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Radiol. bras ; 56(1): 21-26, Jan.-Feb. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422533


Abstract Objective: To evaluate acute and chronic changes seen on angiographic and histopathological studies of porcine rete mirabile, comparing those treated with the Menox liquid embolic system (LES) and those treated with the Onyx LES. Materials and Methods: Five pigs, each weighing approximately 35 kg, were submitted to rete mirabile embolization under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic guidance, with the Menox LES or Onyx LES. Four animals were treated with the Menox LES and underwent cerebral angiography, followed by euthanasia, at 1, 30, 60, and 90 days after embolization. One animal was treated with the Onyx LES underwent the same procedures at 30 days after embolization. In a subsequent histopathological analysis, we compared the Menox LES and Onyx LES in terms of the acute and chronic changes observed. Results: We observed no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, or electrocardiographic parameters that could be attributed to the super-selective infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide or the Menox embolic agent. Fluoroscopy showed adequate material opacity, appropriate progression to the center of the rete mirabile and complete unilateral embolization. Microcatheters were uneventfully detached from the embolized nidus. We observed mild to moderate intravascular and extravascular inflammatory responses, without histological evidence of necrotizing arteritis. There were no adverse neurovascular events. Conclusion: The Menox LES appears to be safe and effective, as well as being apparently equivalent to the Onyx LES in terms of the postprocedure angiographic and histopathological findings.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar as alterações angiográficas e histopatológicas agudas e crônicas em rete mirabile suína tratadas com o Menox liquid embolic system (LES) e comparar essas alterações com a embolização com Onyx LES. Materiais e Métodos: A embolização da rete mirabile com Menox LES e Onyx LES foi realizada em cinco suínos pesando cerca de 35 kg sob anestesia geral e orientação fluoroscópica. Quatro animais tratados com Menox LES foram submetidos a angiografia cerebral seguida de eutanásia após 1, 30, 60 e 90 dias e um animal tratado com Onix LES foi submetido ao mesmo procedimento após 30 dias. A análise histopatológica subsequente para alterações agudas e crônicas avaliou o desempenho do Menox LES comparado ao Onyx LES. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações significativas atribuíveis à infusão superseletiva de dimetilsulfóxido ou Menox nos parâmetros de pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca ou eletrocardiograma. A fluoroscopia mostrou opacidade adequada do material, progressão adequada para o centro da rete mirabile e embolização unilateral completa. Os microcateteres foram retirados do nidus embolizado sem complicações. Observou-se resposta inflamatória intravascular e extravascular leve a moderada, sem indício histológico de arterite necrosante. Nenhum dos casos apresentou eventos neurovasculares adversos. Conclusão: A injeção de Menox LES mostrou-se segura e eficaz, além de ser equivalente ao Onyx LES em relação aos achados angiográficos e histopatológicos pós-procedimento.

Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e46, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432103


ABSTRACT Objectives. To determine the proportion of Salmonella enterica in fecal samples of live pigs with suspected salmonellosis analyzed at the diagnostic unit of the University of Antioquia, Colombia between 2019 and 2021, and examine the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Methods. This was a laboratory-based cross-sectional study of routine data on fecal samples received from pig farms in all nine subregions of Antioquia state, Colombia. Salmonella spp. detection at the university is done using enrichment, selective culture, and polymerase chain reaction. Serotypes were identified using the Kauffmann-White scheme and isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using broth microdilution. Results. Of 653 samples tested, 149 (23%) were positive for S. enterica. Nine serotypes were identified. The most common were Salmonella Typhimurium (56%) and its monophasic variant (35%). Resistance to ampicillin (70%) was most frequently observed, followed by ciprofloxacin (55%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (52%). No isolates were resistant to amikacin and gentamicin. Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 classes of antibiotics) was observed in 61 (44%) isolates. Multidrug resistance was highest in S. Typhimurium (57%) compared with the other serotypes. Serotype was associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.01), but age of the pig and sub-region were not. Conclusions. The proportion of Salmonella spp. and the associated high levels of multidrug resistance are of concern and may indicate irrational use of antimicrobials and poor management practices in pig production systems in the region. Strengthened surveillance is needed to monitor and improve farm management practices and the use of antimicrobials in farms in Colombia.

RESUMEN Objetivos. Determinar la proporción de Salmonella enterica en muestras fecales de cerdos vivos con presunta salmonelosis analizadas en la unidad de diagnóstico de la Universidad de Antioquia (Colombia) entre el 2019 y el 2021, así como examinar los serotipos y los patrones de resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio transversal de laboratorio sobre datos ordinarios de muestras fecales provenientes de granjas porcinas de las nueve subregiones del departamento de Antioquia (Colombia). La detección de Salmonella spp. en la universidad se realiza mediante el enriquecimiento, el cultivo selectivo y la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se identificaron los serotipos con el esquema de Kauffmann-White y se examinaron las cepas aisladas para determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana mediante microdilución en caldo. Resultados. De las 653 muestras analizadas, 149 (23%) dieron un resultado positivo para S. enterica. Se identificaron nueve serotipos. Los más comunes fueron Salmonella typhimurium (56%) y su variante monofásica (35%). La resistencia a la ampicilina fue la observada con mayor frecuencia (70%), seguida de la resistencia al ciprofloxacino (55%) y al sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima (52%). Ninguna cepa aislada fue resistente a la amikacina y la gentamicina. Se observó resistencia a múltiples fármacos (resistencia a tres o más clases de antibióticos) en 61 cepas (44%). La resistencia a múltiples fármacos fue más elevada en el caso de S. typhimurium (57%) en comparación con los otros serotipos. Se asoció el serotipo con la resistencia a múltiples fármacos (p = 0,01), a diferencia de la edad del cerdo y la subregión. Conclusiones. La proporción de Salmonella spp. y los elevados niveles asociados de resistencia a múltiples fármacos son preocupantes y pueden ser un indicativo de uso irracional de antimicrobianos y malas prácticas de gestión en los sistemas de producción porcina de la región. Es necesario reforzar la vigilancia para dar seguimiento y mejorar las prácticas de gestión agropecuaria y el uso de antimicrobianos en las granjas en Colombia.

RESUMO Objetivos. Determinar a proporção de Salmonella enterica em amostras de fezes de suínos vivos com suspeita de salmonelose analisadas na unidade de diagnóstico da Universidade de Antioquia, Colômbia, entre 2019 e 2021, e examinar seus sorotipos e padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos. Métodos. Estudo transversal, de base laboratorial, utilizando dados de rotina de amostras de fezes recebidas de suinocultores em todas as nove sub-regiões do estado de Antioquia, Colômbia. A detecção de Salmonella spp. na Universidade é feita por enriquecimento, cultura seletiva e reação em cadeia da polimerase. Os sorotipos foram identificados usando o esquema de Kauffmann-White, e os isolados foram testados quanto à suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Resultados. Das 653 amostras testadas, 149 (23%) foram positivas para S. enterica. Foram identificados nove sorotipos. Os mais comuns foram Salmonella Typhimurium (56%) e sua variante monofásica (35%). A resistência à ampicilina (70%) foi observada com maior frequência, seguida pela resistência ao ciprofloxacino (55%) e ao sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (52%). Nenhum isolado apresentou resistência à amicacina ou gentamicina. Multirresistência (resistência a ≥ 3 classes de antibióticos) foi observada em 61 isolados (44%). A multirresistência foi mais comum em S. Typhimurium (57%), em comparação aos outros sorotipos. Foi constatada associação da multirresistência com sorotipos (p = 0,01), mas não com idade do suíno ou sub-região. Conclusões. A proporção de Salmonella spp. e os níveis elevados associados de multirresistência a antimicrobianos aqui constatados são preocupantes, e podem indicar uso irracional de antimicrobianos e práticas inadequadas de manejo nos sistemas de suinocultura da região. É preciso fortalecer a vigilância para monitorar e melhorar as práticas de manejo agrícola e o uso de antimicrobianos em fazendas na Colômbia.

Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419067


The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonellaisolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)

O uso de antimicrobianos como promotores de crescimento e prevenção de doenças vem sendo constantemente reduzido em diversos sistemas de produção animal, inclusive na suinocultura. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de acidificantes no controle de Salmonella Typhimurium em suínos de 65 dias de idade, detectando o patógeno em órgãos após a eutanásia. Para isso, 24 leitões foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais constituídos por 12 leitões cada. Um grupo controle não tratado (G1) e um grupo de tratamento (G2) que recebeu um acidificante orgânico líquido na água de beber por 10 dias (D-5 a D5). Cinco dias após o início do tratamento (D0), todos os animais foram inoculados oralmente com 106 UFC de Salmonella Typhimurium e avaliados por 12 dias (D12). A cada três dias (D3, D6, D9 e D12), três leitões de cada grupo experimental foram eutanasiados e posteriormente submetidos à necropsia. Amostras de intestino (íleo, ceco, linfonodos mesentéricos e linfonodos ileocólicos), fígado, baço e pulmões foram coletadas para o isolamento de Salmonella. Os resultados mostram que, numericamente, o isolamento de Salmonella nos órgãos do G2 foi inferior ao G1, e que o número de amostras positivas de ceco no G1 (66,7%; 8/12) foi estatisticamente diferente do número de amostras positivas no G2 (16,7%; 2/12), com redução de 28,6% do total de amostras positivas de ceco no grupo tratado em relação ao controle. Portanto, observou-se que o ácido orgânico líquido foi capaz de reduzir a colonização de órgãos por Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)

Animals , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/adverse effects , Salmonella Infections, Animal/drug therapy , Virus Shedding
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e198402, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1417480


The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and disease prevention is being constantly reduced in several animal production systems, including in the swine industry. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using acidifiers to control Salmonella Typhimurium in 65-day-old pigs by detecting the pathogen in organs at euthanasia. For this, 24 piglets were divided into two experimental groups consisting of 12 piglets each. An untreated control group (G1) and a treatment group (G2) received a liquid organic acidifier in the drinking water for 10 days (D-5 to D5). Five days after the start of treatment (D0), all piglets were challenged with 106 CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and assessed for 12 days (D12). Every three days (D3, D6, D9, and D12), three animals from each experimental group were euthanized and then submitted for necropsy. Samples from the intestines (ileum, cecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileocolic lymph nodes), liver, spleen, and lungs were collected to isolate Salmonella. The results show that, numerically, Salmonella isolation in the organs of G2 was lower than in G1 and that the number of positive cecum samples in G1 (66.7%; 8/12) was statistically different from the number of positive models in G2 (16.7%; 2/12), with a reduction of 28.6% of the total cecum positive samples in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it was observed that the liquid organic acidifier product could reduce the colonization of organs by Salmonella Typhimurium. (AU)

Animals , Salmonella Infections/prevention & control , Swine/physiology , Organic Acids/analysis , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(4): 402-409, out.-dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423677


RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar as pressões, as resistências, a oxigenação e a eficácia da descarboxilação de dois oxigenadores associados em série ou em paralelo durante o suporte com oxigenação veno-venosa por membrana extracorpórea. Métodos: Usando os resultados de insuficiência respiratória grave em suínos associada à disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, ao modelo de suporte com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea veno-venosa e à modelagem matemática, exploramos os efeitos na oxigenação, descarboxilação e pressões do circuito de associações de oxigenadores em paralelo e em série. Resultados: Testaram-se cinco animais com peso mediano de 80kg. Ambas as configurações aumentaram a pressão parcial de oxigênio após os oxigenadores. O teor de oxigênio da cânula de retorno também foi ligeiramente maior, mas o efeito na oxigenação sistêmica foi mínimo, usando oxigenadores com alto fluxo nominal (~ 7L/minuto). Ambas as configurações reduziram significativamente a pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono sistêmico. Como o fluxo sanguíneo na oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea aumentou, a resistência do oxigenador diminuiu inicialmente, com aumento posterior, com fluxos sanguíneos mais altos, mas pouco efeito clínico. Conclusão: A associação de oxigenadores em paralelo ou em série durante o suporte com oxigenação veno-venosa por membrana extracorpórea proporciona um modesto aumento na depuração da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono, com leve melhora na oxigenação. O efeito das associações de oxigenadores nas pressões de circuitos extracorpóreos é mínimo.

ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the pressures, resistances, oxygenation, and decarboxylation efficacy of two oxygenators associated in series or in parallel during venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Methods: Using the results of a swine severe respiratory failure associated with multiple organ dysfunction venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support model and mathematical modeling, we explored the effects on oxygenation, decarboxylation and circuit pressures of in-parallel and in-series associations of oxygenators. Results: Five animals with a median weight of 80kg were tested. Both configurations increased the oxygen partial pressure after the oxygenators. The return cannula oxygen content was also slightly higher, but the impact on systemic oxygenation was minimal using oxygenators with a high rated flow (~ 7L/minute). Both configurations significantly reduced the systemic carbon dioxide partial pressure. As the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow increased, the oxygenator resistance decreased initially with a further increase with higher blood flows but with a small clinical impact. Conclusion: Association of oxygenators in parallel or in series during venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support provides a modest increase in carbon dioxide partial pressure removal with a slight improvement in oxygenation. The effect of oxygenator associations on extracorporeal circuit pressures is minimal.

Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410307


La existencia de agentes biológicos como el virus de la peste porcina clásica para la producción de vacunas veterinarias, entre otros de igual importancia para nuestro país y la región en general, justifica una buena gestión de la seguridad biológica, ya que el desconocimiento del riesgo por parte del personal que labora en estas vacunas puede provocar contaminaciones de graves consecuencias medio ambientales, en el proceso de producción y a nivel personal si son causantes de accidentes fatales. El objetivo de la investigación fue realizar un análisis de la percepción de riesgo existente en el personal responsable del proceso de producción de la vacuna contra la peste porcina clásica. La aplicación del RISKPERCEP en el personal de la instalación de producción de la vacuna de la peste porcina clásica mostró como resultados el comportamiento de diferentes variables que hacen evidente la alta subestimación del riesgo existente en el personal evaluado y que existe la necesidad de profundizar en la formación en bioseguridad para todo el personal que labora en el proceso. Finalmente, se relacionan estos temas y su importancia para mejorar la calidad de la producción en estos procesos, así como incrementar el conocimiento acerca del riesgo biológico a todos los niveles(AU)

The existence of high-risk biological agents such as the classical swine fever virus for the production of veterinary vaccines, among others of equal importance for our country and the region in general, justifies good management of biological safety, since ignorance of the risk on part of the personnel who work in them, can cause contamination with serious consequences both at personal and environmental level, causing fatal accidents. The objective of the research was to carry out an analysis of the perception of existing risk in the personnel responsible for the production process of the vaccine against classical swine fever. The application of RISKPERCEP in the classical swine fever vaccine production facility showed as results the behavior of different variables that make evident the high underestimation of the existing risk in the evaluated personnel and that there is a need to deepen the training in biosafety to all staff working in the process. Finally, these issues and their importance to improve the quality of production in these processes are related, as well as to increase knowledge about biological risk at all levels(AU)

Animals , Bacterial Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Classical Swine Fever/prevention & control , Swine
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 69(2): 129-142, mayo-ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1395016


RESUMEN Dientamoeba fragilis es un protozoário que parasita el intestino grueso del hombre y animales domésticos. Hasta el momento, aún no son claros aspectos de su ciclo de vida, como el rango de hospedadores, reservorios, mecanismo de infección, entre otros. Se postula que el cerdo es un hospedador natural para este protozoario y que, debido a su cercanía con el humano, podría facilitar una transmisión zoonótica. En Colombia no existen a la fecha estudios sobre la presencia de D. fragilis en hospedadores animales, incluidos los cerdos, y los datos sobre la prevalencia de otros protozoarios intestinales en estos animales son escasos. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de protozoarios intestinales, incluyendo D. fragilis, en cerdos de una granja tecnificada de una zona rural de Medellín (región Andina de Colombia). Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal de 70 cerdos en etapa de preceba, que fueron evaluadas mediante examen directo, tinción tricrómica y Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. Se realizaron análisis univariados con medidas de frecuencia relativa y tendencia central y análisis bivariados para la exploración de factores de riesgo. Se detectó la presencia de D. fragilis en un 13% de las muestras y de otros parásitos como Entamoeba spp. (66%), Blastocystis spp. (64%), Balantioides coli (36%), Cryptosporidium spp. (36%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), coccidias (4%) y Giardia spp. (1,4%). En este primer reporte de D. fragilis en cerdos en Colombia se observó la alta prevalencia de otros protozoarios patógenos, lo que corrobora el papel de los cerdos como importantes reservorios de infecciones humanas. Estudios sobre la presencia de este protozoario tanto en cerdos como en el personal encargado de su manejo contribuirían al conocimiento sobre su dinámica de transmisión.

ABSTRACT Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan that parasitizes the large intestine of humans and domestic animals. To date, some aspects regarding D. fragilis life cycle, including hosts, reservoirs, infection mechanism, among others, are not yet clear. Swine are considered natural hosts for this protozoan, therefore their close contact with humans promotes its zoonotic transmission. In Colombia there are no studies on the presence of D. fragilis in animal hosts, including pigs, and data about other intestinal protozoa are scarce. The objective was to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan, including D. fragilis, in pigs raised in a farm from a rural area of Medellin (Andean region of Colombia). Fecal samples from 70 pigs in prefattening stage were collected. Direct fecal smear examination, trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain were used in the study. Univariate analysis (frequency distribution and central tendency measures) and bivariate analysis were used to explore risk factors. Dientamoeba fragilis was found in 13% of the evaluated fecal samples. Other parasites detected included: Entamoeba spp. (66%), Blastocystis spp. (64%), Balantioides coli (36%), Cryptosporidium spp. (36%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), coccidias (4%), and Giardia spp. (1,4%). This is the first report of D. fragilis in swine in Colombia, and the high prevalence of other pathogen protozoa was also observed, which corroborates the role of pigs as important reservoirs for human infections. Studies focused on the evaluation of both swine and swine-exposed farm workers should be done in order to know the dynamics of transmission of this parasite.

Animals , Parasites , Protozoan Infections, Animal , Swine , Disease Reservoirs , Zoonoses , Risk Factors , Dientamoeba , Intestine, Large , Animals, Domestic , Water Reservoirs , Entamoeba , Infections
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6318, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360397


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the technical specificities and feasibility of simulation of minimally invasive spine surgery in live pigs, as well as similarities and differences in comparison to surgery in humans. Methods A total of 22 Large White class swine models, weighing between 60 and 80kg, were submitted to surgical simulations, performed during theoretical-practical courses for training surgical techniques (microsurgical and endoscopic lumbar decompression; percutaneous pedicular instrumentation; lateral access to the thoracic spine, and anterior and retroperitoneal to the lumbar spine, and management of complications) by 86 spine surgeons. For each surgical technique, porcine anatomy (similarities and differences in relation to human anatomy), access route, and dimensions of the instruments and implants used were evaluated. Thus, the authors describe the feasibility of each operative simulation, as well as suggestions to optimize training. Study results are descriptive, with figures and drawings. Results Neural decompression surgeries (microsurgeries and endoscopic) and pedicular instrumentation presented higher similarities to surgery on humans. On the other hand, intradiscal procedures had limitations due to the narrow disc space in swines. We were able to simulate situations of surgical trauma in surgical complication scenarios, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and excessive bleeding, with comparable realism to surgery on humans. Conclusion A porcine model for simulation of minimally invasive spinal surgical techniques had similarities with surgery on humans, and is therefore feasible for surgeon training.

Animals , Spinal Fusion/methods , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Swine , Treatment Outcome , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lumbosacral Region
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06839, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356554


This study describes the spontaneous and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol and warns about the effects of the administration of antibiotics to animals that receive ionophores in the feed as growth promoters. A batch with 1,200 finishing pigs fed a diet containing 30ppm of salinomycin received florfenicol (60ppm via feed) to control respiratory diseases. Twenty-seven pigs had difficulty walking, tip-toe walking, muscle tremors, and anorexia seven days after the start of treatment. Twenty-two animals died, 10 recovered, and two were sent to the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of CAV-UDESC to be necropsied. The experimental reproduction of the disease was carried out to clarify the possible influence of florfenicol on salinomycin poisoning using 12 pigs divided into four groups with three animals each, treated for 16 days with diets containing no additives (Group 1), 50ppm of salinomycin (Group 2), 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 3), and 50ppm of salinomycin and 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 4). Only animals in Group 4 became ill. The clinical disease was reproduced from the ingestion of 24.67mg/kg/LW of salinomycin and 19.74mg/kg/LW of florfenicol. Both natural and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol caused a condition of myopathy characterized in histology by hyaline degeneration and floccular necrosis of skeletal fibers, with macrophage infiltrate, associated with the figures of regeneration in skeletal muscles and multifocal areas of the proliferation of fibroblasts, being more intense in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. Therefore, florfenicol can cause the accumulation of ionophore salinomycin in the animal organism, resulting in a condition of toxic myopathy.(AU)

O presente trabalho descreve as intoxicações espontânea e experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol e alerta sobre os efeitos da administração de antibióticos aos animais que recebem ionóforos na ração como promotores de crescimento. Um lote com 1.200 suínos em fase de terminação, alimentados com ração contendo 30ppm de salinomicina, recebeu florfenicol (60ppm via ração) para o controle de doenças respiratórias. Sete dias após o início do tratamento, 27 suínos apresentaram dificuldade de locomoção, "caminhar em brasa", tremores musculares e anorexia. Vinte e dois animais morreram, 10 recuperaram-se e dois foram encaminhados ao Laboratório de Patologia Animal (CAV-UDESC) para serem necropsiados. Para esclarecer a possível influência do florfenicol na toxicidade da salinomicina foi realizada a reprodução experimental da doença utilizando 12 suínos, divididos em 4 grupos com 3 animais cada, tratados por 16 dias com rações contendo: Grupo 1 = sem aditivos, Grupo 2 = 50ppm de salinomicina, Grupo 3 = 40ppm de florfenicol e Grupo 4 = 50ppm de salinomicina e 40ppm de florfenicol. Somente os animais do Grupo 4 adoeceram. A doença clínica foi reproduzida a partir da ingestão de 24,67mg/kg/PV de salinomicina e 19,74 mg/kg/PV de florfenicol. Tanto a intoxicação natural quanto a experimental por salinomicina associada ao uso de florfenicol provocaram um quadro de miopatia caracterizado na histologia por degeneração hialina e necrose flocular das fibras esqueléticas, com infiltrado macrofágico, associada às figuras de regeneração na musculatura esquelética e áreas multifocais de proliferação de fibroblastos, sendo mais intensas nos músculos longissimus dorsi e semimembranoso. Conclui-se que, o florfenicol tem a capacidade de ocasionar o acúmulo do ionóforo salinomicina no organismo animal, resultando em um quadro de miopatia tóxica.(AU)

Animals , Poisoning/veterinary , Sus scrofa , Myotoxicity/etiology , Ionophores/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Respiration Disorders/veterinary , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894


Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.

Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.

Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
Acta cir. bras ; 37(1): e370103, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364251


Introduction: Portal hypertension still represents an important health problem worldwide. In the search for knowledge regarding this syndrome, experimental studies with animal models have proven to be useful to point the direction to be taken in future randomized clinical trials. Purpose: To validate the experimental model of portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices in a medium-sized animal. Methods: This study included five minipigs br1. Midline laparotomy with dissection of the portal vein and production of a calibrated stenosis of this vein was performed. Measurement of pressure in the portal venous and digestive endoscopic were performed before and five weeks after the production of a stenosis. Results: All animals were 8 months old, average weight of 17 ± 2.5 kg. The mean pressure of the portal vein immediately before the partial ligation of the portal vein was 8.9 + 1.6 mm Hg, with 26.6 + 5.4 mm Hg in the second measurement five weeks later (p < 0.05). No gastroesophageal varices or hypertensive portal gastropathy were seen at endoscopy procedures in our sample at any time in the study. Conclusion: Portal vein ligation in minipigs has been validated in the production of portal hypertension, but not in the formation of esophageal varices.

Animals , Swine, Miniature/surgery , Esophageal and Gastric Varices/surgery , Hypertension, Portal/surgery
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370703, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402969


Purpose: To determine whether dexmedetomidine aggravates hemodynamic, metabolic variables, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation in experimental septic shock. Methods: Twenty-four pigs randomized into: Sham group (n = 8), received saline; Shock group (n = 8), received an intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli O55 (3 × 109 cells/mL, 0.75 mL/kg, 1 hour); Dex-Shock group (n = 8), received bacteria and intravenous dexmedetomidine (bolus 0.5 mcg/kg followed by 0.7 mcg/kg/h). Fluid therapy and/ornorepinephrine were administered to maintain a mean arterial pressure > 65 mmHg. Hemodynamic, metabolic, oxygenation, inflammatory markers, and microcirculation were assessed at baseline, at the end of bacterial infusion, and after 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Results: Compared to Shock group, Dex-Shock group presented a significantly increased oxygen extraction ratio at T180 (23.1 ± 9.7 vs. 32.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.0220), decreased central venous pressure at T120 (11.6 ± 1 vs. 9.61 ± 1.2 mmHg, P = 0.0214), mixed-venous oxygen saturation at T180 (72.9 ± 9.6 vs. 63.5 ± 9.2%, P = 0.026), and increased plasma lactate (3.7 ± 0.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1 mmol/L, P = 0.003). Despite the Dex-Shock group having a better sublingual vessel density at T240 (12.5 ± 0.4 vs. 14.4 ± 0.3 mL/m2; P = 0.0003), sublingual blood flow was not different from that in the Shock group (2.4 ± 0.2 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 mL/kg, P = 0.4418). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine did not worsen the hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, or sublingual blood flow disorders resulting from septic shock. Despite inducing a better sublingual vessel density, dexmedetomidine initially and transitorily increased the mismatch between oxygen supply and demand.

Animals , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Swine/physiology , Dexmedetomidine/analysis , Microcirculation , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/analysis , Hemodynamics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e018321, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360923


Abstract In swine production, parasites, especially gastrointestinal helminths, generate considerable economic losses. Therefore, effective control measures, such as the use of the correct anthelmintics, are of paramount importance for maintaining profitability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anthelmintic oxibendazole, administered orally, in pigs (non-industrial) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. To that end, we selected 18 pigs naturally parasitized by gastrointestinal nematodes, as determined by examination of fecal samples (eggs per gram (EPG > 500) of feces), and divided them into two groups: treated (with a 10-day course of oxibendazole) and control (untreated). After the treatment period, the animals were euthanized. During necropsy, the helminths in the gastrointestinal tract were identified and quantified. The species identified were, in order of occurrence, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum, and Hyostrongylus rubidus. In Brazilian swine herds, traditional (non-industrial) production systems can favor the transmission of helminths. We found that treatment with oxibendazole was 100% effective against A. suum and H. rubidus, whereas it was 99.65% effective against O. dentatum and 99.20% effective against T. suis, significantly reducing helminth counts (P < 0.01 for all). We conclude that oxibendazole is effective in controlling the main helminths in swine.

Resumo A presença de parasitoses na suinocultura gera prejuízos econômicos relevantes. Dentre elas, destacam-se as helmintoses gastrintestinais. Sendo assim, medidas de controle efetivas, tais como o uso de anti-helmínticos corretos, são importantes para a lucratividade na criação de suínos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do oxibendazol, administrado pela via oral, em suínos (não industrial) naturalmente infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais, na região de Franca/SP. Para isso, foram selecionados, por meio de exames coproparasitológicos (ovos por grama (OPG > 500) de fezes), 18 suínos naturalmente parasitados por nematódeos gastrintestinais, que foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais: grupo tratado (oxibendazol) e grupo controle. Após o tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à necropsia parasitológica, e os resultados das quantificações de helmintos presentes no trato gastrintestinais indicaram a presença das espécies Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum e Hyostrongylus rubidus em ordem decrescente de ocorrência. Nos rebanhos suínos brasileiros, os sistemas de produção não tecnificadas podem favorecer a transmissão de helmintos. O tratamento com o oxibendazol obteve eficácia de 100% para as espécies A. suum e H. rubidus, de 99,65% para o O. dentatum e de 99,20% para o T. suis, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0,01) as contagens de helmintos, comprovando que o uso do oxibendazol é eficaz no controle dos principais helmintos de suínos.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932910


Objective:To evaluate the left ventricular diastolic dyssynchrony (LVDD) and its influencing factors early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using phase analysis of SPECT gated myocardial perfusion imaging (GMPI).Methods:Bama miniature swines ( n=16) were subjected to establish AMI models. GMPI was performed before and 1 d after AMI to obtain the extent of myocardial perfusion defect (Extent, %) and left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony (LVSD)/LVDD parameters, namely the phase histogram bandwidth (PBW) and phase standard deviation (PSD). Meanwhile, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and the ratio of early to late peak mitral diastolic flow (E/A) were obtained by echocardiography. Independent-sample t test, paired t test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Results:Sixteen AMI swines were successfully created. Compared to baseline, Extent, LVEDV and LVESV significantly increased on 1 d after AMI ( t values: -11.14, -4.55, -6.12, all P<0.001), while LVEF and E/A significantly decreased ( t values: 10.16, 2.18, P<0.001, P=0.046). GMPI showed that the LVDD parameters PBW and PSD increased significantly on 1 d after AMI when compared to those at baseline((142.25±72.06)° vs (33.06±8.98)°, (56.15±26.71)° vs (12.51±5.13)°; t values: -6.11, -6.60, both P<0.001). There were significant differences between LVSD parameters and LVDD parameters (PBW: (109.06±62.40)° vs (142.25±72.06)°, PSD: (44.40±25.61)° vs (56.15±26.71)°; t values: -2.73, -2.20, P values: 0.016, 0.044). LVDD parameters PBW, PSD were negatively correlated with E/A after AMI ( r values: -0.569, -0.566, P values: 0.021, 0.022), and positively correlated with the Extent ( r values: 0.717, 0.634, P values: 0.002, 0.008). The phase analysis of SPECT GMPI to evaluate LVDD showed good intra-observer and inter-observe reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): 0.953-0.984, all P<0.001). Conclusions:LVDD occurs early on 1 d after AMI, and can reflect left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The Extent is correlated with LVDD significantly. Phase analysis of SPECT GMPI is an accurate method to evaluate LVDD and left ventricular diastolic function.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1837-1846, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927821


We researched the mechanism of African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein E248R in regulating the cGAS-STING pathway. First, we verified via the dual-luciferase reporter assay system that E248R protein inhibited the secretion of IFN-β induced by cGAS-STING or HT-DNA in a dose-dependent manner. The relative quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the overexpression of E248R inhibited HT-DNA-induced transcription of IFN-b1, RANTES, IL-6, and TNF-α in PK-15 cells. Next, we found that E248R interacted with STING by co-immunoprecipitation assay and laser confocal microscopy. Finally, we demonstrated that E248R inhibited the expression of STING protein by using Western blotting. We demonstrated for the first time that the E248R protein of ASFV suppressed the host innate immune response via inhibiting STING expression. The results are pivotal in extending the understanding of the ASFV immune escape and can guide the design of vaccines against ASFV.

African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , DNA , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Swine
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927643


OBJECTIVE@#To establish a sensitive, simple and rapid detection method for African swine fever virus (ASFV) B646L gene.@*METHODS@#A recombinase-aided amplification-lateral flow dipstick (RAA-LFD) assay was developed in this study. Recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) is used to amplify template DNA, and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) is used to interpret the results after the amplification is completed. The lower limits of detection and specificity of the RAA assay were verified using recombinant plasmid and pathogenic nucleic acid. In addition, 30 clinical samples were tested to evaluate the performance of the RAA assay.@*RESULTS@#The RAA-LFD assay was completed within 15 min at 37 °C, including 10 min for nucleic acid amplification and 5 minutes for LFD reading results. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 200 copies per reaction. And there was no cross-reactivity with other swine viruses.@*CONCLUSION@#A highly sensitive, specific, and simple RAA-LFD method was developed for the rapid detection of the ASFV.

African Swine Fever/virology , African Swine Fever Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Recombinases/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Viral Proteins/genetics
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(4): 61-70, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376422


ABSTRACT Porcine cytomegalovirus(PCMV) is a recognized pathogen of domestic swine that is widely distributed around the world. PCMV is the etiological agent of inclusion body rhinitis and has also been associated with other diseases that cause substantial losses in swine production. Wild boar populations can act as reservoirs of numerous infectious agents that affect pig livestock, including PCMV. The aim of this work was to assess the circulation of this virus in free-living wild boars that inhabit Northeastern Patagonia (Buenos Aires and Río Negro Provinces), Argentina. Nested-PCR assays were conducted to evaluate the presence of PCMV in samples of tonsil tissue collected from 62 wild boar individuals. It was found that the overall rate of infection was about 56%, with significant higher values (almost 90%) in the age group corresponding to piglets (animals less than 6 months old). In addition, a seasonal variation was observed in the PCMV detection rate, with an increase during the transition from summer to autumn. In conclusion, this study confirmed that wild boars are major carriers and dispersal agents of PCMV in Northeastern Patagonia, which raises the necessity to evaluate the extent to which this virus affects local livestock production.

RESUMEN El citomegalovirus porcino (CMVP) es un reconocido patógeno de los cerdos domésticos y cuenta con una amplia distribución mundial. Es el agente etiológico de la rinitis por cuerpos de inclusión y también se lo ha asociado con otras enfermedades que causan pérdidas sustanciales en la producción porcina. Las poblaciones de jabalíes pueden actuar como reservorios de numerosos agentes infecciosos que afectan al ganado porcino, incluido el CMVP. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la circulación de este virus en jabalíes de vida libre que habitan en la región noreste de la Patagonia argentina, en las provincias de Buenos Aires y Río Negro. Se realizaron ensayos de PCR anidada para evaluar la presencia de CMVP en muestras de tejido de amígdalas tomadas de 62 jabalíes. Se encontró que la tasa general de infección fue de aproximadamente el 56%, con valores significativamente más altos (casi el 90%) en el grupo de edad correspondiente a los lechones (animales con menos de 6meses). Además, se observó una variación estacional en la tasa de detección de CMVP, con un incremento durante la transición de verano a otoño. En conclusión, este estudio confirmó que los jabalíes son importantes portadores y agentes de dispersión del CMVP en el noreste patagónico, lo cual plantea la necesidad de evaluar en qué medida este virus afecta la producción ganadera local.

Animals , Swine Diseases , Cytomegalovirus , Argentina/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Sus scrofa
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1357-1360, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355680


Cortisol is a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it in the entire body. Almost every cell contains receptors for cortisol and so cortisol can have lots of different actions depending on which sort of cells it is acting upon. These effects include controlling the body's blood sugar levels and thus regulating metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory product, controlling salt and water balance and influencing blood pressure. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months, between March-August 2020, in 2 swine farms in Iasi county, Romania, on a total of 46 pigs, 3 to 4 months old, both males and females, in order to investigate stress levels in finishing facilities. The study revealed higher levels of cortisol while eosinophil counts severely decreased, changes which are associated with a strong reaction to stress for individuals that were housed in finishing facilities.(AU)

O cortisol é um hormônio esteroide, um dos glicocorticoides, produzido no córtex das glândulas suprarrenais e, em seguida, liberado no sangue, que o transporta por todo o corpo. Quase todas as células contêm receptores para o cortisol e, portanto, ele pode ter muitas ações diferentes, dependendo do tipo de célula sobre a qual atua. Esses efeitos incluem controlar os níveis de açúcar no sangue do corpo e, assim, regular o metabolismo, atuando como um produto anti-inflamatório, controlando o equilíbrio de sal e água e influenciando a pressão arterial. O presente estudo foi realizado durante um período de três meses, entre março-agosto de 2020, em duas granjas de suínos no condado de Iasi, Romênia, em um número total de 46 porcos, de três a quatro meses de idade, machos e fêmeas, a fim de investigar níveis de estresse nas instalações de acabamento. O estudo revelou níveis mais elevados de cortisol, enquanto a contagem de eosinófilos diminuiu severamente, mudanças que são consideradas associadas a uma forte reação ao estresse para indivíduos que foram alojados em instalações de acabamento.(AU)

Animals , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Swine/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Romania , Farms
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1047-1057, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345276


Colostrum is the main source of immunoglobulins (Ig) for neonate piglets and plays a crucial role within the health and growth of the piglet. Currently in pig farming, there are still no widespread practical methods for measuring the Ig concentration in colostrum at herd level. We evaluated sows' colostrum IgG concentration using an optical and a digital Brix refractometer and their performance was correlated to an IgG ELISA test, and flow cytometry. Colostrum concentrations of IgG and IgA averaged 74.05 ± 21.37mg/mL and 20.2 ± 5.32mg/mL respectively. The mean value of the Brix percentages for optical refractometer was 26.32%, and for digital was 28.32%. The Brix refractometer measurements of colostrum samples presented high correlation for IgG content analyzed by ELISA (Optical = 0.74, Digital = 0.87; P <0.001). Considering the immunophenotyping, the values for IgG and IgA lymphoblasts indicated a highly significant relationship to ELISA (IgG=0.77, IgA=0.84; P<0.001). The Brix refractometer can be considered a useful tool to be included in a colostrum monitoring program to improve potentially neonatal health. In addition, we demonstrated that flow cytometry can be an important tool to analyze and characterize the immunological potential of sow colostrum.(AU)

O colostro é a principal fonte de imunoglobulinas (Ig) para leitões recém-nascidos e desempenha um papel crucial na saúde e no crescimento dos leitões. Atualmente, na suinocultura, ainda não existem métodos amplamente utilizados na prática de produção para medir a concentração de imunoglobulinas no colostro suíno. Avaliou-se a concentração de IgG no colostro de porcas usando refratômetros Brix óptico e digital, e o desempenho foi comparado com ELISA e citometria de fluxo. As concentrações de IgG e IgA no colostro foram 74,05 ± 21,37mg/mL e 20,2 ± 5,32mg/mL, respectivamente. A percentagem de Brix média das amostras de colostro para o refratômetro óptico foi 26,32%, e para o digital foi 28,32%. As medições dos refratômetros de Brix apresentaram elevada correlação com a concentrações de IgG medidas por ELISA (óptico=0,74, digital=0,87; P<0,001). Considerando a imunofenotipagem, os valores dos linfoblastos IgG e IgA apresentaram alta correlação com o ELISA (IgG=0,77, IgA=0,84; P<0,001). O refratômetro Brix pode ser considerado uma ferramenta útil para ser incluída em um programa de monitoramento de colostro para melhorar a saúde neonatal. Além disso, foi demonstrado que a citometria de fluxo pode ser uma ferramenta importante para analisar e caracterizar o potencial imunológico do colostro de porcas.(AU)

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Immunoglobulin G , Colostrum , Sus scrofa/immunology , Immunoglobulin A , Flow Cytometry/veterinary
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 955-965, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285270


The aim of this study was to evaluate the reasons of quality deviation of a concentrate from a predefined standard. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All three treatments used a 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20 kg were stored in three storage places for four months. Water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and air relative humidity in different storage places. Regarding the kind of mixer, the greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was observed in the PremixMixer. Adjustments are imperative in the handling and use procedures of this kind of mixer to meet the quality requirements required in the concentrate production. Analyzing the effect of the mineral-vitamin premix level, no difference could be defined with the evaluated parameters.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as razões do desvio de qualidade de um concentrado de um padrão predefinido. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM. Todos esses três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL; T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e umidade relativa do ar em diferentes locais de armazenamento. Em relação ao tipo de misturador, a maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao PremixMixer. Ajustes são imperativos nos procedimentos de manuseio e uso desse tipo de misturador para atender aos requisitos de qualidade exigidos na produção de concentrado. Ao se analisar o efeito do nível da pré-mistura de vitaminas e minerais, nenhuma diferença pôde ser definida com os parâmetros avaliados.(AU)

Animals , Swine , Nutrients/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Selenium , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Vitamins , Zinc , Copper