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Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(3): 434-438, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384167


Abstract Introduction Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a proven method for staging the neck in patients with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma because it results in less comorbidity than the traditional method of selective neck dissection, with the same oncological results. However, the real effect of that method on the quality of life of such patients remains unknown. Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma T1/T2N0 submitted to sentinel lymph node biopsy compared to those that received selective neck dissection. Methods Cross-sectional study including 24 patients, after a 36 month follow-up, 15 of them submitted to the sentinel lymph node biopsy and 9 to selective neck dissection. All patients answered the University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results The evaluation of the questionnaires showed a late worsening of the domains appearance (p = 0.035) and chewing (p = 0.041), as well as a decrease of about 10% of general quality of life (p = 0.025) in patients undergoing selective neck dissection ​​in comparison to those undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy. Conclusion Patients with early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy presented better late results of general quality of life, mainly regarding appearance and chewing, when compared to patients submitted to selective neck dissection.

Resumo Introdução A biópsia de linfonodo sentinela é um método comprovado para estadiamento cervical em pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular inicial da cavidade oral, porque apresenta menor taxa de morbidade do que o método tradicional de esvaziamento cervical seletivo, com os mesmos resultados oncológicos. Porém, o verdadeiro efeito desse método na qualidade de vida desses pacientes permanece desconhecido. Objetivo Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cavidade oral T1/T2N0 submetidos a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela em comparação aos pacientes nos quais o esvaziamento cervical seletivo foi feito. Método Estudo transversal que incluiu 24 pacientes, após 36 meses de seguimento, dos quais 15 foram submetidos a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela e nove a esvaziamento cervical seletivo. Todos os pacientes responderam ao questionário de qualidade de vida da University of Washington. Resultados A avaliação dos questionários evidenciou pioria tardia dos domínios aparência (p = 0,035) e mastigação (p = 0,041), bem como diminuição de cerca de 10% da qualidade de vida geral (p = 0,025) nos pacientes submetidos a esvaziamento cervical seletivo em comparação com aqueles submetidos a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela. Conclusão Pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular de cavidade oral em estágio inicial submetidos a biópsia do linfonodo sentinela apresentaram melhores resultados tardios de qualidade de vida geral, principalmente quanto à aparência e à mastigação, quando comparados aos pacientes submetidos a esvaziamento cervical seletivo.

Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 377-381, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935224


Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignant carcinoma in Chinese women, which seriously threatens women's health. Lymph node metastasis is the most important factor affecting the prognosis and adjuvant treatment of patients with early cervical cancer. Conventional systematic lymphadenectomy has always been a reliable method to detect lymph node metastasis. However, this procedure may affect the quality of life of patients because of high risks of complications. Recently, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been researched aiming to assess the status of pelvic lymph node metastasis intraoperatively, avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomy and achieve the goal of individualized diagnosis and treatment. Exploring efficient tracing methods and pathological ultra-staging is the key to the clinical application of SLNB for cervical cancer, and understanding the latest relevant clinical research progress will help SLNB to be applied in the clinic as soon as possible to benefit patients with cervical cancer.

Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Quality of Life , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 145-150, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929985


With the understanding of the biological characteristics of breast cancer and the improvement of systemic treatment, the treatment concept of breast cancer has changed, and the treatment strategy of axillary lymph nodes has also been constantly changing. With the change of these concepts, a large number of relevant clinical trials have been gradually carried out. The NSABP B04 study took the lead in exploring the transformation of axillary treatment strategies in the classic breast cancer treatment. Although this study did not change the clinical practice of axillary treatment at the time, it provided a preliminary data basis for a subsequent series of clinical studies on axillary preservation. In these changes, sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a milestone in the surgical treatment of breast cancer, has become the standard staging procedure for axillary negative patients. Since then, a series of related clinical studies have also been carried out, among which the results of studies on patients with low-load axillary metastasis have confirmed the feasibility of axillary preservation in some patients, which has influenced and changed clinical practice. In addition, the results of the study make it possible for some patients to preserve the axilla after neoadjuvant therapy reduce postoperative upper extremity edema effectively. Whether axillary surgery can be completely eliminated, and whether axillary dissection can be waived for patients with positive axilla after neoadjuvant therapy under the premise of equal survival benefit have also received extensive attention.

An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 693-699, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355635


Abstract Background: There are conflicting data regarding the prognostic value of the lymphatic basin drainage pattern in melanoma patients and the evidence is scant in the setting of negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Objective: To investigate whether the pattern of lymphatic basin drainage influences the risk of nodal disease in patients with melanoma of the trunk and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Methods: A case series of patients with trunk melanoma and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy was retrospectively evaluated. Clinicopathological features, the pattern of lymphatic drainage and nodal, metastatic, and overall recurrence-free survival were reviewed. Results: Of the 135 patients included, multiple lymphatic basin drainage was identified in 61 (45.2%). Ten of the 74 (13.5%) patients with single drainage developed nodal recurrence, compared with 2 of the 61 (3.6%) patients with multiple drainages (p = 0.04). Nodal recurrence-free survival was significantly longer in the group with multiple drainages than in the group with single drainage (175.6 vs. 138.7 months; p = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, single drainage was associated with a higher risk of nodal recurrence (HR = 4.54; p = 0.05). No significant differences in metastatic and overall recurrence-free survival were found between groups. Study limitations: Retrospective analysis, single-center study, small sample, detailed histopathologic information not always present. Conclusions: In patients with trunk melanoma and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy, multiple lymphatic basin drainage may be an independent risk factor for nodal disease recurrence. This factor may help to identify patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy with a higher risk of nodal recurrence.

Skin Neoplasms/surgery , Melanoma/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 297-303, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280048


Abstract Objective To evaluate the number of patients with early-stage breast cancer who could benefit from the omission of axillary surgery following the application of the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial criteria. Methods A retrospective cohort study conducted in the Hospital da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The study population included 384 women diagnosed with early-stage invasive breast cancer, clinically negative axilla, treated with breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy, from January 2005 to December 2010. The ACOSOG Z0011 trial criteria were applied to this population and a statistical analysis was performed to make a comparison between populations. Results A total of 384 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Of the total number of patients, 86 women underwent axillary lymph node dissection for metastatic sentinel lymph nodes (SNLs). One patient underwent axillary node dissection due to a suspicious SLN intraoperatively, thus, she was excluded fromthe study. Among these patients, 82/86 (95.3%) had one to two involved sentinel lymph nodes andmet the criteria for the ACOSOG Z0011 trial with the omission of axillary lymph node dissection. Among the 82 eligible women, there were only 13 cases (15.9%) of lymphovascular invasion and 62 cases (75.6%) of tumors measuring up to 2 cm in diameter (T1). Conclusion The ACOSOG Z0011 trial criteria can be applied to a select group of SLNpositive patients, reducing the costs and morbidities of breast cancer surgery.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o número de pacientes com câncer de mama em estágio inicial que se beneficiariam da omissão da linfadenectomia axilar segundo o protocolo Z0011 da Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (ACOSOG). Métodos Estudo de coorte retrospectiva conduzido no Hospital da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Foram incluídas mulheres diagnosticadas com carcinoma invasivo de mama em estágio inicial, com axila clinicamente negativa, tratadas com cirurgia conservadora e biópsia do linfonodo sentinela, radioterapia, quimioterapia e/ou hormonioterapia, de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2010. Os critérios do estudo da ACOSOG Z0011 foram aplicados a essas mulheres e foi realizada uma análise estatística que comparou ambas as populações dos estudos. Resultados Foram estudadas 384 mulheres submetidas a cirurgia conservadora de mama e biópsia do linfonodo sentinela. Entre elas, 86 mulheres foram submetidas a linfadenectomia axilar por metástase presente no linfonodo sentinela. Uma paciente foi submetida a linfadenectomia axilar por ter um linfonodo palpável suspeito no intraoperatório, não incluída no estudo. Entre essas 86 pacientes, 82 (95,3%) tiveram de 1 a 2 linfonodos sentinela comprometidos e seriam elegíveis para omissão da linfadenectomia axilar pelos critérios do ACOSOG Z0011. Entre as 82 pacientes elegíveis, apenas 13 (15,9%) delas apresentaram tumores com invasão angiolinfática, e 62 (75,6%) dos tumores mediram até 2 cm (T1). Conclusão Os critérios do estudo ACOZOG Z0011 podem ser aplicados a um seleto grupo de pacientes com linfonodo sentinela positivo reduzindo os custos e a morbidade cirúrgica do tratamento do câncer de mama.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy, Segmental , Lymph Node Excision , Axilla/pathology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(2): 268-274, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223966


Introducción. El arco de Langer es una entidad infrecuente, cuya prevalencia depende de la técnica quirúrgica utilizada y usualmente no se asocia con síntomas de compresión vascular o neuronal. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características clínicas y morfológicas, y la proporción de síntomas de compresión neurovascular del arco de Langer, en mujeres con cáncer de mama llevadas a cirugía axilar. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo del arco de Langer en mujeres con cáncer de mama, llevadas a cirugía axilar en el registro personal de un cirujano, en Medellín, Colombia, entre el 1 enero de 2017 y el 15 agosto de 2020. Se evaluaron características clínicas, morfológicas y síntomas de compresión neurovascular. Las variables categóricas se agruparon según su frecuencia como porcentajes, y para las variables continuas se calculó la mediana y su rango intercuartílico. Resultados. Entre el 1 enero de 2017 y el 15 agosto de 2020 se realizaron 725 cirugías axilares, 479 biopsias de ganglio centinela y 246 linfadenectomías, encontrando 17 casos de arco de Langer, para una frecuencia de 2,3 %. Fue más frecuente encontrarlo en el curso de una linfadenectomía (n=11, 64,7 %). En 15 (88,2 %) casos se presentó riesgo de ocultamiento ganglionar y en 14 (82,3 %) generó dificultad quirúrgica. No hubo casos con síntomas de compresión vascular o neuronal. En ningún caso se realizó el diagnostico imagenológico prequirúrgico. La conducta quirúrgica predominante fue sección, en 88,2 %, sin presentar complicaciones quirúrgicas asociadas. Discusión. Es importante para el cirujano el conocimiento del arco axilar como una variante anatómica de la axila, que puede ocultar los ganglios o dificultar la disección axilar, por lo que la conducta más usada es la sección

Introduction. Langer's arch is an infrequent entity, the prevalence of which depends on the surgical technique used and is usually not associated with symptoms of vascular or neuronal compression. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and morphological characteristics, and the proportion of symptoms of neurovascular compression of Langer's arch, in women with breast cancer who underwent axillary surgery.Methods. Descriptive study of Langer's arch in women with breast cancer, who underwent axillary surgery in the personal registry of a surgeon, in Medellín, Colombia, between January 1, 2017 and August 15, 2020. Clinical, morphological and clinical characteristics were evaluated for symptoms of neurovascular compression. Categorical variables were grouped according to their frequency as percentages, and the median and interquartile range were calculated for continuous variables.Results. Between January 1, 2017 and August 15, 2020, 725 axillary surgeries, 479 sentinel node biopsies, and 246 lymphadenectomies were performed, finding 17 cases of Langer's arch, for a frequency of 2.3%. It was more frequently found in the course of lymphadenectomy (n= 11; 64.7%). In 15 (88.2%) cases there was a risk of lymph node concealment and in 14 (82.3%) it generated surgical difficulty. There were no cases with symptoms of vas-cular or neuronal compression. In no case was the pre-surgical imaging diagnosis made. The predominant surgical approach was section, in 88.2%, without presenting associated surgical complications.Discussion. Knowledge of the axillary arch as an anatomical variant of the axilla is important for the surgeon, which can hide the lymph nodes or make axillary dissection difficult, so the most commonly used approach is to cut it

Humans , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymph Node Excision
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020227, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142414


Secretory carcinoma of the breast (SBC) is a rare breast neoplasm. Most of the patients present at an early stage with a relatively indolent clinical course. Lymph node and distant metastasis are also very infrequent. The histomorphological features of the secretory breast carcinoma are quite characteristic. Predominantly three histological patterns, solid, microcystic, and tubular, have been noted with copious amounts of intra and extracellular secretory material. Most commonly, no positivity for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and ERBB2(HER2/neu) is observed in SBCs. As SBC can occasionally be hormone receptor-positive, they should not be categorized in the triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) group in general. A very characteristic genetic translocation t (12;15) has been noted in this rare tumor, resulting in a fusion between ETV6 and NTRK3 proteins. We present a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with right breast lump of 1-month duration and was managed by lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node dissection. Axillary dissection was not performed because the sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. Postoperative radiotherapy was given to the right breast with a boost to the tumor bed. No adjuvant chemotherapy was given No recurrence has been noted even after a year of the completion of treatment

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma/pathology , Translocation, Genetic , Secretory Component , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
Rev. venez. cir ; 74(1): 407-411, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283702


Describir la técnica quirúrgica de la disección axilar dirigida (DAD) usando carbón vegetal como marcador del ganglio linfático axilar metastásico al momento del diagnóstico conjuntamente con la biopsia del ganglio centinela en paciente con cáncer de mama tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con respuesta completa clínica y ecográficamente, demostrando su seguridad y eficacia. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo. Paciente con cáncer de mama y ganglio linfático metastásico en axila ipsilateral marcado con carbón vegetal al confirmarse ese diagnóstico y tratada con quimioterapia neoadyuvante con posterior negativización tanto clínica como ecográfica del ganglio linfático metastásico. Se planificó para disección axilar dirigida (extirpación del ganglio marcado con carbón vegetal y biopsia de ganglio centinela) con el fin de demostrar la eficacia del marcador utilizado y su relación o no con el ganglio centinela. Resultados: Se comprobó la identificación certera del ganglio afectado marcado con carbón vegetal el cual no presentó migración del colorante o reacción inflamatoria local coincidiendo además con dos ganglios centinelas todos con respuesta patológica completa. El carbón permaneció 153 días desde su administración hasta la cirugía axilar. Conclusión: Esta experiencia admite el marcaje con carbón vegetal del ganglio axilar metastásico al momento de su diagnóstico como un método seguro, sencillo, económico y accesible en relación a otros métodos de marcaje, además su asociación con la biopsia del ganglio centinela nos permite prescindir de la disección axilar en caso de respuesta patológica completa, sin embargo, es importante resaltar que se necesitan evaluar más casos para obtener conclusiones determinantes(AU)

To describe the surgical technique of targeted axillary dissection using charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis together with sentinel node biopsy in a breast cancer patient who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with complete clinical and sonographical response, demonstrating its safety and efficacy. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study. Patient with breast cancer and metastatic lymph node in the ipsilateral axilla which was marked with charcoal upon confirmation of this diagnosis and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent clinical and sonographical negativization of the metastatic lymph node. It was planned for targeted axillary dissection (removal of charcoal-marked lymph node and sentinel node biopsy) in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the marker used and its relationship or not with the sentinel node. Results: The correct identification of the affected lymph node marked with charcoal was verified, which did not present dye migration or local inflammatory reaction, also coinciding with two sentinel nodes, all of them with a complete pathological response. The charcoal remained 153 days from its administration until the axillary surgery. Conclusion: This experience supports charcoal marking of the metastatic lymph node at the time of diagnosis as a safe, simple, inexpensive and accessible method in relation to other marking methods, in addition its association with sentinel node biopsy allows us to dispense with axillary dissection in case of complete pathological response, however it is important to highlight that more cases need to be evaluated to obtain decisive conclusions(AU)

Female , Middle Aged , Axilla/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Sentinel Lymph Node , Breast Neoplasms , Charcoal , Drug Therapy , Lymph Nodes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909234


Objective:To investigate the effects of sentinel lymph node biopsy utilization on operative time, intraoperative blood loss and extubation time.Methods:Sixty-two patients with breast cancer who received treatment in the First Hospital of China Medical University from January to December 2019 were included in this study. They were randomly assigned to receive either conventional breast cancer surgery (control group, n = 31) or sentinel lymph node biopsy combined with breast cancer surgery (study group, n = 31). Extubation time, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, drainage volume, breast cosmetic effect, upper limb function and complications were compared between the two groups. Results:Extubation time and operative time in the study group were (16.3 ± 1.1) hours and (61.6 ± 11.3) minutes, respectively, and they were (28.2 ± 6.4) hours and (124.2 ± 28.5) minutes, respectively in the control group. There were significant differences in extubation time and operative time between the two groups ( t = 14.922 and 16.479, both P < 0.05). Intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage volume in the study group were (68.7 ± 17.9) mL and (105.9 ± 19.5) mL respectively, and they were (122.4 ± 23.1) mL and (257.2 ± 36.4) mL respectively in the control group. There were significant different differences in intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage volume between the two groups ( t = 15.928 and 18.797, both P < 0.05). The excellent and good rate of breast cosmetic effect in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group (93.6% vs. 83.8% , χ2 = 5.584, P < 0.05). After treatment, the difference in the upper arm circumference between the healthy and affected sides, and shoulder abduction and shoulder function score in the study group were (0.5 ± 0.1) cm, (123.7 ± 6.6) ° and (75.9 ± 4.9) points respectively, and they were (0.7 ± 0.1) cm, (120.1 ± 6.1) °, (73.5 ± 4.4) points, respectively in the control group. There were significant differences in these indices between the two groups ( t = 11.432, 12.450, 12.647, all P < 0.05). The incidence of complications in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group (12.9% vs. 38.8%, χ2 = 6.309, P < 0.05). Conclusion:Sentinel lymph node biopsy can help improve therapeutic effects, shorten the operative time, reduce the amount of intraoperative bleeding, shorten the extubation time, and reduce the incidence of complications in breast cancer patients.

Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 981-988, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920979


Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy. Most patients with early-stage cervical cancer received unnecessary systemic pelvic lymphadenectomy, which increased the risk of surgical complications. At present, sentinel lymph node biopsy has been applied in the clinical practice of cervical cancer abroad, however it is still at the starting stage in China in need of application and promotion. The Obstetrics and Gynecology Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association invited domestic experts in the field of gynecologic oncology to discuss the application value, patient evaluation, technical methods, operation steps, pathological examination and many other key points of sentinel lymph node biopsy based on the current research status, and reached the consensus of clinical application on sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer to guide the standardized application of the technique in China.

Consensus , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery
International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 857-860, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929957


The axillary lymph node status is the most important prognostic index of breast cancer, so the accurate assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis has always been a hot topic in breast cancer research. Today, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the preferred surgical procedure for axillary lymph node negative early breast cancer. The selection of tracers is also a key link in the study of SLNB and lymphatic drainage area of breast cancer. Traditional tracers (blue dye, nuclide and fluorescent tracers, etc.) have many problems, such as allergy, poor localization specificity and radioactivity to human body, which limit their promotion and application in clinic. However, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) can effectively improve these shortcomings and has the advantages that other tracers cannot replace. It can be an ideal tracer for SLNB of breast cancer and has a good application prospect. This article mainly describes the current application of SPION in SLNB of breast cancer, and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this tracer.

International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 833-838,f4, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929952


Objective:To explore the correlation between the number of sentinel regional lymph node (SALN) and non-sentinel regional lymph node (NSALN) metastasis in patients with early breast cancer after sentinel regional lymph node (SALN) biopsy.Methods:Retrospectively selected 400 female patients with early breast cancer who underwent SALN biopsy at the Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College from January 2016 to July 2021, and summarized and analyzed their clinical case data. The Chi-square test or Fisher exact probability method was used to compare the count data between groups. Perform single-factor analysis on the research indicators, then screen out indicators with statistically significant differences, then perform multi-factor Logistic regression analysis, draw a receiver operating characteristic curve, and combine the area under the curve to establish a predictive model.Results:SALN biopsy was performed in 400 patients with early breast cancer. A total of 1 504 lymph nodes were detected in 320 cases of total mastectomy, with an average of 4.7, 47 cases of macrometastasis, and 2 cases of postoperative macrometastasis. The false negative rate was 4.3%. Among 400 cases, 67 cases were positive for SALN, and the positive rate was 16.75% (67/400). The results of univariate analysis showed that the number of tumor thrombus in the vessel, the number of positive SALN and the metastasis of NSALN were closely related ( χ2=8.775, 16.53, P=0.003). The results of multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of tumor thrombi and SLN-positive ≥3 in the vessel were independent predictive risk factors for NSLN metastasis ( OR=16.149, 95% CI: 3.016-86.473, P<0.001; OR=31.76, 95% CI: 5.242-192.43, P<0.001). SALN positive was closely related to NSALN metastasis, but as the number of SALN detected increases (more than 6) and when only 1 to 2 SALN was positive, the probability of NSALN metastasis was significantly reduced ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The positive number of SALN and intravascular tumor thrombolus were closely related to NALN metastasis. SALN positive number ≥3 was the most important independent predictor of NSALN metastasis. The recurrence risk of sentinel lymph node can be reduced by increasing the number of SALN detected, when 1-2 positive sentinel lymph node are detected and the number of sentinel lymph node detected >6, axillary lymph node dissection can be exempted as appropriate.

Acta cir. bras ; 36(6): e360608, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278115


ABSTRACT Purpose To reduce false-negative rates (FNR) in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of clinically positive (cN+) axilla in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The removal of three or more lymph nodes with dual-tracer mapping including a radioisotope was used. However, in the Brazilian Unified Health System, the radioisotope tracer is not feasible in some hospitals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the detection rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients who converted from cN+ to ycN0 after NAC using blue dye as a single-agent mapping tracer. Methods During the period of March 2018 to September 2019, 34 patients who underwent NAC with cN+ who converted to ycN0 were enrolled in the study. The SLNB was performed using blue dye as a single-agent mapping followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results The detection rate of sentinel lymph node was of 85.3%, being SLNB not possible for five patients (14.7%), due to fibrosis. The mean number of removed SLN was 2.5. Conclusions The use of blue dye as a single-agent mapping tracer demonstrated an acceptable detection rate of 85.3%. Although the FNR was possible to be determined, the small sample size might overestimate this rate. The removal of three or more lymph nodes with single-agent mapping tracer might be indicated for breast cancer patients who converted to ycN0 after NAC in the Brazilian health public services, in which radioisotope tracer is not suitable.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Axilla , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis
Clinics ; 76: e2573, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286089


This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the value of indocyanine green (ICG) in guiding sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for patients with oral cavity cancer. An electronic database search (PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science) was performed from their inception to June 2020 to retrieve clinical studies of ICG applied to SLNB for oral cavity cancer. Data were extracted from 14 relevant articles (226 patients), and 9 studies (134 patients) were finally included in the meta-analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled sentinel lymph node (SLN) sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio were 88.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.0-96.0), 64.0% (95% CI, 61.0-66.0), 2.45 (95% CI, 1.31-4.60), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.17-0.90), and 7.30 (95% CI, 1.74-30.68), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.8805. In conclusion, ICG applied to SLNB can effectively predict the status of regional lymph nodes in oral cavity cancer.

Humans , Mouth Neoplasms , Sentinel Lymph Node/diagnostic imaging , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Indocyanine Green
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 691-695, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142133


Abstract Background: The mitotic index is no longer used to classify T1 melanoma patients into T1a and T1b, so it should not be used to indicate sentinel node biopsy in these patients. Objectives: To evaluate patients with T1 melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and to compare those who were classified as T1a with those classified T1b, according to the 7th and 8th Edition of the melanoma staging system, regarding a positive biopsy result. The authors also aimed to assess whether there is any difference in the results in both staging systems. Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 1213 patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma, from 2000 to 2015, in a single institution. Results: Of 399 patients with thin melanomas, 27 (6.7%) presented positive sentinel lymph nodes; there was no difference in positivity for sentinel node biopsy when comparing T1a vs. T1b in both staging systems. Furthermore, the clinical results were also similar between the two groups. However, in the complete cohort analysis, the mitotic index was associated with positivity for sentinel lymph node biopsy (p < 0.0001), positivity for non-sentinel lymph node (p < 0.0001), recurrence-free survival (p < 0.0001), and specific melanoma survival (p = 0.023). Study limitation: Unicentric study. Conclusion: The mitotic index was shown to be a very important prognostic factor in the present study, but it was not observed in patients classified as T1. The mitotic index should no longer be used as the only reason to refer sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with thin melanoma.

Humans , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Prognosis , United States , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mitotic Index , Neoplasm Staging
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(2): 111-120, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137027


RESUMEN Introducción: El porcentaje de melanomas asociados histológicamente a nevos (MN(+)) varía del 20,6% al 53%. Distintos estudios demuestran que los MN(+) tienen igual o mejor pronóstico que aquellos melanomas que no se asocian a nevos, también llamados melanomas de novo (MN(-)). Objetivo: Comparar la evolución clínica y la supervivencia de MN(-) y MN(+) en el Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba, analizando el estudio de ganglio centinela, la supervivencia libre de enfermedad al año y a 5 años y la mortalidad específica por melanoma a 5 años. Materiales y Métodos :Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, transversal. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de melanoma cutáneo realizado por el Servicio de Anatomía Patológica del hospital o con revisión del taco de biopsia en el hospital, desde enero del año 2000 hasta diciembre del 2015. Resultados: De 554 casos de melanoma, se incluyeron 208 melanomas cutáneos, con un seguimiento promedio de 2,44 (0,66 - 5, 35) años. El 47,1% de melanomas fueron MN(+). Los MN(+) se relacionaron de manera estadísticamente significativa con el tipo extensivo superficial, localización en tronco posterior, regresión, menor Breslow y Clark 2. La supervivencia libre de enfermedad a 5 años fue mayor en MN(+) y la ausencia de asociación a nevo fue un factor de riesgo independiente. No se observaron diferencias en edad, sexo, diámetro tumoral, antecedentes de síndrome de nevo displásico, ulceración, mitosis, resultado del estudio de ganglio centinela, supervivencia libre de enfermedad al año, ni mortalidad por melanoma a 5 años.

ABSTRACT Introduction: The percentage of melanomas associated with nevus (NM(+)) ranges from 20,6% to 53%. Some studies suggested that MN+ have the same or even better prognosis than those melanomas that are not nevus-associated. The latter are also called melanomas de novo (MN(-)). Objective: To compare clinical evolution and survival of patients with MN(-) and MN(+) at the University Private Hospital of Cordoba (Argentina), by analyzing sentinel lymph node status, disease-free survival at 1 and 5 years and 5-year melanoma specific mortality. Methods: This is a retrospective, transversal study of patients who were diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma from 2000 until 2015. The biopsy specimen was analyzed or revised by the hospital´s Department of Pathology. Results: Of 554 melanoma cases, 208 cutaneous melanomas were included in the study. The mean follow up was 2,44 (0,66- 5,35) years. MN(+) represented the 47,1% of cases and were significantly correlated with superficial spreading subtype, posterior trunk localization, regression, lower Breslow and Clark 2. 5-year disease-free survival was longer in patients with MN(+) and the absence of associated nevus was an independent risk factor. There were no differences in age, gender, tumor diameter, history of atypical mole syndrome, ulceration, mitosis, sentinel lymph node status, 1-year disease-free survival or 5-year melanoma specific mortality.

Acta méd. peru ; 37(2): 204-208, abr-jun 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141997


RESUMEN El compromiso metastásico de los ganglios linfáticos es el factor pronóstico más importante en el cáncer de mama. Conocer el grado de infiltración de los mismos implica sobrevida libre de progresión, sobrevida global y riesgo de recurrencia temprana de la enfermedad, y esto a su vez ayudaría a conocer las terapias adyuvantes que recibirán las pacientes. Presentamos un caso con diagnóstico de carcinoma ductal invasor de la mama izquierda etapa IB que se le realizó biopsia selectiva de ganglio centinela mostrando la linfocentellografía, una migración única a la cadena mamaria interna sin poder acceder al mismo por su localización anatómica retrocostal, se decide rastreo y disección axilar porque así lo recoge nuestro protocolo, a partir de casos como este, nos obliga a realizar una revisión y actualización del tema, y así reajustar nuestros protocolos de actuación con la introducción de técnicas novedosas en nuestro país y los resultados de nuestras primeras experiencias acumuladas. La cadena mamaria interna puede ser el único territorio ganglionar comprometido en la biopsia selectiva de ganglio centinela y, a la vista de los resultados, podría obviarse el estudio ganglionar a nivel axilar cuando no hay sospecha clínica ni radiológica de afectación.

ABSTRACT Metastatic lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer. To know the degree of infiltration of the same involved progression-free survival, global survival and risk of early recurrence of the disease, and this in turn would help to know the adjuvant therapies that patients will receive. We present a case with a diagnosis of stage IB invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast undergoing selective sentinel lymph node biopsy showing lymphocentellography, single migration to the internal mammary gland without access to it due to its retrocostal anatomical location, and axillary exploration and dissection were decided because this is what our protocol includes, based on cases like this, it forces us to carry out a review and update of the subject, and thus readjust our action protocols with the introduction of novel techniques in our country and the results of our first accumulated experiences. The internal mammary chain may be the only lymph node territory involved in selective sentinel lymph node biopsy and, in view of the results, it could obviate lymph node study at the axillary level when there is no clinical or radiological suspicion of involvement.

Mastology (Online) ; 30: 1-4, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141030


Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the surgical treatment of initial breast cancer has been increasingly adopted to assess axillary status as a way to replace total lymphadenectomy. The sentinel lymph node can be identified using coloring agents or radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil, patent blue is the most used dye for this type of procedure, with high rates of identification and safety; however, in some cases, the use of this substance can lead to the occurrence of anaphylactic reactions. The case presented here refers to a 41-year-old female patient admitted for a surgical procedure for total mastectomy associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy with patent blue. After surgical initiation, the patient developed severe anaphylactic shock, staying 21 days in the intensive care unit (ICU) for recovery. Most anaphylactic reactions that occur in the transoperative period are mediated by IgE antibodies, resulting in the degranulation of mast cells and basophils, with the release of mediators such as histamine, prostaglandins, proteoglycans, and cytokines, leading to the clinical manifestations of anaphylaxis. There is evidence that part of the population is allergic to patent blue, and may present with manifestations ranging from hives and pruritus to severe cardiovascular collapse, requiring hospitalization in an ICU. The purpose of this article was to report a case of severe anaphylactic reaction to patent blue and to review the literature regarding this infrequent and potentially serious situation.

Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 157-164, 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125796


Antecedentes: los melanomas en cabeza y cuello (MCC) han sido asociados con factores pronósticos diferentes de aquellos en otras localizaciones. Objetivo: comparar características demográficas, clínicas y resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de pacientes con MCC y pacientes con melanomas en tronco y extremidades (MTE). Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de pacientes operados por melanoma entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2017. Quince pacientes (22,3%) tuvieron MCC y 52 (77,7%) MTE. Resultados: ambos grupos tuvieron edad similar (63,8 ± 21,1 versus 58,5 ± 16), pero los MCC mostraron una tendencia con predominio masculino (80% versus 61,3%). Los MCC tuvieron menor espesor tumoral que los MTE (2,07 versus 5,5 mm) y mayor porcentaje de melanoma in situ, 5 (33,3%) versus 8 (15,3%), pero requirieron vaciamientos ganglionares más a menudo (33% versus 25%) así como reconstrucción del defecto primario con colgajos locales y miocutáneos. Durante el seguimiento, en el grupo de MCC, dos pacientes desarrollaron recidivas locales que fueron extirpadas, y otros tres desarrollaron metástasis a distancia en pulmón, intestino delgado y abdomen y fallecieron por la enfermedad; en el grupo de MTE un paciente tuvo recidiva local y cinco fallecieron de metástasis sistémicas. El tamaño de la muestra no permitió aplicar pruebas de significación entre las diferencias encontradas. Conclusión: los MCC se presentan en un amplio rango de edad y estadios, y tuvieron algunas diferencias clínicas con el MTE. Los defectos producidos por la extirpación de la lesión primaria requieren procedimientos reconstructivos más complejos la mayoría de las veces y se aconseja un abordaje multidisciplinario.

Background: Head and neck melanomas (HNMs) have been associated with prognostic factors different from those on other locations. Objective: The goal of the present study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics and the outcomes of surgical treatment between patients with HNM and those with trunk and extremity melanoma (TEM). Material and methods: The clinical records of patients undergoing surgery for melanoma between October 2014 and April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen patients (22.3%) had HNM and 52 (77.7) presented TEM. Results: There were no differences in age between both groups (63.8 ± 21.1 versus 58.5 ± 16), but there was a trend toward higher percentage of men in the HNM group (80% versus 61.3%). Patients with HNM had lower tumor thickness than those with TEM (2.07 versus 5.5 mm), higher incidence of melanoma in situ [5 (33.3%) versus 8 (15.3%)]; lymph node resection was more common (33% versus 25%) as well as reconstruction of the primary defect with local and musculocutaneous flaps. During follow-up, two patients in the HNM group developed local recurrences that were excised and three presented distant metastases in the lung, small bowel and abdomen and finally died due to the disease. In the TEM group, one patient had local recurrence and five died due to systemic metastases. The sample size was not sufficient to assess statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Head and neck melanomas occur in a wide age range and stages and has some clinical differences with TEM. The defects produced after the excision of the primary lesion often require more complex procedures and should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Melanoma/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Extremities/pathology , Torso/pathology , Margins of Excision , Melanoma/surgery
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863271


The feasibility and safety of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer are still controversial in clinical practice.SLNB after NAC is feasible and safe for patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer,while those with clinically node-positive (cN +) should be carefully considered.In addition to methylene blue and 99mTc-sulfur colloid tracing,some other tracing methods have been proposed in clinical studies,such as carbon nanoparticles and indocyanine green fluorescence tracing.The axillary lymph node (ALN) state of SLNB patients after NAC was associated with molecular subtyping,response to chemotherapy,residual breast tumor size,etc.Therefore,a number of factors should be considered to determine whether ALN dissection is needed.The false negative rate of SLNB after NAC can be reduced by some measures such as placing clips prior to surgery and preoperative tattooing with sterile black carbon suspension.Besides ALN,internal mammary lymph nodes is another route for breast cancer metastasis.As a low-invasive diagnostic technique,internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy can complete lymph node staging and pathological staging to guide treatment.This review attempts to introduce the research progress of SLNB after NAC from multiple aspects such as feasibility and safety,tracer methods,assessment of ALN status and methods to reduce false negative rate.