó una familia residente del área rural del municipio de Villamaría (Caldas, Colombia) entre noviembre de 2017 y septiembre de 2018. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas sobre condiciones de cuidado individual-familiar, determinantes sociales y riesgo familiar, y se aplicaron instrumentos de valoración de la familia. La información se analizó mediante la técnica de Bardin, previa sistematización en el software ATLAS.ti. Se presenta un plan de decisiones y acciones de enfermería a la luz de una valoración coherente con la cultura, resultado de la conjunción de los sistemas populares y profesionales. Se valoraron siete factores a partir del Modelo del Sol Naciente (tecnológicos, religiosos, sociales, culturales, políticos, económicos y educativos) y se seleccionó el fenómeno "sobrecarga del cuidador familiar del adulto mayor". Conclusiones: la propuesta de abordaje otorga herramientas de análisis al profesional de enfermería para brindar cuidado según necesidades, valores, creencias y modos de vida de las personas.


Objetivo: apresentar o plano de decisões e ações de enfermagem baseado em um enfoque transcultural por meio do Modelo do Sol Nascente de Madeleine Leininger. Síntese do conteúdo: pesquisa qualitativa do tipo relato de caso, da qual participou uma família domiciliada na área rural do município de Villamaria, Caldas, Colômbia, entre novembro de 2017 e setembro de 2018. Realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas sobre condições de cuidado individual-familiar, determinantes sociais e risco familiar, utilizaram-se também instrumentos de valoração da familia. A informação se analisou pela técnica de Bardin, com prévia sistematização no software ATLAS.ti. Apresenta-se um plano de decisões e ações de enfermagem à luz de uma valoração consistente com a cultura, resultado da conjunção dos sistemas populares e profissionais. Avaliaram-se sete fatores a partir do Modelo do Sol Nascente (tecnológicos, religiosos, sociais, culturais, políticos, econômicos, educativos) e se selecionou o fenômeno "sobrecarga do cuidador familiar do idoso". Conclusões: a proposta de abordagem outorga ao profissional de enfermagem ferramentas de análise para oferecer cuidado segundo necessidades, valores, crenças e modos de vida das pessoas.


Objective: To introduce a nursing decision-and-action plan based on a cross-cultural approach through the Rising Sun Model created by Madeleine Leininger. Content synthesis: Qualitative research under the case report method that involved the participation of a rural family from the municipality of Villamaría (Caldas, Colombia), from November 2017 to September 2018. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on individual-family care conditions, social determinants, and family risk. Family assessment instruments were also applied. The information was analyzed using the Bardin technique, after its systematization in ATLAS.ti software. A plan for nursing decisions and actions, resulting from the conjunction of popular and professional systems, is presented in the light of an assessment consistent with culture. Seven factors were evaluated based on the Rising Sun Model (technological, religious, social, cultural, political, economic, educational), selecting the phenomenon known as "overload of elderly family caregivers." Conclusions: The suggested approach gives nursing professionals analytical tools in order to provide care according to people's needs, values, beliefs, and lifestyles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Population , Case Reports , Transcultural Nursing , Caregivers , House Calls
14.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 13(1): 4-18, Junio 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224585

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los trastornos alimentarios y de la ingestión de alimentos están asociados con importantes efectos físicos y morbilidad psicosocial, así como con un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida de las personas. Objetivo: determinar la proporción de pacientes con riesgo de padecer algún trastorno alimentario y de la ingestión de alimentos en población general paraguaya. Metodología: estudio observacional, descriptivo de asociación cruzada, de corte transversal y temporalmente prospectivo. Una encuesta en línea fue difundida a nivel nacional a través de redes sociales (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) y aplicaciones de mensajería (Whatsapp, Telegram). Se recabaron datos sociodemográficos y los participantes respondieron la Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (S-EDE-Q), en búsqueda de trastornos alimentarios. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para todas las variables. Para buscar asociaciones se utilizaron la prueba t de Student y ANOVA, según sea apropiado. Para cuantificar los riesgos se utilizó Odds ratio. Resultados: participaron 375 personas, de las cuales el 70,9 % era del sexo femenino, con edad media de 31 ± 9 años. Se obtuvo una media de 2,09 ± 1,5 puntos en la Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (S-EDE-Q) y se encontró que 51 participantes tenían indicios de padecer algún tipo de trastorno alimentario. Conclusión: el 13,6 % de los participantes de esta investigación tiene indicios de padecer algún tipo de trastorno alimentario, las mujeres tienen 2,4 veces más chances de padecer un trastorno y existen una serie de factores que están asociados a un mayor riesgo en el desarrollo de algún tipo de trastorno alimentario.


ABSTRACT Introduction: feeding and eating disorders are associated with significant physical effects and psychosocial morbidity, as well as a negative impact on people's quality of life. Objective: to determine the proportion of patients at risk of suffering from a feeding and eating disorder in the general Paraguayan population. Methodology: observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, of cross-association and temporally prospective. An online survey was disseminated nationwide through social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) and messaging applications apps (WhatsApp, Telegram). Sociodemographic data were collected and the participants answered the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (S-EDE-Q), in search of eating disorders. Descriptive statistics were used for all variables. Student's t test and ANOVA were used to look for associations, as appropriate. Odds ratio was used to quantify the risks. Results: 375 people participated, of which 70,9 % were female, with a mean age of 31 ± 9 years. A mean of 2,09 ± 1.5 points was obtained on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (S-EDE-Q) and it was found that 51 participants had signs of suffering from some type of eating disorder. Conclusion: 13,6 % of the participants in this research have signs of suffering from some type of eating disorder, women are 2.4 times more likely to suffer from an eating disorder and there are a series of factors that are associated with a greater risk for the development of some type of eating disorder.

15.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 34(1): 81-87, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284938

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess the impact of oral conditions on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of early adolescents aged 11 to 14 years in the rural population of a Brazilian municipality. Adolescents attending public schools in the municipality participated in the study. OHRQoL was measured using the short Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) with four domains: oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional wellbeing and social wellbeing. A higher score indicates a more negative perception of the adolescent regarding his/her OHRQoL. Oral conditions such as dental caries, malocclusion and dental trauma were evaluated using DMTF index, Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Andreasen criteria, respectively. The variables sex and age, number of siblings, parents ' schooling, family monthly income, number of times of tooth-brushing/day and visits to the dentist/year were also evaluated. Descriptive analysis and regression models were performed. Of the 202 participants, 94 (46.5%) were female and 108 (53.5%) were male. Adolescents from low-income families (p=0.042) and with more severe malocclusion (p=0.037) scored higher in the CPQ11-14. Those with severe malocclusion scored higher in the emotional wellbeing domain (p=0.009). Females scored higher than males in the oral symptoms domain (p=0.002). Adolescents from low-income families scored higher in the social wellbeing domain (p=0.006). Malocclusion negatively affected the OHRQoL of adolescents from a Brazilian rural area, mainly regarding emotional wellbeing. Negative repercussions were also observed among females and adolescents whose families had lower income.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto de condiçôes bucais na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal (QVRSB) de adolescentes de 11 a 14 anos da populaçâo rural de um municipio brasileiro. Adolescentes que estudavam em escolas públicas do municipio participaram do estudo. QVRSB foi avaliada usando a forma curta da versao brasileira do Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14) com quatro dominios: sintomas bucais, limitaçôes funcionais, bem-estar emocional e bem-estar social. Um escore mais alto indica uma percepçao mais negativa do adolescente com relaçao à sua QVRSB. Condiçôes bucais, tais como cárie dentária, má oclusâo e traumatismo dentario foram avaliados com o indice CPOD, Índice Estético Dental (IED) e os critérios de Andreasen, respectivamente. As variáveis sexo e idade dos adolescentes, número de irmaos, escolaridade dos pais, renda familiar mensal, número de vezes de escovaçao dos dentes/dia e visitas ao dentista/ano também foram avaliadas. Análise descritiva e modelos de regressao foram realizados. Dos 202 participantes, 94 (46,5%) eram meninas e 108 (53,5%) eram meninos. Adolescentes cujas familias tinham uma renda mais baixa (p=0,042) e com má oclusâo mais severa (p=0,037) obtiveram escores mais altos no CPQ11-14. Aqueles com má oclusâo severa obtiveram um escore mais alto no dominio de bem-estar emocional (p=0,009). Com relaçâo ao sexo do individuo, meninas tiveram um escore mais alto no dominio sintomas bucais (p=0,002). Adolescentes cujas familias tinham uma renda mais baixa obtiveram um escore mais alto no dominio de bem-estar social (p=0,006). A má oclusâo afeta negativamente a QVRSB de adolescentes de uma área rural brasileira, principalmente o bem-estar emocional. Repercussoes negativas também foram observadas entre meninas e adolescentes cujas familias tinham uma renda mais baixa.

16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(3): 1105-1114, mar. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153831

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o consumo alimentar segundo o grau de processamento e a ingestão de nutrientes entre adolescentes da zona rural de Pelotas-RS. Estudo transversal, tipo censo, com 462 alunos matriculados do 6º ao 9º do ensino fundamental das 21 escolas municipais da zona rural. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado através de R24h, sendo os alimentos classificados em quatro grupos de acordo com seu processamento, segundo a classificação NOVA. O consumo médio diário de energia foi de 1.921 calorias, sendo 48,2% provenientes de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados e 31,9% de ultraprocessados. Os alimentos que mais contribuíram para o total de calorias diárias foram: arroz, carnes, leguminosas, açúcar, pães caseiros, biscoitos, doces, refrigerantes e sucos artificiais. Proporção maior de macro e micronutrientes, foi observada a partir da ingestão de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados, embora carboidratos, gorduras e ferro, derivados de ultraprocessados, também tenha sido elevada. Os resultados indicam que adolescentes da zona rural possuem uma maior ingestão energética a partir do consumo de alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados, ainda que alimentos ultraprocessados também façam parte da sua alimentação, manifestando a transição nutricional.


Abstract The scope of the study was to assess food consumption according to the level of processing and the ingestion of nutrients among adolescents in the rural areas of Pelotas-RS. It involved a cross-sectional census-type study with 462 students in grades 6 through 9 of elementary school from 21 municipal schools in the rural area. Food consumption was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall (24HR), with food products being classified into four groups according to the level of processing in line with the NOVA classification. The average daily energy intake was 1,921 calories, namely 48.2% from in natura or minimally processed food and 31.9% from ultra-processed food. The products that contributed most to the total daily calory intake were rice, meat, legumes, sugar, homemade bread, cookies, candies, soda, and artificial juices. A higher proportion of macro and micronutrients was observed from ingestion of in natura or minimally processed food, although carbohydrates, fat and iron contents derived from ultra-processed food was also high. The results of the study indicate that adolescents in rural areas have a higher energy intake from fresh or minimally processed food, however, it is observed that ultra-processed food is also part of their diet, thereby revealing the nutritional transition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Food Handling
17.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e54789, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367908

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian nation has rich population diversity, and this makes it responsible for guaranteeing the social rights of all. In this perspective, this research seeks to categorize which are the main challenges in access to health that the rural populations face and to understand how the execution of this health care is carried out by professionals from the perspective of rural people. This is a cross-sectional study with a qualitative approach, carried out at the Nossa Senhora Aparecida Settlement, located in the municipality of Pesqueira (Pernambuco state) in 2018. The results demonstrate that the challenges facedby settled families are due to the difficulty of access to health services. In view of this, the rural population chooses to keep their cultural practices focused on their health alive. Therefore, it is common to use herbal medicines and mystics related to religious beliefs in self-care practices. It was concluded that the current public policies have gaps in their implementation, especially in terms of accessibility, security, health education, equity and respect for cultural differences. In addition, there is precariousness at the national level of studies focused on the health determinants and determinants of the rural population, which makes it necessary that more research be carried out so that new public policies can emerge.

18.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e51421, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368157

ABSTRACT

Population aging in Brazil increases on a large scale due to declining fertility and mortality. This phenomenon can be influenced by several factors (demographic, biological and social), making them determinants for the health conditions of the elderly populations residing in different geographic areas. The present study aims to identify the functional limitation in elderlyresidents of urban and rural areas of Brazil. This is a descriptive epidemiological study with a quantitative approach. It was evidenced that the functional limitation for activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living are concentrated in the northeast region, mainly in the urban area. The following states presented the highest proportions of daily life activity limitation in urban areas: Alagoas (11.60%), Rio Grande do Norte (10.95%), Pernambuco (10.36%) and Paraíba (9.62%). For activities of daily living in the rural area were found in the states of Paraíba (12.19%), Maranhão (8.93%), Piauí (8.85%) and then Pernambuco (7.24%). Data from the functional limitation for instrumental activities of daily living again highlighted the Northeast region, with the states of Rio Grande do Norte (26.01%), Paraíba (25.96%), Maranhão (25.72%) and Alagoas (24.57%). Lastly, it was verified that the elderly woman exhibits greater proportions of functional limitation in relation to the elderly of the masculine sex, standing out again the northeastern region of the country.

19.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1720-1723, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906576

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the impact of life satisfaction and parental rearing methods on accidental injuries of primary and secondary school students in rural areas, and to provide a therotical reference for injury prevention and intervention among primary and secondary school students in rural areas.@*Methods@#A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 2 045 rural primary and middle school students in Luliang County, Yunnan Province, questionnaire survey regarding injury, MSLSS and EMBU was administered.@*Results@#The incidence of accidental injury among rural primary and middle school students was 16.19 %, and the rate of boys (19.51%) were higher than that of girls (12.26%) ( χ 2=19.69, P <0.01). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis found that women, low injury risk behavior scores, and high life satisfaction scores were associated with less accidental injuries( OR =0.62, 0.98,0.81), while day to day school and father s overprotection were associated with more for accidental injuries( OR =1.50, 1.04, P <0.05).@*Conclusion@#Parents should pay more attention to children s safety education while creating a good living environment for their children, but they should pay attention to their own education methods to reduce accidental injuries.

20.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1650-1654, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906548

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study explored the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent suicide provides a scientific basis for suicide prevention strategies.@*Methods@#A total of 16 271 middle and high school students from rural areas in Anhui, Guangdong, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Hubei provinces were enrolled through multi stage stratified cluster random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on participants general information, childhood neglect, abuse, suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts in the 12 months prior to the survey. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations of childhood neglect and childhood maltreatment with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts.@*Results@#The number of suicide ideations, suicide plans and suicide attempts among rural adolescents were 2 453( 15.1 %), 1 164(7.2%) and 572(3.5%), respectively. The number of cases of childhood neglect, moderate physical abuse and severe physical abuse were 10 756(66.1%), 4 311(26.5%) and 703(4.3%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that childhood neglect and abuse were significantly associated with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts( P <0.05). After controlling for age, gender, only children, parental education level, income, emotional management and social support, childhood neglect and abuse remained significantly correlated with suicide ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts( OR =1.62-5.14, P <0.05); the OR(OR 95%CI) for severe physical abuse were 3.00(2.49-3.62), 3.52(2.81-4.40),5.14(3.87-6.83) respectively.@*Conclusion@#Childhood neglect and abuse may increase the risk of suicide among adolescents in rural China, and effective measures should be taken to reduce childhood neglect and abuse and prevent suicide.

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