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1.
Radiol. bras ; 55(4): 236-241, Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394564

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of telemedicine using a standardized multiorgan ultrasound assessment protocol to guide untrained on-site general practitioners at a field hospital during a life-threatening crisis. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 11 inpatients with shock, with or without acute dyspnea, for whom general practitioners spontaneously requested remote evaluation by a specialist. Results: All of the general practitioners accepted the protocol and were able to position the transducer correctly, thus obtaining key images of the internal jugular vein, lungs, and inferior vena cava when guided remotely by a telemedicine physician, who interpreted all of the findings. However, only four (36%) of the on-site general practitioners obtained the appropriate key image of the heart in the left parasternal long-axis view, and only three (27%) received an immediate interpretation of an image from the remote physician. The mean evaluation time was 22.7 ± 12 min (range, 7-42 min). Conclusion: Even in life-threatening situations, untrained general practitioners may be correctly guided by telemedicine specialists to perform multiorgan point-of-care ultrasound in order to improve bedside diagnostic evaluation.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade da orientação por telemedicina de médicos in situ não treinados na avaliação ultrassonográfica de múltiplos órgãos mediante protocolo padronizado, durante uma situação de risco de vida em hospital de campanha. Materiais e Métodos: Avaliamos 11 pacientes com choque e/ou dispneia de manifestação aguda durante a internação, cujos clínicos gerais solicitaram auxílio de especialista a distância. Resultados: Todos os médicos aceitaram o protocolo e, posicionando o transdutor, obtiveram imagens-chave da veia jugular interna, pulmão e veia cava inferior, quando guiados por um médico via telemedicina, que interpretou os achados desses órgãos. No entanto, apenas quatro (36%) médicos in situ obtiveram a imagem-chave apropriada do coração na janela paraesternal do eixo longo esquerdo e três (27%) tiveram imagem remotamente interpretada imediatamente. O tempo de avaliação variou de 7-42 minutos (média de 22,7 ± 12 minutos). Conclusão: Em situação de risco de vida, os clínicos gerais não treinados podem ser corretamente orientados por especialistas em telemedicina para realizar ultrassonografia multiórgãos in situ, melhorando o diagnóstico beira do leito.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(2): 319-325, ago. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383752

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Sabe-se que a inflamação desempenha um papel crucial em muitas doenças, incluindo a COVID-19. Objetivo: Utilizando a dilatação fluxo-mediada (DFM), objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inflamação na função endotelial de pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos: Este estudo foi realizado com um total de 161 indivíduos, dos quais 80 foram diagnosticados com COVID-19 nos últimos seis meses (48 mulheres e 32 homens com idade média de 32,10±5,87 anos) e 81 eram controles saudáveis (45 mulheres e 36 homens com idade média de 30,51±7,33 anos). Os achados do ecocardiograma transtorácico e da DFM foram analisados em todos os indivíduos. Resultados com p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. Resultados: O ecocardiograma e a DFM do grupo COVID-19 foram realizados 35 dias (intervalo: 25-178) após o diagnóstico. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nos parâmetros ecocardiográficos. Em contraste, a DFM (%) foi significativamente maior no grupo controle (9,52±5,98 versus 12,01±6,18; p=0,01). Na análise multivariada com o modelo stepwise progressivo, a DFM foi significativamente diferente no grupo controle em relação ao grupo COVID-19 (1,086 (1,026-1,149), p=0,04). O teste de correlação de Spearman indicou que a DFM (r=0,27; p=0,006) apresentou correlação positiva fraca com a presença de COVID-19. Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo apontam para disfunção endotelial induzida por COVID-19, avaliada por DFM, na fase inicial de recuperação.


Abstract Background: Inflammation is known to play a crucial role in many diseases, including COVID-19. Objective: Using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), we aimed to assess the effects of inflammation on endothelial function in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This study was conducted with a total of 161 subjects, of whom 80 were diagnosed with COVID-19 within the last six months (comprising 48 women and 32 men with a mean age of 32.10 ± 5.87 years) and 81 were healthy controls (comprising 45 women and 36 men with a mean age of 30.51 ± 7.33 years). We analyzed the findings of transthoracic echocardiography and FMD in all subjects. All results were considered statistically significant at the level of p < 0.05. Results: The echocardiography and FMD of the COVID-19 group were performed 35 days (range: 25-178) after diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in echocardiographic parameters. Differently, FMD (%) was significantly higher in the control group (9.52 ± 5.98 vs. 12.01 ± 6.18, p=0.01). In multivariate analysis with the forward stepwise model, FMD was significantly different in the control group compared to the COVID-19 group (1.086 (1.026 - 1.149), p=0.04). A Spearman's correlation test indicated that FMD (r=0.27, p=0.006) had a weak positive correlation with the presence of COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings point to COVID-19-induced endothelial dysfunction, as assessed by FMD, in the early recovery phase.

4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(7): 948-952, July 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394587

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a training program in ultrasound-guided fine needle puncture using a cost-effective model. METHODS: We evaluated the training of 20 resident radiology physicians, based on a theoretical course and a practical simulation part with models that focused on the puncture technique of thyroid nodules. The total time to perform the procedure, the number of punctures on the model surface, and the application of a questionnaire were used to assess the performance and confidence of the resident physicians in performing the procedure. RESULTS: The training model used was easy to reproduce, inexpensive, versatile, and capable of simulating the echotexture of thyroid tissue. There was a significant reduction in the total time needed to perform the procedure with a mean of 173.7 s±91.28 s from R1 and 112.8 s±17.66 s from R2 before the course vs. 19.2 s±112.8 s and 14.3 s±9.36 s, respectively, after the course (p<0.0001); as well as the number of superficial punctures, with a mean of 2.2 punctures±0.92 from R1 and 1.5 punctures±0.32 from R2 before the course vs 1.1 punctures±0.71 and 1.0 puncture±0.0, respectively, after the course (p<0.0001). There was also a subjective improvement in the performance and confidence in performing this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: An inexpensive and easy-to-reproduce gelatin-based model enabled adequate training of resident physicians and proved capable of improving their skills and confidence in simulating the procedure, even with a short period of training.

5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(7): 646-653, July 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aims to describe the behavior of chromosomopathy screenings in euploid fetuses. Methods This is a prospective descriptive study with 566 patients at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation. The associations between ultrasound scans and serological variables were studied. For the quantitative variables we used the Spearman test; for the qualitative with quantitative variables the of Mann-Whitney U-test; and for qualitative variables, the X2 test was applied. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results We have found that gestational age has correlation with ductus venosus, nuchal translucency, free fraction of β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor; there is also a correlation between history of miscarriages and nasal bone. Furthermore, we correlated body mass index with nuchal translucency, free fraction of β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Maternal age was associated with free fraction of β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Conclusion Our study demonstrates for the first time the behavior of the biochemical and ultrasonographic markers of chromosomopathy screenings during the first trimester in euploid fetuses in Colombia. Our information is consistent with international reference values. Moreover, we have shown the correlation of different variables with maternal characteristics to determine the variables that could help with development of a screening process during the first trimester with high detection rates.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever o comportamento do rastreamento de cromossomopatias em fetos euploides. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo descritivo com 566 pacientes, entre 11 e 14 semanas de gestação. A associação entre a ultrassonografia e as variáveis sorológicas foi estudada. Para as variáveis quantitativas foi utilizado o teste de Spearman; para as qualitativas com variáveis quantitativas foi utilizado o teste U de Mann-Whitney e para as variáveis qualitativas foi aplicado o teste X2. A significância foi fixada em p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Constatou-se que a idade gestacional tem correlação com o ducto venoso, translucência nucal, fração livre da subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriônica humana, proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez e fator de crescimento placentário; há também correlação entre a história de abortos e o osso nasal. Além disso, correlacionamos o índice de massa corporal com translucência nucal, fração livre da subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez. A idade materna foi relacionada com fração livre da subunidade β da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e proteína plasmática A associada à gravidez. Conclusão Nosso estudo demonstra pela primeira vez o comportamento dos marcadores bioquímicos e ultrassonográficos de triagem de cromossomas durante o primeiro trimestre em fetos euploides na Colômbia. Nossa informação é consistente com a referência de valores internacionais. Além disso, mostram-se as relações das diferentes variáveis com as características maternas para determinar as variáveis capazes de ajudar no desenvolvimento de um processo de rastreamento durante o primeiro trimestre com alta taxa de detecção.

6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(6): 580-585, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393964

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is primarily a disorder of obese young women characterized by symptoms associated with raised intracranial pressure in the absence of a space-occupying lesion. Objective: To compare the mean optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured using ultrasonography (USG) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and normal healthy individuals. Methods: A prospective study. Ninety-seven participants aged 18-80 years were divided into two groups as patients with IIH (n=47) and the control group (n=50). The ONSD was measured using ultrasound with a 10-MHz probe. ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the optic disc. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine patients with IIH using ONSD. Results: Body mass index was higher in the IIH group compared with the control group (p=0.001). The mean ONSD was statistically significantly thicker in the IIH group (6.4 mm) than in the control group (4.90 mm). The cut-off value of ONSD in patients with IIH was measured as 5.70 mm. There was a significant negative correlation between ONSD and age (r:-0.416 and p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between BMI and ONSD (r: 0.437 and p<0.001). Conclusions: Ultrasound can be a reliable, non-invasive and rapid tool to measure ONSD in monitoring patients with IIH. After the first diagnosis of IIH, based on neuroimaging and measuring intracranial pressure using invasive methods, ONSD can be used in treatment and follow-up.


Resumo Antecedentes: A hipertensão intracraniana idiopática (HII) é primariamente um distúrbio de mulheres jovens obesas caracterizado por sintomas e sinais associados à pressão intracraniana elevada na ausência de uma lesão ocupante de espaço. Objetivo: Comparar o diâmetro médio da bainha do nervo óptico (ONSD) medido por ultrassonografia (USG) em pacientes com hipertensão intracraniana idiopática (HII) e indivíduos normais e saudáveis. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo. Noventa e sete participantes com idade entre 18-80 anos foram divididos em dois grupos: pacientes com HII (n=47) e o grupo controle (n=50). O ONSD foi medido por ultrassonografia com uma sonda de 10 MHz. O ONSD foi medido 3 mm atrás do disco óptico. A análise da curva ROC foi realizada para determinar pacientes com HII usando-se o ONSD. Resultados: O índice de massa corporal foi maior no grupo HII comparado ao grupo controle (p=0,001). O ONSD médio foi estatística e significativamente mais espesso no grupo HII (6,4 mm) do que no grupo controle (4,90 mm). O valor de corte do ONSD em pacientes com HII foi medido em 5,70 mm. Houve correlação negativa significativa entre ONSD e idade (r:-0,416 ep<0,001). Houve correlação positiva entre IMC e ONSD (r: 0,437 ep<0,001). Conclusões: A ultrassonografia pode ser uma ferramenta confiável, não invasiva e rápida para medir o ONSD no monitoramento de pacientes com HII. Após o primeiro diagnóstico de HII, com base em neuroimagem e na medida da pressão intracraniana por métodos invasivos, o ONSD pode ser utilizado no tratamento e acompanhamento.

7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3)jun. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385679

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The local anesthetic volume for a single-shot suprainguinal fascia iliaca block (SFIB) is a key factor of a block success because the courses of the three target nerves from the lumbar plexus (LP), the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve (FN), and obturator nerve (ON), at the inguinal area are isolated and within striking distance. Thus, this cadaveric study aims to demonstrate the distribution of dye staining on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP following the ultrasound-guided SFIB using 15-50 ml of methylene blue. A total of 40 USG-SFIBs were performed on 20 fresh adult cadavers using 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 ml of methylene blue. After the injections, the pelvic and inguinal regions were dissected to directly visualize the dye stained on the LFCN, FN, ON, and LP. All FN and LFCN were stained heavily when the 15-50 ml of dye was injected. Higher volumes of dye (40-50 ml) spread more medially and stained on the ON and LP in 60 % of cases. To increase the possibility of dye spreading to all three target nerves and LP of the SFIB, a high volume (≥40 ml) of anesthetic is recommended. If only a blockade of the FN and LFCN is required, a low volume (15-25 ml) of anesthetic is sufficient.


RESUMEN: El volumen de anestésico local para un bloqueo de la fascia ilíaca suprainguinal (FISI) de una sola inyección es un factor clave para el éxito del bloqueo, debido a que los cursos de los tres nervios objetivo del plexo lumbar (PL), el nervio cutáneo femoral lateral (NCFL), femoral (NF) y el nervio obturador (NO), en el área inguinal están aislados y dentro de la distancia de abordaje. Por lo tanto, este estudio cadavérico tiene como objetivo demostrar la distribución de la tinción de tinte en NCFL, NF, NO y PL siguiendo el FISI guiado por ultrasonido usando 15-50 ml de azul de metileno. Se realizaron un total de 40 USG-FISI en 20 cadáveres adultos frescos utilizando 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 y 50 ml de azul de metileno. Después de las inyecciones, se disecaron las regiones pélvica e inguinal para visualizar directamente el tinte teñido en NCFL, NF, NO y PL. Todos los NF y NCFL se tiñeron intensamente cuando se inyectaron los 15- 50 ml de colorante. Volúmenes mayores de colorante (40-50 ml) se esparcen más medialmente y tiñen el NO y la PL en el 60 % de los casos. Para aumentar la posibilidad de que el colorante se propague a los tres nervios objetivo y al PL del FISI, se recomienda un volumen elevado (≥40 ml) de anestésico. Si solo se requiere un bloqueo de NF y NCFL, un volumen bajo (15-25 ml) de anestésico es suficiente.

10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(6): 765-769, June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387167

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the kidneys among the subjects with early stages of type 2 diabetic kidney disease by shear wave elastography quantitatively. METHODS: A total of 108 patients with type 2 diabetic kidney disease and 17 control subjects were enrolled. According to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-to-urinary creatinine ratio, patients were classified into stages 1 to 3 diabetic kidney disease. Grayscale ultrasound andshear wave elastography were performed. The sizes, depths, and shear wave elastography values were recorded. These parameters were compared between the diabetic kidney disease and the control subjects. RESULTS: The mean shear wave elastography values were significantly higher in the diabetic kidney disease group (10.156±1.75 kPa vs. 8.241±1.4 kPa; p<0.001). We obtained statistically significantly higher shear wave elastography values in stages 2 and 3 diabetic kidney disease subjects than control subjects and in patients with stage 3 diabetic kidney disease compared to those with stage 1 diabetic kidney disease (p<0.05 for all). We obtained a cutoff value of 9.23 kPa for predicting diabetic kidney disease in early stages, with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 82%. CONCLUSION: Shear wave elastography may be used as a noninvasive, simple, and quantitative method to provide diagnostic information as a part of routine management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in the early stages of diabetic kidney disease.

11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(5): 605-609, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376185

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare arterial stiffness and ultrasound indices in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: In our retrospective study, 83 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients were assigned to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group and 80 healthy controls were enrolled. Pearson's correlation analysis software was used to analyze the correlation between arterial stiffness (including brachial ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial blood pressure index) and ultrasound index (including resistance index, pulsatility index, and intima-media thickness) at the carotid artery in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. RESULTS: The ultrasound resistance index and pulsatility index level of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group were lower than those of control group (t=6.326, 8.321, p<0.001). Compared with the control group, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group had higher intima-media thickness, total plaque area, and number of plaques (t=4.574, 7.493, 5.093, p<0.001). The arterial stiffness and ankle-brachial blood pressure index level in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease group were higher than those in the control group (t=6.392, 5.109, p<0.001). Moreover, arterial stiffness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was negatively correlated with the ankle-brachial blood pressure index, resistance index, and pulsatility index levels (p<0.05), while it is positively correlated with intima-media thickness, total plaque area, and number of plaques (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have stiffer arteries compared with healthy control subjects; the ultrasound index could be used as an auxiliary indicator for clinical prediction of arterial stiffness, which is helpful to improve the accuracy of prediction and thus better guide clinical interventions in high-risk groups of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in time.

12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5): 475-481, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Muscle imaging methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been used for many years to determine the dystrophic process in muscular dystrophies. However, the knowledge regarding muscle architecture in children at early-stage Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with different functional levels is limited. Objective: To explore the effect of functional level on muscle architectural properties in children with early stage DMD and the difference between DMD and typically developing (TD) peers. Methods: Thirty children with DMD (15 Grade 1 and 15 Grade 2 according to the Vignos Scale) and 5 TD peers were included. Ultrasound imaging was used to measure muscle thickness (MT), fascicle length (FL), and pennation angle (PA) of vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles bilaterally. Results: The MT and FL values for VL, and MT, FL and PA values for MG muscles were higher in children with DMD compared with those of TD peers (p<0.05). The FL of VL, and MT and FL of GM muscles of children with DMD Grade 2 were higher than those of children with DMD Grade 1 (p<0.05). Conclusions: MT and FL are increased in children with DMD compared with TD peers. Additionally, muscle architecture seems to be affected even at the early stages of the disease.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Métodos de imagem muscular, como ultrassom e ressonância magnética, têm sido usados há muitos anos para determinar o processo distrófico em distrofias musculares. No entanto, o conhecimento a respeito da arquitetura muscular em crianças com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) em estágio inicial, com diferentes níveis funcionais, é limitado. Objetivo: Explorar o efeito do nível funcional nas propriedades arquitetônicas do músculo em crianças com DMD em estágio inicial e a diferença entre DMD e seus pares em desenvolvimento típico (DT). Métodos: Trinta crianças com DMD (15 Grau 1 e 15 Grau 2 de acordo com a Escala de Vignos) e cinco colegas DT foram incluídos. A ultrassonografia foi usada para medir a espessura muscular (EM), o comprimento do fascículo (FL) e o ângulo de penetração (PA) dos músculos vasto lateral (VL) e gastrocnêmio medial (MG) bilateralmente. Resultados: Os valores de EM e FL para VL e os valores de EM, FL e PA para músculos MG foram maiores em crianças com DMD em comparação com os de seus pares DT (p<0,05). O FL do VL e o EM e o FL dos músculos GM de crianças com DMD Grau 2 foram maiores do que aqueles de crianças com DMD Grau 1 (p<0,05). Conclusões: TM e FL estão aumentados em crianças com DMD em comparação com seus pares DT. Além disso, a arquitetura muscular parece ser afetada mesmo nos estágios iniciais da doença.

13.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 86(1): 41-48, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376428

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hidatidosis es una zoonosis producida por Echinococcus granulosus, de naturaleza endémica y con mayor prevalencia en zonas rurales. Su manifestación clínica depende del órgano que afecte y de la velocidad de crecimiento del parásito. La localización más frecuente es el parénquima hepático, manifestándose como hallazgo incidental cuando es asintomático o con síntomas como el cólico biliar. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) respaldan la clasificación de Gharbi y la OMS, que permite estimar el estadio de los quistes hidatídicos. Valoraremos los hallazgos imagenológicos mediante ecografía, tomografía computada y resonancia magnética, ya que son un pilar diagnóstico importante para determinar la ubicación y la caracterización de los quistes.


Abstract Hydatidosis is a zoonosis produced by Echinococcus granulosus, being of an endemic nature with a major prevalence on rural zones. Its clinical manifestations depend on the organ it affects and the parasite growth rate. The most frequent location is on liver's tissue, manifesting itself as an incidental finding when it is asymptomatic or with symptoms, as biliary colic. The Pan American Health Organization and World Health Organization (WHO) support Gharbi and WHO's classification, allowing to estimate the stage of the hydatid cyst. We will assess the imaging findings in ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging since they are an important diagnostic pilar to determine their location and characterization.

14.
Med. UIS ; 35(1): 17-29, ene,-abr. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394429

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hidrocefalia es un problema de salud frecuente en pediatría, en particular durante el primer mes de vida. La incidencia en América Latina es una de las más altas del mundo. En Colombia no existen datos representativos sobre la incidencia real de esta enfermedad. Recientes hallazgos relacionados con la dinámica del líquido cefalorraquídeo permitieron proponer nuevos modelos sobre la fisiopatología de la hidrocefalia que, junto con los hallazgos en la Resonancia Magnética, han llevado a tener una mejor comprensión de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este articulo es realizar una revisión de la información disponible en la literatura sobre los avances en la fisiopatología de la enfermedad y los hallazgos en neuroimágenes, además de realizar una breve revisión sobre el papel de estas en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de los pacientes. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con términos MeSH, en las bases de datos de PUBMED, OVID y SCOPUS con artículos publicados en los últimos 6 años, seleccionado un total de 30 artículos que abordaron el tema de forma integral. Los nuevos hallazgos descritos como lo son el sistema glinfático y el papel de las AQP4 y los avances en las neuroimágenes, sobre todo de la resonancia magnética, han ayudado a comprender mejor esta entidad, apoyando el desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de la dinámica del líquido cefalorraquídeo y a partir de él diferentes explicaciones sobre la fisiopatología. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 17-29.


Abstract Hydrocephalus is a frequent health problem in pediatrics, particularly during the first month of life. The incidence in Latin America is one of the highest in the world. In Colombia there are no representative data. Recent findings related to the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid allowed proposals of new models on the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus that, along with new findings on MRI, have led to a better understanding of the disease. The aim of this work is to review the information available in the literature about the progress in the pathophysiology of the disease and neuroimaging findings, in addition to conducting a brief review on the role of these in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients. A bibliographic review with MeSH terms was carried out in PUBMED, OVID and SCOPUS databases, with articles published in the last 6 years. 30 articles that dealt with the theme in a comprehensive way were included. New findings described as the glymphatic system and the role of AQP4, along with advances in neuroimaging, especially MRI, have helped to better understand hydrocephalus, supporting the development of a new model of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics, and based on it, different explanations regarding its pathophysiology. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 17-29.

15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(4): 339-343, Apr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374458

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Carotid artery stenosis increases cerebral ischemic event risk through changing different cerebral hemodynamic parameters. Objective: To investigate how cerebral hemodynamics in the M1 segment of middle cerebral artery change in patients with carotid artery stenosis, after motor tasks using transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). Methods: Thirty-two healthy subjects and 30 patients with unilateral symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were recruited. The patient population was divided into three groups according to the degree of stenosis (group 1: ≥50 to 69%, group 2: 70 to 89% and group 3: ≥90 to 99%). TCD was used to measure the pulsatility index (PI) and cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR). Results: In the patient group, significant differences for symptomatic side PI values (p=0.01) and mean CVR increases (p=0.05) were observed, compared with the healthy controls. However, the difference was not statistically significant for asymptomatic side PI values and mean CVR increases. The results from the intergroup comparison showed significantly higher percentages of symptomatic and asymptomatic side CVR increases in group 1, compared with groups 2 and 3 (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions: Our study showed that cerebral autoregulation and hemodynamic mechanisms are impaired in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Furthermore, the impairment of PI and CVR tends to get worse with increasing degrees of stenosis. In addition, this study demonstrated that assessment of these two hemodynamic parameters in clinical practice might be helpful for monitoring the progress of carotid artery stenosis.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A estenose da artéria carótida aumenta o risco de evento isquêmico cerebral por meio da alteração de diferentes parâmetros hemodinâmicos cerebrais. Objetivo: Investigar como a hemodinâmica cerebral no segmento M1 da artéria cerebral média se altera em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida, após tarefas motoras com ultrassonografia Doppler transcraniana (DTC). Métodos: Foram recrutados trinta e dois indivíduos saudáveis e 30 pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida sintomática unilateral. A população de pacientes foi dividida em três grupos de acordo com o grau de estenose (grupo 1: ≥50 a 69%, grupo 2: 70 a 89% e grupo 3: ≥90 a 99%). A DTC foi usada para medir o índice de pulsatilidade (IP) e a reatividade vasomotora cerebral (RVC). Resultados: No grupo de pacientes, foram observadas diferenças significativas para os valores de IP do lado sintomático (p=0,01) e aumentos médios da RVC (p=0,05), em comparação com os controles saudáveis. No entanto, a diferença não foi estatisticamente significativa para os valores de IP laterais assintomáticos e aumentos médios de RVC. Os resultados da comparação intergrupos mostraram percentagens significativamente maiores de aumentos da RVC do lado sintomático e assintomático no grupo 1, em comparação com os grupos 2 e 3 (p=0,001 e p=0,002, respectivamente). Conclusões: Nosso estudo mostrou que a autorregulação cerebral e os mecanismos hemodinâmicos estão prejudicados em pacientes com estenose da artéria carótida. Além disso, o comprometimento do IP e da RVC tende a piorar com o aumento dos graus de estenose. Além disso, este estudo demonstrou que a avaliação desses dois parâmetros hemodinâmicos na prática clínica pode ser útil para monitorar a evolução da estenose da artéria carótida.

16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(4): 344-352, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374468

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Transcranial Doppler has been tested in the evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics as a non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure (ICP), but there is controversy in the literature about its actual benefit and usefulness in this situation. Objective: To investigate cerebral blood flow assessed by Doppler technique and correlate with the variations of the ICP in the acute phase of intracranial hypertension in an animal model. Methods: An experimental animal model of intracranial hypertension was used. The experiment consisted of two groups of animals in which intracranial balloons were implanted and inflated with 4 mL (A) and 7 mL (B) for controlled simulation of different volumes of hematoma. The values of ICP and Doppler parameters (systolic [FVs], diastolic [FVd], and mean [FVm] cerebral blood flow velocities and pulsatility index [PI]) were collected during the entire procedure (before and during hematoma simulations and venous hypertonic saline infusion intervention). Comparisons between Doppler parameters and ICP monitoring were performed. Results: Twenty pigs were studied, 10 in group A and 10 in group B. A significant correlation between PI and ICP was obtained, especially shortly after abrupt elevation of ICP. There was no correlation between ICP and FVs, FVd or FVm separately. There was also no significant change in ICP after intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the potential of PI as a parameter for the evaluation of patients with suspected ICP elevation.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O Doppler transcraniano (DTC) é uma técnica não invasiva para a avaliação da hemodinâmica cerebral, porém existem controvérsias na literatura sobre sua aplicabilidade preditiva em situações de elevada pressão intracraniana (PIC). Objetivo: Investigar o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral pelo DTC e correlacioná-lo com as variações da PIC na fase aguda da hipertensão intracraniana em modelo animal. Métodos: Dois grupos de animais (suínos) foram submetidos a hipertensão intracraniana secundária à indução de diferentes volumes de hematoma, por meio da insuflação de balão intracraniano controlado com 4 e 7 mL de solução salina fisiológica (grupos A e B, respectivamente). Em seguida, administrou-se infusão venosa de solução salina hipertônica (SSH 3%). Foram coletados os valores dos parâmetros de PIC e DTC (velocidade sistólica [FVs], diastólica [FVd] e média [FVm] do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral), bem como o índice de pulsatilidade (IP). Comparações entre os parâmetros do DTC e o monitoramento da PIC foram realizadas. Resultados: Vinte porcos foram estudados, dez no grupo A e dez no grupo B. Correlação significativa entre IP e PIC foi obtida, principalmente logo após a elevação abrupta da PIC. Não houve correlação entre PIC e FVs, FVd ou FVm separadamente. Também não houve alteração significativa na PIC após a infusão de SSH. Conclusões: Esses resultados demonstram o potencial do IP como um bom parâmetro para a avaliação de pacientes com suspeita de elevação da PIC.

17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(4): 435-441, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387897

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Antenatal recognition of severe cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) by ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may aid decisions regarding the indication of fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion. Methods An integrative review was performed. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE used terms related to CDH, diagnosis, MRI, and US. The inclusion criteria were reviews and guidelines approaching US and MRI markers of severity of CDH published in English in the past 10 years. Results The search retrieved 712 studies, out of which 17 publications were included. The US parameters were stomach and liver positions, lung-to-head ratio (LHR), observed/expected LHR (o/e LHR), and quantitative lung index. The MRI parameters were total fetal lung volume (TFLV), observed/expected TFLV, relative fetal or percent predicted lung volumes, liver intrathoracic ratio, and modified McGoon index. None of the parameters was reported to be superior to the others. Conclusion The most mentioned parameters were o/e LHR, LHR, liver position, o/e TFLV, and TFLV.


Resumo Objetivo A identificação pré-natal de casos graves de hérnia diafragmática congênita (HDC) por ultrassonografia (US) e ressonância magnética (RM) pode ajudar a decidir sobre a indicação de oclusão traqueal endoscópica fetal. Métodos Uma revisão integrativa foi realizada pesquisando nas bases MEDLINE e EMBASE comtermos relativos a HDC, diagnóstico, RM, e US. Os critérios de inclusão foram revisões e diretrizes abordando marcadores ultrassonográficos e de ressonância para a gravidade de HDC publicados em inglês nos últimos 10 anos. Resultados Foram obtidos 712 estudos, dos quais 17 foram incluídos. Os parâmetros de US foram posições do estômago e do fígado, relação pulmão-cabeça (LHR, na sigla em inglês), LHR observada/esperada (o/e LHR), e índice pulmonar quantitativo (QLI, na sigla em inglês). Os parâmetros de RM foram volume pulmonar fetal total (TFLV, na sigla em inglês), o/e TFLV, volume pulmonar fetal relativo e porcentagem predita, razão do fígado intratorácico (LiTR, na sigla em inglês) e índice de McGoon modificado. Nenhum dos parâmetros foi mencionado como superior aos demais. Conclusão Os parâmetros mais citados foram o/e LHR, LHR, posição do fígado, o/e TFLV, e TFLV.

18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(2): 282-288, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387993

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the relationship between the presence and severity of rotator cuff (RC) injury with obesity and the time of exposure to obesity. Secondarily, to evaluate the relationship and prevalence of demographic and metabolic factors in obese individuals with RC injury. Methods This is a cross-sectional study with 235 obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 30 kg/m2). Demographic data (age and gender), metabolic data (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, lipid profile, and time of exposure to obesity), physical examination (weight, height, waist circumference, and clinical tests), and musculoskeletal ultrasound examination were used to analyze the results. Results There was no evidence of an association between RC injury and BMI (p » 0.82), time of exposure to obesity (p » 0.29), or abdominal circumference (p » 0.52). In the subgroup with injury, age (p < 0.001), presence of diabetes mellitus (p » 0.013), hypertension (p < 0.001), level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p » 0.026), and time of exposure to obesity (p < 0.001) were significantly greater compared to the subgroup without injury. In the search for other parameters independently associated with RC injury, associations were observed with age (p » 0.0003) and hypertension (p » 0.004). Conclusion We did not evidence an association between obesity and the time of exposure to it with the occurrence and severity of RC injury. However, individuals with injury had a longer time of exposure to obesity and prevalence of metabolic disorders than individuals without RC injury. In addition, our findings suggest an association between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and advanced age with RC injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a relação da presença e da gravidade da lesão do manguito rotador (MR) com a obesidade e o tempo de exposição à obesidade. De forma secundária, avaliar a relação e a prevalência de fatores demográficos e metabólicos em indivíduos obesos com lesão do MR. Métodos Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 235 pacientes obesos (índice de massa corporal [IMC] 30 kg/m2). Dados demográficos (idade e gênero), metabólicos (hipertensão, diabetes mellitus, perfil lipídico, e tempo de exposição à obesidade), exame físico (peso, estatura, circunferência abdominal, e testes clínicos), e exame ultrassonográfico musculoesquelético foram utilizados para a análise dos resultados. Resultados Não foi evidenciada associação da lesão do MR com IMC (p » 0,82), tempo de exposição à obesidade (p » 0,29), ou circunferência abdominal (p » 0,52). No subgrupo com lesão, a idade (p < 0,001), a presença de diabetes melito (p » 0,013), a hipertensão (p < 0,001), o nível de lipoproteína de alta densidade (high-density lipoprotein, HDL, em inglês) (p » 0,026), e o tempo de exposição à obesidade (p < 0,001) foram significativamente maiores em comparação ao subgrupo sem lesão do MR. Na busca por demais parâmetros associados de forma independente para lesão do MR, foram observadas associações com idade (p » 0,0003) e hipertensão (p »0,004). Conclusão Não evidenciamos associação da obesidade e do tempo de exposição a ela coma ocorrência e a gravidadeda lesãodo MR. Porém, indivíduos comlesão apresentaram maior tempo de exposição à obesidade e prevalência de disfunções metabólicas do que indivíduos sem lesão. Além disso, nossos achados sugerem uma associação entre hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) e idade avançada com a lesão do MR.

19.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(1): 10-23, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376901

ABSTRACT

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound has changed the evaluation of pancreatic diseases and has achieved a histopathological diagnosis (when associated with a puncture); however, this procedure requires training, is not free of complications, and around 25 % of patients may have false negatives. Therefore, quantitative elastography with the strain ratio has been implemented to differentiate benign masses from malignant ones. There is growing but not yet conclusive evidence, given the heterogeneity of the results (without consensus on its performance). It is necessary to develop other methods that allow for greater diagnostic certainty, such as the liver fibrosis index (LFI) measured by endoscopic ultrasonography. This method is based on artificial intelligence and validated for diagnosing and monitoring liver fibrosis. Our group considers that it could also be used to assess the pancreatic parenchyma. Aim: To evaluate whether the LFI can differentiate three types of pancreatic tissues: normal pancreas, fatty pancreas, and pancreatic cancer. Materials and methods: Prospective cross-sectional single-center study. We included sixty-six patients over 18 years of age with an indication for endoscopic ultrasonography. Group 1 consisted of patients with an indication other than the biliopancreatic disease (55 patients). The endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) fatty pancreas classification scale was applied to this group, taking the echogenicity of the spleen (previously validated) as a reference; this group was subdivided into normal pancreatic parenchyma and fatty pancreas. Group 2 (11 patients) included those examined for solid pancreatic lesions with a positive cytological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. We used a Google Form as a data collection tool, available with a shortened address (shorturl.at/pIMWX). It was filled out before and after the procedure by Gastroenterology fellows, previously trained for this purpose. The LFI was measured in the pancreas in real-time using software supplied by the manufacturer (Hitachi Noblus) between January 2019 and January 2020. All patients underwent a complete biliopancreatic echoendoscopy, with a linear Pentax echoendoscope and Hitachi Noblus processor. Then, qualitative and quantitative elastography was performed, including LFI measurement. Results: We included a total of 66 patients: 11 with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer confirmed by cytology and 55 sent for ultrasound endoscopy due to pathologies other than the biliopancreatic disease. The age range was 23-89, with a mean of 56.75 years. The most frequent history was steatosis or steatohepatitis (n = 14) (25.45 %). The most frequent indication for performing the procedure was subepithelial lesion (n = 29) (52.73 %). The percentages of patients according to pancreatic echogenicity were Grade I (n = 29) (52.73 %); Grade II (n = 5) (9.09 %); Grade III (n = 18) (32.73 %); Grade IV (n = 3) (5.45 %). Grades I and II were taken as a normal pancreas and Grades III and IV as a fatty pancreas, divided into n = 34 patients (61.82 %) for a normal pancreas and n = 21 (38 %) for a fatty pancreas. According to the scale used, there is a fatty pancreas prevalence of 38.18 %. The LFI was measured in three subgroups: those considered endoscopically normal, those classified as fatty pancreas, and patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer confirmed by cytology taken from the pancreas. The LFI for these groups were, respectively, normal pancreas: LFI 2.60, range 0.97-3.47 (95 % CI 2.17-3.02); fatty pancreas: LFI 3.87, range 2-5.5 (95 % CI 3.44-4.29); pancreatic cancer: LFI 6.35, range 5.8-7.8 (95 % CI 5.92-6.77). Conclusions: This is the first pilot study that applies the LFI to the pancreatic parenchyma. It is useful in differentiating a normal pancreas, a fatty pancreas, and pancreatic carcinoma non-invasively. This finding must be validated in larger and more heterogeneous populations.

20.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 37(1): 76-79, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368224

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O ultrassom tem sido utilizado na atualidade na medicina intensiva. A fasciite necrosante quando não diagnosticada e tratada rapidamente apresenta progressão rápida e alta mortalidade. O objetivo é apresentar a importância da anatomia na fasciite necrosante e o uso do ultrassom no diagnóstico precoce. Métodos: Apresentou-se a aplicação do ultrassom point of care e a relevância da anatomia na fasciite necrosante. Resultados: As comunicações anatômicas entre as fáscias das regiões escrotal, perineal, peniana e abdominal permitem a disseminação do processo infeccioso decorrente da gangrena de Fournier para as regiões adjacentes. O ultrassom possibilitou o diagnóstico precoce na fasciite necrosante. Conclusão: As comunicações entre as fáscias das regiões escrotal, perineal, peniana e abdominal contribuíram para a progressão do processo infeccioso decorrente da gangrena de Fournier e o ultrassom possibilitou o diagnóstico precoce.


Introduction: Ultrasound is currently being used in intensive care medicine. When not diagnosed and treated quickly, necrotizing fasciitis has a rapid progression and high mortality. The objective is to present the importance of anatomy in necrotizing fasciitis and the use of ultrasound in early diagnosis. Methods: The application of point-of-care ultrasound and the relevance of anatomy in necrotizing fasciitis were presented. Results: The anatomical communications between the fasciae of the scrotal, perineal, penile and abdominal regions allow the spread of the infectious process resulting from Fournier's gangrene to the adjacent regions. Ultrasound enabled early diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. Conclusion: Communications between the fasciae of the scrotal, perineal, scrotal, penis and abdominal regions contributes to the progression of the infectious process resulting from Fournier gangrene and ultrasound permitted earlier diagnose.

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