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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 97-101, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367729

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar a presença do Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular (VEV) e seus fatores de risco para ocorrência e disseminação da enfermidade em equídeos das mesorregiões Leste e Oeste Potiguar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram analisadas pela técnica de virusneutralização, 809 amostras sanguíneas de equídeos provenientes de noventa propriedades de dezesseis municípios Potiguares durante os meses de julho de 2018 a fevereiro de 2019. Os fatores de riscos associados ao VEV foram avaliados por meio de questionário epidemiológico e os dados submetidos a análise estatística no programa IBM SPSS Statistics versão 21.0 com nível de confiança de 95%. Posteriormente, todas as variáveis estatisticamente significantes foram submetidas a análise de regressão de Poisson. A soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-VEV foi 24,6% (199/809), sendo 3,2% (13/402) de soropositivos na mesorregião Leste e 45,7% (186/407) na do Oeste Potiguar. Com relação aos sorotipos, observou-se uma prevalência de 3,8% (31/809) e 24,5% (198/809) para Indiana 2 e 3 respectivamente, com 15,1% (30/198) de coinfecção. Equídeos criados na mesorregião Oeste, em propriedades que não realizam quarentena e onde os animais enfermos são mantidos no rebanho, foram consideradas fatores predisponentes a infecção pelo VEV. Esses resultados demonstram a circulação do VEV em equídeos no Rio Grande do Norte, com destaque ao Oeste Potiguar, e sendo necessário a aplicação de medidas sanitárias que impeçam introdução e disseminação do vírus ente as espécies susceptíveis, principalmente em condições climáticas favoráveis para a sua manutenção, no ambiente de criação e pastagens.


This study aimed to investigate the presence of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and risk factors for its occurrence and dissemination in equines from the Eastern and Western mesoregions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Blood samples were analyzed, by Serum Virus Neutralization Assay, from 809 animals belonging to 90 properties distributed in sixteen municipalities from July 2018 to February 2019. Risk factors were assessed using an epidemiological questionnaire. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the software IBM SPSS Statistics, version 21.0 with a 95% confidence level. Also, all statistically significant variables were subjected to Poisson regression analysis. The occurrence of anti-VSV antibodies was 24.6% (199/809) with 3.2% (13/402) and 45.7% (186/407) of seropositivity in the Western and Eastern mesoregion, respectively. Regarding serotypes, there were an occurrence of 3.8% (31/809) and 24.5% (198/809) for Indiana 2 and 3, respectively, and 15.1% (30/198) of co-infection for both. Equines kept of the Western mesoregion, on properties that do not quarantine, and where sick animals are kept in the herd, were considered risk factors for LVV infection. These results demonstrate the presence of VSV in equines in Rio Grande do Norte, with emphasis on Oeste Potiguar, and that sanitary measures must be adopted to prevent the introduction and viral spreading among susceptible species, especially due to favorable climatic conditions for the maintenance of VSV in the breeding and pasture environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus , Horse Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , Vesicular Stomatitis/virology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766381

ABSTRACT

This study examined sanitary education and performance of sanitary management among employees related to cooking in school food services in Sejong. A total of 193 subjects (19.2% for kindergarten, 42.5% for elementary school, and 38.3% for middle and high school) participated in this questionnaire survey. The frequency of sanitary education was highest at 63.7% once a month, and it was higher in the order of middle and high school, elementary school, and kindergarten (P < 0.001). The most important contents of sanitary education were personal sanitary management (43.5%), food material management (25.9%), and sanitary and safety management of equipment and utensils (17.6%). The necessity of sanitary education recognized by the subjects was absolutely necessary at 69.9% and necessary at 28.0%. The application of knowledge from sanitary education is high in proper application at 50.8% and absolute application at 40.4%. The improvement effect after sanitary education was higher in kindergarten than in elementary school and middle and high school (P < 0.01). The performance of sanitary management was high at 4.7 out of 5. In particular, personal sanitary management was the highest in elementary school at 4.8 followed in order by middle and high school (4.7) and kindergarten (4.6) (P < 0.01). The necessity of sanitary education and the application of knowledge obtained from sanitary education to the food service showed a significant and positive correlation with the sanitary management performance (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). These results highlight that the need for customized sanitary education for institution types and an awareness of sanitary education by employees will enhance sanitary management in school food service.


Subject(s)
Cooking , Education , Food Services , Humans , Safety Management
3.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 30(3): 494-499, jul.-sep. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-688052

ABSTRACT

A pesar de que el aborto, por razones de salud, no es considerado un delito en el Perú, el Estado niega su inclusión en la política pública, con lo cual infringe el derecho de las mujeres a interrumpir un embarazo cuando este afecta su salud. Al examinar el artículo del Código Penal que exceptúa de delito a este tipo de aborto, se identifican atribuciones que protegen a las mujeres y establecen condiciones para ofertar dicha atención. En el presente documento se pone en debate los argumentos que el Estado Peruano viene usando para no aprobar el Protocolo de Aborto Terapéutico, con el cual se reglamentaria su oferta y financiamiento en los servicios públicos y se fundamenta por qué se debería cumplir con esta obligación, en base al marco conceptual de la “causal salud”. Se presentan, además, dos casos judicializados, en que el Estado Peruano ha sido encontrado responsable de violar los derechos humanos de dos adolescentes a quienes se les negó el aborto terapéutico.


Although abortion for health reasons is not considered a crime in Peru, the State does not allow its inclusion in public policy, thus violating women’s right to terminate a pregnancy when it affects their health. When examining the article in the Criminal Code which decriminalizes this type of abortion, provisions are identified which protect women and set the conditions to offer this type of service. This document sets the debate about the arguments used by the Peruvian State for not approving a therapeutic abortion protocol which would regulate the provision and financing of therapeutic abortion in public services, and explains why this obligation should be complied with, based on the conceptual framework of “health exception”. In addition, it presents two cases brought before the judicial court in which the Peruvian State was found guilty of violating the human rights of two adolescents to whom a therapeutic abortion was denied.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abortion, Therapeutic , Health Policy , Abortion, Therapeutic/legislation & jurisprudence , Abortion, Therapeutic , Health Services Accessibility
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198420

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the equipment ratio of sanitary facility/equipment as well as the sanitary management performance level at foodservice of correctional institutions in Korea. For this purpose, a total of 47 questionnaires were distributed to dietitians working at correctional institutions during the period from March 20th to May 18th of 2008. A total of 38 questionnaires (response rate 81%) was analyzed using SPSS (windows ver. 14.0). The majority of the respondents were females (65.8%), 35 years or older (55.3%), with 7 years or longer experiences (65.8%), and with education level of university or higher (60.5%). Among the institutions, 39.5% had less than 500, 28.9% had 501 or more but less than 1,200, and 31.6% had 1,201 or more inmates. The equipment ratio of the sanitary facilities/equipment was 49.7%, which was relatively low. Most dietitians perceived 'limited availability of facilities and equipment' and 'the lack of support from financing department' as the major barriers in implementing a desirable sanitary system. On the other hand, perceived sanitary management performance was rated by the respondents as being between 2.55 to 4.50 (5-point Likert scale)-'Cleaning hands properly as specified' showed the lowest performance, whereas 'Sampling preserved meals by standard methodology' showed the highest. The results of this study suggest that a sanitary education program designed for inmate food handlers is needed for successful sanitary management.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Female , Hand , Humans , Korea , Meals , Sanitation
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209063

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analysis the sanitary management performance based on HACCP system for school foodservice. This study was carried out from September 2008 until December 2008 and is targeted towards schools' dietitians that work at schools with school foodservice. The regional distribution of this research is as follows; 377 schools in Seoul, 648 schools in Gyeonggido, 160 schools in Kangwondo, 438 schools in Choongchungdo equaling 1,623 schools in total. When school foodservices were put through sanitation management achievement level analysis applied by the HACCP system, results displayed that management of temperature (3.96 points), time (4.08 points), and cross-contamination (4.07 points) were all below the average achievement level. HACCP system's achievement level based on the TQM showed that areas for strategy development, leadership, information and analysis had low achievement levels. Achievement levels for CCP are quality check, delivery/distribution process, sterilization/cleansing of food's contact surface. As a result of multiple regression analysis of the factors that influenced sanitation management achievement level of school foodservice HACCP system; sanitary job standard showed 35.6% and CCP achievement levels showed 26.8% explanatory rate. In particular, Kangwondo's number of foodservice provided to per cook was small. Also, the better the processing management was assessed, the higher the sanitary job standard achievement level became resulting to a explanatory rate of 39.5%. Elementary schools showed a higher explanatory rate of 37.0% than middle and high schools. CCP achievement levels in middle and high schools with self-operated foodservice had a 28.0% variable explanatory rate, which was the highest. The better the drainage system, leadership and assessments turned out to be, the higher the CCP achievement levels became. In summary, to revitalize HACCP system that is based on the TQM, it is considered that proper database of HACCP system for school foodservice's sanitation management be constructed and more emphasis should be put on strategy development to improve customers' satisfactory level. In addition, improvements in achievement levels of time, temperature, and cross-contamination for sanitary job standard and CCP achievement level are essential.


Subject(s)
Achievement , Drainage , Humans , Korea , Leadership , Sanitation
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111923

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the foodservice management practices, the equipment ratio of sanitary facility/equipment, and dietitians' perceptions of (i) the barriers to sanitary management and (ii) the sanitary management performance level in the welfare institutions for the disabled in Korea. The survey was conducted during the period from September 7 to October 15, 2006. A total of 91 institutions (response rate 74.6%) were analyzed by using SPSS (windows ver. 14.0). The average number of meals served per day per an institution was 379. The majority (93.4%) of dietitians made decisions in procurement. The major part of the purchase was made through private contract. The factors affecting menu planning were nutrition, food preference, and cost, in the order of importance. Among the food items, fruits were infrequently served, while protein source foods and green leaf vegetables were almost daily served. The equipment ratio of sanitary facilities/equipment was 45%, which was relatively low. Most dietitians perceived 'limited availability of facilities and equipment'and 'the lack of support from financing department'as the major barriers in implementing a desirable sanitary system. Sanitary management performance in 'the food ingredient'was perceived as the lowest, while that in 'the uniform'showed the highest. The results of this study suggest that a proper supporting program on securing the facility/equipment and adequately trained employees are needed for successful sanitary management. Also, a more frequent supply of fruits for the disabled is recommended.


Subject(s)
Contracts , Food Preferences , Fruit , Korea , Meals , Menu Planning , Sanitation , Vegetables
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128156

ABSTRACT

A survey was implemented to suggest basic data for assuring the safety of cooked foods in foodbank operations. A questionnaire consisted of total 48 items including general characteristics, basic inputs and perceived importance/performance of sanitary management. One hundred twenty-eight responses among the 267 nationwide foodbanks were used for the statistical analysis. About forty-one percent of foodbanks was operated a period of 1-3 years and 43.0% of them were managed by social welfare organizations. The number of staff was only 0.5 person per operation with the whole responsibility and 1.0 with additional work, and thus most of the work was managed by volunteers. Job satisfaction was shown to be moderate and was affected by specialty and salary mostly. The facilities and equipment in foodbanks were not enough to operate and freezers/refrigerators were the top priority to supplement. Most of the respondents attended a nationwide level sanitary education program (79.7%), but complained not enough frequency of education (90%). The sanitary status of the donated foods was considered as satisfactory but some safety practices had to be improved, including personnel expenses and operating costs in the district level, a sanitary awareness of the donors and a general management of the facilities and equipment. An assessment on sanitary management resulted in an overall average of 4.45 out of 5 points in importance and 3.85 in performance showing the high level of sanitation perception in foodbank managers. From the IPA analysis, the fields found to be improved were sanitation management during cooking and temperature control as well as cleanliness and sanitation of both transport vehicle and refrigerator/freezer. To secure the food safety in foodbanks, consequently, personnel support, supplement of facilities and equipment, intense sanitation education and development of sanitation management program is needed.


Subject(s)
Cooking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education , Food Safety , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Sanitation , Social Welfare , Tissue Donors , Volunteers
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-111059

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the characteristics of dietitians, the characteristics of school food services, equipment ratio of HACCP facility/equipment and perception of barriers to HACCP implementation on external and internal audit of food safety/sanitation management performance in school food service. An e-mail survey was conducted with 144 dietitians in Gyeongbuk Province. A response rate was 57.6% (N=83) and data was analyzed using SPSS windows (ver. 12.0). Dietitian perceived facilities/equipment-related and stakeholder-related as the big barriers in implementing a HACCP system. Total scores of sanitation/safety management performance for external and internal audit were similar at 92 and 91 out of 100, respectively. "Facilities/equipment" and "HACCP system" categories in both external and internal audit were rated the lowest. As dietitian perceived facilities/equipment-related (p<0.001) and stakeholder-related (p<0.05) barriers to HACCP implementation were greater, the scores of the external and internal audits were significantly lower. As dietitian perceived barriers for all categories were greater, the scores of internal audits were significantly lower (p<0.05). As a result of multiple regression analyses, the scores of the external audit was positively associated with career as a school food service dietitian, but was negatively associated with barriers related to facility/equipment, while the scores of the internal audit was negatively associated with barriers related to facility/equipment and employees. This study suggests that supporting programs on securing the facilities/equipment and employee training are needed for successful HACCP implementation in school food service.


Subject(s)
Electronic Mail , Food Services , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Humans , Nutritionists
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40117

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to the evaluate sanitary management status of school foodservice in Deajeon and Chungnam and to suggest basic data for sanitary improvement. A questionnaire was used in this study as a survey method. The subjects consist of 529 dietitians that are employed in the school (primary.middle.high school) foodservice. These results may be summarized as follows : 71.0% of surveyed school foodservices managed separately place for contamination and uncontamination. 91.5% didn't maintain adequate temperature at kitchen. A holding rate of hygiene utensils is lower in Chungnam than Daejeon. The dietitian group aged 30 - 34 showed significantly higher scores than other groups in personal hygiene of employees. The dietitian group graduated from a college showed significantly lower scores than other groups in purchasing & receiving, preparation, storage, food remains & waste, kitchen utensils and equipments and personal hygiene. It was significant to serving, personal hygiene and facilities & structure by Daejeon and Chungnam. In serving, Daejeon showed significantly lower scores than Chungnam. In personal hygiene, facilities and structure, Chungnam showed significantly lower scores than Daejeon. The foodservice group (started or = 1990) in preparation.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Food Storage , Humans , Hygiene , Nutritionists
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213188

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of sanitary management based on HACCP. The surveys which were on various aspects of general characteristics, food handling practice, personal sanitation, equipment sanitation, and equipment possession were carried out using questionnaires for 146 business and industry foodservice operations in Taegu and Kyungpook areas. The results of this study were summarized as follows. Forty-nine percent of surveyed foodservice operations was in Taegu, 51% in Kyungpook and 69.2% in direct foodservice operations and 28.1% in contracted foodservice operations. Seventy-eight percent of foodservice operations replied that they have done only basic sanitary management, while 13% surveyed stated that they were implementing HACCP. Food handling practice and personal sanitation were significantly better in Kyungpook area than in Taegu. Significantly high levels in food handling practice, personal sanitation, equipment sanitation, and equipment possession were seen in foodservice operations which had more than 1,000 meal served than those which had less than 1,000 meals served. According to the results of food handling practice, in items of food-temperature measurement during receiving, cooking, holding after cooking, and reheating, foodservice operations showed very low scores below the average. All foodservice operations presented good scores in the parts of personal and equipment sanitation. In equipment possession, sterilizing systems were generally not enough, dishwasher and sterilizing facilities of contracted foodservice operation showed significantly high scores. Therefore, the business and industry foodservice operations will have to pay special attention to temperature management in the foodservice production process as the first step to implement of HACCP.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Cooking , Food Handling , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Humans , Meals , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sanitation
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20830

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to provide current information on professional catering companies. Twenty-three catering companies out of thirty-eight(60% recovery) responded the survey for December in 1998. Foodservice establishments managed by 16 small-middle sized catering companies provided an average of 11,200 meals daily, while those managed by major and small-middle sized catering companies were mainly office(72.2%, 57.1%) and school foodservice(15.2%, 26%). The rates of sales of major catering companies and small-middle sized catering companies increased 24%, 30% respectively in 1998. Self-evaluation in catering companies was conducted for sanitary management. Unsatisfactory results from self evaluation were found in three categories, such as, measurement of internal temperature of food materials at reception, ventilation system in the working area, and hand-washing stations with equipment cleaning and sanitizing facilities in front of the working area. Most catering companies expressed a willingness to apply the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system from this survey. "Professional catering business has arisen as an area requiring more consideration and further study for the production of a safe food."


Subject(s)
Commerce , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Humans , Meals , Ventilation
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