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1.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 278-283, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366041

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) are an important public health problem in all countries. Knowledge of their relationship with the various socioeconomic levels is necessary for an understanding of their epidemiology and behavior in society. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to correlate education with history of sexually transmitted diseases, especially for syphilis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study carried out in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: The medical records of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2010 and July 2018 were assessed. These patients were attended at the specialized assistance service for HIV/AIDS) of the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD/AIDS) of the city of Juiz de Fora. In total, 335 patients were selected. RESULTS: In our sample, 73.13% were male; 57.36% were aged between 25 and 45 years and 24.23% were over 45 years of age. Regarding sexual orientation, 61.78% were homosexual. Regarding education, 52.88% had "unskilled education", while 47.12% had "qualified education". Analysis on the relationship between schooling and syphilis, a positive relationship between qualified schooling and syphilis was observed: odds ratio = 3.588; 95% confidence interval: 1.090-11.808. CONCLUSION: Homosexual male patients are most affected by HIV. Furthermore, this disease is not limited only to individuals with low education. Syphilis should be suspected in all individuals.

2.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1436-1444, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352123

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las fracturas expuestas de tibia han sido uno de los problemas más importantes para los sistemas de atención en salud pública. Se caracterizan por tres factores de riesgo fundamentales: daño óseo y tejidos blandos, gran posibilidad de contaminación y dificultades para el tratamiento conservador y quirúrgico, debido al daño óseo y de partes blandas asociados, que implica un alto índice de complicaciones. El tratamiento de estas fracturas es un tema ampliamente discutido en cuanto a la técnica quirúrgica a utilizar. Debido la pobre vascularización y poca cantidad de tejidos blandos que cubren la tibia, este hueso es muy vulnerable a la pseudoartrosis y a la infección. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la técnica quirúrgica de transportación ósea con fijador externo Ilizarov y evaluar el resultado en defectos óseos de tibia de más de 6 cm, secundario a pseudoartrosis infectada. Como resultado, el paciente evolucionó con una pseudoartrosis séptica de tibia derecha secundaria a fractura expuesta. El seguimiento fue de 18 meses, la pérdida ósea de 6 cm, la velocidad de distracción de 1 mm/día, el período de transportación de 95 días, y el tiempo con fijador de 198 días. Fue necesario realizar un nuevo proceder quirúrgico en el sitio de contacto, con vistas a reavivar los extremos óseos. La transportación ósea con fijador Ilizarov es válida para el tratamiento de la pérdida ósea en fracturas expuestas de tibia o pseudoartrosis séptica (AU).


ABSTRACT Exposed tibia fractures have been one of the most important problems for public health care systems. They are characterized by three main risk factors: bone and soft tissue damage, high possibilities of contamination and difficulties for the surgical and conservative treatment, due to the associated bone and soft tissues damage implying a high rate of complications. The treatment of these fractures is a widely discussed topic regarding the surgical technique to be used. Due to poor vascularization and little quantity of soft tissue covering tibia, this bone is highly vulnerable to pseudoarthritis and infection. The aim of this work was to describe the surgical technique of bone transport with Ilizarov external fixator and to evaluate the result in tibial bone defects of more than 6 cm, secondary to infected pseudoarthritis. As a result, the patient evolved with septic pseudoarthritis of right tibia secondary to exposed fracture. The follow up lasted 18 months; the bone loss was 6 cm; the distraction speed was 1 mm/day; the transportation period was 95 days and the time with fixator was 198 days. It was necessary to perform a new surgical procedure at the contact site to recuperate the bone ends. Bone transport with Ilizarov fixator is valid for the bone loss treatment in tibia exposed fractures or septic pseudo arthritis (AU).


Subject(s)
Male , Pseudarthrosis/epidemiology , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Pseudarthrosis/surgery , Pseudarthrosis/complications , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Tibial Fractures/diagnosis , Fractures, Open/surgery , Fractures, Open/diagnosis
3.
Multimed (Granma) ; 25(2): e2244, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154956

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la infección de la necrosis pancreática es la complicación local más grave de la pancreatitis aguda. Ocurre aproximadamente en un 35% de los pacientes y presenta una mortalidad cercana al 80%. Objetivo: identificar el espectro microbiológico de la necrosis pancreática infectada Métodos: realizamos un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo, prospectivo en la Unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Universitario Carlos Manuel de Céspedes de la ciudad de Bayamo, Cuba, en el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2012 hasta diciembre de 2018.Fueron incluidos 71 pacientes con el diagnostico o sospecha de pancreatitis aguda necrotizante infectada que requirieron necrosectomía con toma de cultivo intraoperatorio. Resultados: del total de pacientes de la serie la mayoría fueron masculinos representando el 56,3 % de la muestra. la etiología más frecuentemente encontrada fue la litiasica con 38 pacientes (53,5%). Mientras que 52 pacientes (73,2%) presentaban más del 50% de la glándula pancreática con necrosis. En 63 pacientes se confirmó la presencia de infección de la necrosis. Con predominio de la infección monomicrobiana en 48 casos (76,2%).El germen más frecuentemente encontrado fue E. coli (47,9%).La mortalidad post-operatoria fue de 15 pacientes (21, 1%).De ellos 14 pacientes (93,3%) con infección luego de la necrosectomía. Conclusiones: predominó la infección monomicrobiana por E. coli. Los pacientes con confirmación de crecimiento bacteriano post necrosectomía presentaron mayor mortalidad.


ABSTRACT Introduction: infection of pancreatic necrosis is the most serious local complication of acute pancreatitis. It occurs in approximately 35% of patients and has a mortality rate close to 80%. Objective: to identify the microbiological spectrum of infected pancreatic necrosis Methods: we carried out a longitudinal, descriptive, prospective study in the intensive care unit of the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes University Hospital in the city of Bayamo, Cuba, in the period from January 2012 to December 2018. 71 patients with the diagnosis or suspicion of infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis that required necrosectomy with intraoperative culture taking. Results: of the total number of patients in the series, the majority were male, representing 56.3% of the sample. the most frequently found etiology was lithiasis with 38 patients (53.5%). While 52 patients (73.2%) had more than 50% of the pancreatic gland with necrosis. In 63 patients, the presence of necrosis infection was confirmed. With a predominance of monomicrobial infection in 48 cases (76.2%). The most frequent germ found was E. coli (47.9%). Post-operative mortality was 15 patients (21.1%). Of them 14 patients (93.3%) with infection after necrosectomy. Conclusions: monomicrobial infection by E. coli predominated. Patients with confirmed bacterial growth post necrosectomy had higher mortality.


RESUMO Introdução: a infecção da necrose pancreática é a complicação local mais grave da pancreatite aguda. Ocorre em aproximadamente 35% dos pacientes e tem mortalidade próxima a 80%. Objetivo: identificar o espectro microbiológico da necrose pancreática infectada Métodos: foi realizado um estudo longitudinal, descritivo e prospectivo na unidade de terapia intensiva do Hospital Universitário Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, nacidade de Bayamo, Cuba, no período de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2018. 71 pacientes portadores de diagnóstico ou suspeita de pancreatite necrosante aguda infectada que exigiu necrosectomia com coleta de cultura intraoperatória. Resultados: do total de pacientes da série, a maioria era do sexo masculino, representando 56,3% da amostra. a etiologia mais encontrada foi a litíase com 38 pacientes (53,5%). En quanto 52 pacientes (73,2%) apresentavam mais de 50% da glândula pancreática com necrose. Em 63 pacientes, foi confirmada a presença de infecção de necrose. Com predomínio de infecção monomicrobiana em 48 casos (76,2%). O germe mais encontrado foi E. coli (47,9%). A mortalidade pós-operatória foi de 15 pacientes (21,1%). Destes 14 pacientes (93,3%) com infecção após necrosectomia. Conclusões: a infecção monomicrobiana por E. coli predominou. Pacientes com crescimento bacteriano confirmado após necrosectomia apresentaram maior mortalidade.

4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 115-118, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287251

ABSTRACT

Resumen El tratamiento escalonado de la pancreatitis aguda necrotizante infectada consiste en el uso de antibióticos de amplio espectro, drenaje y necrosectomía mínimamente invasiva, si fuese necesaria. Esto ha reemplazado a la cirugía abierta como el estándar de tratamiento. El desbridamiento retroperitoneal video asistido (VARD), es una forma de necrosectomía quirúrgica mínimamente invasiva. Presentamos una serie de 5 casos (2 mujeres y 3 varones) con pancreatitis aguda grave y necrosis pancreática infectada tratados de forma escalonada y VARD. El rango de edad fue de 27 a 60 años. Todos los pacientes tuvieron pancreatitis de etiología biliar. El rango del APACHE II fue de 16 a 20. El rango del tiempo para el drenaje percutáneo lumbar fue de 4 a 7 semanas. Hubo una complicación del drenaje percutáneo (fistula duodenal) que se resolvió con tratamiento médico. Los cultivos de todas las necrosis fueron positivos. El tiempo para la realización del VARD tuvo un rango de 6 a 10 semanas. Un paciente requirió dos procedimientos. Hubo dos fístulas pancreáticas tipo B asociadas al VARD, que se trataron conservadoramente. No hubo mortalidad. A largo plazo, dos pacientes fueron diagnosticados de insuficiencia pancreática exocrina y endocrina. Concluimos que en los pacientes con necrosis pancreática infectada que requieran desbridamiento, el VARD es una alternativa segura, efectiva y con buenos resultados a largo plazo.


Abstract The step-up approach for infected necrotizing pancreatitis, consisting of broad-spectrum antibiotics, drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of management. Video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) is a surgical minimally invasive necrosectomy. This is a 5 cases series (2 female and 3 males) with severe acute pancreatitis and infected pancreatic necrosis who underwent step up approach and VARD. The age ranged from 27 to 60 years old. Al patients had biliary pancreatitis. APACHE II ranged from 16 to 20. The time to percutaneous lumbar drainage ranged from 4 to 7 weeks. There was one complication associated with percutaneous drainage (duodenal fistula) with nonoperative management. All necrotizing pancreatitis had positive cultures. The time to perform VARD ranged from 6 to 10 weeks. One patient required two procedures. There were two type B pancreatic fistulas associated with VARD, managed nonoperatively. There was no mortality. During long-term follow-up two patients were diagnosed with exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We conclude that VARD is a safe and effective procedure in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis requiring debridement, and with good long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/surgery , Retroperitoneal Space , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Debridement
5.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 64(1): 56-63, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252711

ABSTRACT

A partir de una propuesta del Comité de Investigaciones del Ateneo Argentino de Odontología se realizó una encuesta anónima transversal para conocer el estado de los odontólogos en relación con la infección provocada por la covid-19 ya que los afecta de una manera especial debido a las características del virus SARS-CoV-2 y su forma de trasmisión (AU)


From a proposal of the Research Committee of the Argentine Athenaeum of Dentistry, an anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted to know the status of dentists in relation to the infection caused by covid-19 and that particularly affects dentists due to the characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its form of transmission (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , SARS Virus , Dentists , Argentina , Schools, Dental/statistics & numerical data , Societies, Dental/standards , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Health Surveys , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control, Dental/methods , Age and Sex Distribution , Betacoronavirus , American Dental Association/organization & administration , Occupational Dentistry
6.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 460-463, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909032

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the Leishmania infection status in dogs in canine-derived visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas in Wenxian County and Diebu County of Gansu Province, to provide basis for formulating effective prevention and treatment measures for visceral leishmaniasis. Methods:In 2019, household survey method was used to collect dog basic information (such as gender and age) in villages with higher incidence of previous cases in Wenxian County and Diebu County of Gansu Province; and venous blood of dog was collected, PCR method was used to detect microloop DNA of Leishmania. Results:A total of 537 dogs were investigated, the positive rate of Leishmania detected by PCR was 41.15% (221/537); the positive rates of PCR detection were 64.63% (95/147) and 32.31% (126/390) in Wenxian County and Diebu County, respectively, and the positive rate in Wenxian County was higher than that in Diebu County (χ 2=46.044, P < 0.05). In 35 dogs with clinical symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, the positive rate of PCR detection was 74.29% (26/35); the positive rates of PCR detection in symptomatically infected dogs were 84.62% (22/26) and 4/9 in Wenxian County and Diebu County, respectively, the positive rate in Wenxian County was higher than that in Diebu County ( P < 0.05). The positive rate of PCR detection was 38.84% (195/502) in 502 asymptomatic dogs; the positive rates of PCR detection were 60.33% (73/121) and 32.02% (122/381) in Wenxian County and Diebu County, respectively, the positive rate in Wenxian County was higher than that in Diebu County (χ 2=39.982, P < 0.05). Conclusions:The infection rates of Leishmania in dogs are high in Wenxian County and Diebu County of Gansu Province, the positive rate of PCR detection in asymptomatic dogs infected with Leishmania is high. This indicates that local residents and dogs are at high risk of infection with Leishmania. It is recommended that relevant departments should enhance residents' awareness of active protection and strengthen efforts to control the Leishmania infection of dogs.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920827

ABSTRACT

@#Osteomyelitis is a chronic infection of bones. Eradication of bone infection is usually with antibiotics and debridement, but it is slow and the infection can recur even after many years. It is now established that osteomyelitis is due to biofilm and a better understanding of the process is required. We review the development of biofilm and apply it to osteomyelitis management. The planktonic microbes' response to adverse conditions is the formation of biofilm. Bacterial infections in planktonic forms cause infections that can be controlled with antibiotics and immunisation, however the same microbe when its phenotype becomes biofilm is more resilient. The understanding of how planktonic bacteria convert to biofilm is one of the aims set out for this article.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882009

ABSTRACT

Objective To introduce and conduct effectiveness evaluation of peer-group level care and management mode in people living with HIV and AIDS(PLHAs)in Jing'an District, Shanghai. Methods We recruited PLHAs who were managed by Jing'an District and participated in the peer-group care activities from 2015 to 2016, and collected their data of general conditions, behavior, antiretroviral therapy, life quality, social support, mental status and medical modes, and then conducted effectiveness evaluation of the mode by multivariate logistic regression model and linear regression model. Results A total of 300 PLHAs were included with 150 cases in each group. PLHAs in target group had higher proportion of antiretroviral therapy[82.7%(124/150)and 64.7%(97/150)]. In addition, they got higher scores in mental health(48.5±9.2 and 43.9±10.6)and social support(28.7±8.2 and 24.8±6.6), and lower scores in depressive severity index(0.5±0.1)and avoidance of medical modes(16.1±3.0 and 17.0±2.5). Multivariate analysis showed that PLHAs in target group had less sex partners(zero partner, OR = 2.1, 95%CI:1.1-3.9;one partner, OR = 3.6, 95%CI:1.9-6.8)and increased condom use(no sex, OR = 5.3, 95%CI:2.4-11.7;complete use, OR = 10.6, 95%CI:4.7-24.1;random miss, OR = 5.1, 95%CI:1.8-14.8)in the last 12 months. Conclusion The effect of peer-group level care and management mode is significantly good in promoting behavior change, enhancing health concern and increasing antiretroviral therapy.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1727-1738, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881568

ABSTRACT

In the research and development of new drugs, it is very important to investigate the in vitro metabolism of candidate drugs. Traditional models such as liver microsomes have many limitations, while the in vitro model of recombinant human drug metabolizing enzymes is considered as an important and useful approach because of its convenient access, stable activity and low cost. In this study, six major human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) genes (UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7) were cloned from human liver cDNA and heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and baculovirus-infected insect cell. UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6 and 1A9 were successfully expressed in yeast and showed glucuronidation activity against a variety of different structural types of substrates, but their activities were low. All six UGTs were successfully expressed and exhibited significantly improved glucuronidation activity when Trichopolusia ni cells BTI-TN5B1-4 (High Five) were used as the host. The recombinant human UGTs expressed in insect cells can catalyze the glucuronidation of their specific substrates, and the glucuronidation products were synthesized at milligram-scale with yields of 13%-66% for the first time, of which the structures were identified via MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Above all, the recombinant human UGTs yeast and insect cell expression systems constructed in this study can be used for in vitro metabolism evaluation in the early stage of new drugs research and development, and also provide a new tool for the synthesis of glucuronide metabolites.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 694-707, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881163

ABSTRACT

Targeting immune checkpoints such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been approved for treating melanoma, gastric cancer (GC) and bladder cancer with clinical benefit. Nevertheless, many patients failed to respond to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment, so it is necessary to seek an alternative strategy for traditional PD-1/PD-L1 targeting immunotherapy. Here with the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our in-house tissue library, PD-L1 expression was found to be positively correlated with the expression of ubiquitin-specific processing protease 7 (USP7) in GC. Furthermore, USP7 directly interacted with PD-L1 in order to stabilize it, while abrogation of USP7 attenuated PD-L1/PD-1 interaction and sensitized cancer cells to T cell killing

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887137

ABSTRACT

Objective:To examine the survival status and explore factors related to death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Taizhou City during 2006‒2019. Methods:A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the data on HIV-infected patients receiving ART in Taizhou during 2006‒2019. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) method was used to calculate the cumulative survival rate and cumulative treatment success rate. Cox regression model was used to determine survival status and factors associated with ART. Results:A total of 2 904 HIV-infected patients was included. The cumulative survival rate after 1, 3, 5, and 8 years of ART were 96.9%, 94.9%, 93.1% and 92.1%, respectively, and the cumulative treatment response rate were 91.3%, 85.3%, 81.8% and 73.8%, respectively. Compared with aged 18-30 years old, baseline CD4+T cell >350 count/μL, normal hemoglobin level, effective ART, no clinical symptom at baseline, and homosexual transmission, we found that aged 51-60 years old(HR=4.94,95%CI:1.66-14.69), aged over 60 years old(HR=9.14,95%CI:3.14-26.63), anemia at baseline(HR=2.24,95%CI:1.55-3.23), baseline CD4+T cell <200 count/μL(HR=4.35,95%CI:2.14-8.86), ART failure (HR=3.90,95%CI:2.73-5.58), heterosexual transmission(HR=1.92,95%CI:1.15-3.20), and signs of symptom at baseline(HR=1.68,95%CI:1.16-2.41) were risk factors of HIV-related death. Conclusion:The effect of ART in Taizhou City is confirmed with a high cumulative survival rate and treatment success. We should pay additional attention to senior HIV-infected patients with anemia at baseline and intensively monitor the effect of ART. Interventions such as “treat after discover” are supposed to be implemented more widely to further reduce HIV-related mortality.

12.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 86-93, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886076

ABSTRACT

@#The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of maggot therapy in healing of cutaneous infected wound in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic Wistar rat. For live maggots, the sterilized eggs of Lucilia sericata were obtained from colonies established in laboratory. Diabetes model was established in 48 male Wister rat by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ at the dose of 60 mg/kg body-weight. Cutaneous wounds exposed with mixed colonies of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were prepared in all rat. The animals equally divided in 4 groups with 12 rats each being presented as treatment group of control, antibiotic, maggot and maggot with antibiotic in combination. All treatments were done once and hold for 24 hours. Wound kinetics and bacterial bio burden were measured at weekly interval to till complete healing. Significant reduction in wound area with maximum contraction was found (>95%) in maggot treated group when compared to antibiotic treated (79%) and control (72%). In maggot as well as maggot and antibiotic in combination group showed early elimination of bacterial bio-burden 7.88±0.03log CFU/ml to 1.12±0.65log CFU/ml and 7.86±0.04) log CFU/ml to 1.54±0.52log CFU/ml respectively in three weeks of time. Early healing indication was also experienced on histomorphological examination of wounded tissue of maggot treated groups by early and better epithelialization, collagenation and neovascularization with complete healing of wound in three weeks in comparison to antibiotic and control respectively. However, the present study did not show any difference in healing of wound with use of maggot alone or in antibiotic combination. Live maggot of Lucilia sericata effectively lower bacterial bioburden and and accelerate healing of infected cutaneous wound in diabetic conditions.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875952

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the functional antibody and protection effect against pneumonia disease after inoculation with PPV23 in HIV-infected adults. Methods In 2015, 63 HIV-infected adults were randomly selected in Hongkou District of Shanghai, and blood samples were collected before and one month after the inoculation of PPV23.Functional antibodies against 4 serotypes (19F, 19A, 23F, 6B) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected by opsonophagocyitosis killing assay (OPA).The incidence of pneumonia after PPV23 inoculation was also determined. Results The GMT of OPA antibodies against 4 serotypes 1 month after inoculation with PPV23 was significantly higher than that before inoculation in HIV-infected subjects.After inoculation, the triple growth rates of OPA antibodies against 4 serotypes in HIV-infected subjects were 50%-91.67%.The protection rate against pneumonia was 100% in 2 years after PPV23 inoculation in HIV-infected subjects when compared with same group before inoculation as well as the control group.The HIV-infected patients who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or had CD4 count of≥300/μL showed better response in production of OPA antibodies and obtained protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after receiving PPV23. Conclusion Routine vaccination of PPV23 is recommended for HIV-infected patients with good basic conditions.

14.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 970-976, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143989

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To give an overview of the Ortner's syndrome caused by an aortic arch aneurysm. Methods: By comprehensive retrieval of the pertinent literature published in the past two decades, 75 reports including 86 patients were collected and recruited into this study along with a recent case of our own. Results: The aortic arch aneurysms causing hoarseness were most commonly mycotic aneurysms. In this patient setting, in addition to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, trachea was the most commonly affected structure by the aortic arch aneurysm. Surgical/interventional/hybrid treatments led to a hoarseness-relieving rate of 64.3%, much higher than that of patients receiving conservative treatment. However, hoarseness recovery took longer time in the surgically treated patients than in the interventionally treated patients. Conclusion: The surgical and interventional treatments offered similar hoarseness-relieving effects. Surgical or interventional treatment is warranted in such patients for both treatment of arch aneurysms and relief of hoarseness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Hoarseness/etiology , Syndrome
15.
Rev. Ateneo Argent. Odontol ; 63(2): 9-12, nov. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148400

ABSTRACT

El quiste bucal mandibular infectado (QBMI), también conocido como quiste de bifurcación, es un quiste odontogénico inflamatorio poco frecuente y descripto por primera vez por Stoneman y Worth. Ha sido incluido en la clasificación de la OMS de quistes y tumores odontogénicos en 1992. Este quiste suele darse, específicamente, en pacientes entre 6 y 13 años, y su localización más frecuente son el primer y segundo molar permanente y, eventualmente, segundo premolar. Su fisiopatología sigue sin estar clara y se han propuesto múltiples teorías. Este quiste se observa como una inflamación en el vestíbulo del molar afectado. Los síntomas frecuentes son dolor en el área afectada y supuración, pero también muchos casos permanecen asintomáticos. Radiográficamente se describe como un área radiolúcida circunferencial. El quiste está revestido con un epitelio escamoso no queratinizado con infiltrado inflamatorio de células en el tejido conectivo. La mayoría de las características clínicas e histológicas son similares a las reportadas para los quistes paradentales, de ahí la importancia de un buen diagnóstico radiográfico complementario en base a tomografía computada de haz cónico. Los enfoques conservadores suelen ser el tratamiento de elección, con la enucleación del quiste y el seguimiento del diente afectado (AU)


Mandibular infected buccal cyst (MIBC), also known as bifurcation cyst; it is a rare inflammatory odontogenic cyst first described by Stoneman and Worth. It was included in the WHO classification of cysts and odontogenic tumours in 1992. It usually occurs, specifically, in patients between 6 and 10 years of age and its most frequent location is the first and second permanent molars, and eventually the second premolar. Its pathophysiology remains unclear and multiple theories have been proposed. This cyst is seen as an inflammation in the vestibule of the affected molar. Frequent symptoms are pain in the affected area and suppuration, but many cases remain asymptomatic. Radiographically it is described as a circumferential radiolucent area. The cyst is lined with a nonkeratinized squamous epithelium with an inflammatory cell infiltrate in the connective tissue. Most of clinical and histological characteristics are like those reported for paradental cysts, hence the importance of a good complementary radiographic diagnosis based on cone beam computed tomography. Conservative approaches are usually the treatment of choice, with enucleation of the cyst and monitoring of the affected tooth (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Jaw Cysts/classification , Odontogenic Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , World Health Organization , Odontogenic Cysts/surgery , Oral Surgical Procedures , Molar/injuries
16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215853

ABSTRACT

Malaria has been reported as a condition caused by infestation with Plasmodium parasite species, is a major public health problem globally especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was carriedout in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia in Abia State, Nigeria. A study was done to determine the maternal serumlevels of alpha tumour necrotic factor, interleukin 10, interleukin 6and interleukin 4 in malaria infected pregnant women based on their gestational age in Southeast, Nigeria. A total of 150 subjects between the ages of 18-45 years were recruited for the study comprising of fifty (50) subjects each of the 3 trimesters. Commercial ELISA Kit by MELSIN Medical Co Limited was used to measure all the cytokines. The results of Table 1 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.346), IL-10 (p=0.059), IL-6 (p=0.811) and IL-4 (p=0.257) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and second trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.642), IL-10 (p=0.678), IL-6 (p=0.551) and IL-4 (p=0.280) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The results of Table 2 showed no significant difference of TNF-α (p=0.062), IL-10 (p=0.016), IL-6 (p=0.352) and IL-4 (p=0.914) of malaria infected pregnant women at first trimester and third trimester respectively. The study showed no changes in the cytokines studied among the malaria infected pregnant women based on gestational ages except when IL-10 was compared between the subjects on second trimester and third trimester. This study shows that malaria infection does not changes these cytokines in pregnant women based on gestational ages except the il-10 when compared at second trimester and third trimester but changes when compared at other trimesters.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-207979

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 virus is still spreading, more infections in pregnant women are likely to be seen. At this time, very little is known about vertical transmission of SARS-COV-2 from infected pregnant woman to her infant. Authors reviewed the risk of vertical transmission of COVID-19 by using data of published articles and official websites up to May 11, 2020. The searches revealed 16 articles (12 case reports/series and 4 retrospective studies) collectively comprising 194 infected pregnant women with COVID-19. 140 cases of neonates delivered from pregnant women with COVID-19 were collected. The SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid test, in day 2, was positive in 4 newborns. Based on limited data, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of COVID-19. Some studies suggestive of maternal-fetal transmission deserve careful evaluation before a definitive finding.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212316

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria is one of the major health problems of developing and tropical countries like India, causing huge financial burden also. Smear examination for diagnosis is a routine and cost-effective method for diagnosis. CBC is one the most commonly ordered test in clinical practice. The Mindray BC-6800 plus haematology analyser provide dedicated flag of “Infected RBC?” for suspected malaria while analysing CBC. Present study attempts to evaluate whether CBC done on BC-6800 plus can serve as an aid for malaria screening and diagnosis.Methods: Prospective study of 30077 cases was carried out where thick and thin smear examination done by experienced microscopists and CBC was analysed on BC- 6800 plus analyser.Results: Total 323 cases were found to be positive for malaria by smear examination, out of which 285 were of P. vivax and 38 were of P. falciparum malaria. Sensitivity of 88.24%, specificity of 99.21%, PPV of 54.70%, NPV of 99.87% for Infected RBC flag for all cases of malaria. For P. vivax malaria cases analyser provided highest sensitivity of 99.65% with NPV of nearly 100%, however P. Falciparum malaria cases analyser produced sensitivity of 2.63% only. In P. vivax cases present study found very good correlation between InR count and parasite load under microscope. Present study also evaluated interference of parasitized red cells in differential count causing falsely elevated neutrophils and/or eosinophils.Conclusions: By lowering threshold for “Infected RBC?” flag to 0, BC-6800 plus can serve as an excellent screening tool especially for P. vivax malaria.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205594

ABSTRACT

Background: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV medicine has dramatically improved the quality of care of HIV-infected children, translating to better nutritional status and general well-being. However, many HIV-infected children especially in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being on ART are malnourished. Objective: The study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of undernutrition among HIV-infected children on ART in Abakaliki. Materials and Methods: It was a case–control study with a sample size of 220 (110 HIV infected and 110 HIV negative children as controls) aged 2–17 years. Anthropometric indicators expressed in Z scores were used to define malnutrition: Height for age (stunting) and weight for age (underweight) and weight for height (thinness). A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and drug adherence. Results: The prevalence rates of underweight and stunting were 24.5% and 20.0% in HIV-infected children as against the prevalence rates of 10.0% and 6.4% for underweight and stunting, respectively, found in HIV negative children. These prevalence rates were statistically significant (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). Occupation of caregivers (P = 0.000, P = 0.000), drug adherence (P = 0.001, P = 0.000), and WHO clinical stages of disease (P = 0.002, P = 0.000) were statistically significant predicted the presence of underweight and stunting, respectively, in HIV-infected children on ART. Conclusion: The prevalence of undernutrition is high among children on ART. Nutritional support as well as strengthening adherence to ART is strongly advocated as part of routine care in HIV-infected children on ART.

20.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(2): e20180898, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055863

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The fungus Microdochium albescens is one of the main pathogens associated with irrigated rice seeds in southern Brazil. The objective of the present study was to quantify the transmission of M. albescens from naturally infected seeds to the crown, coleoptile, and first true leaf of the seedlings of six cultivars growing in pre-germinated cultivation system of irrigated rice. Seeding was carried out on a water-saturated substrate, using four untreated seed lots for each of the six cultivars. At 14 days after sowing, the crown, coleoptile, and first true leaf of the seedlings were carefully highlighted, and the samples were disinfected and plated onto potato-sucrose-agar culture medium. M. albescens was transmitted asymptomatically to crown, coleoptile, and first true leaf, at rates of 39.3%, 25.8%, and 5.4%, respectively (these values represent the average incidence of the six cultivars). This is the first report that proves that M. albescens is transmitted from infected seeds to irrigated rice seedlings in a pre-germinated seed system.


RESUMO: O fungo Microdochium albescens é um dos principais patógenos associados às sementes de arroz irrigado no sul do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi quantificar a transmissão de M. albescens de sementes naturalmente infectadas para a coroa, coleóptilo e primeira folha verdadeira das plântulas de seis cultivares semeadas em sistema de cultivo pré-germinado de arroz irrigado. A semeadura foi realizada em substrato saturado com água, utilizando quatro lotes de sementes não tratadas para cada uma das seis cultivares. Aos 14 dias após a semeadura, a coroa, o coleóptilo e a primeira folha verdadeira das plântulas foram cuidadosamente dissecados, desinfestados e plaqueados em meio de cultura batata-sacarose-ágar. M. abescens foi transmitido de forma assintomática para coroa, coleóptilo e primeira folha verdadeira, nas taxas de 39,3%, 25,8% e 5,4%, respectivamente (estes valores representam a incidência média das seis cultivares). Este é o primeiro relato de M. albescens transmitido de sementes infectadas para plântulas de arroz irrigado em sistema de semente pré-germinada.

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