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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 467-475, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385281


Abstract Background Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with high morbimortality and an increasing incidence. With improved diagnosis and treatment, a number of epidemiological changes have been reported over time. Objectives We sought to describe the epidemiological profile, mortality predictors, and analysis of a possible microbiological transition in patients admitted to three tertiary centers in Brazil. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, data from 211 patients with definite or probable IE were analyzed according to the modified Duke criteria between 2003 and 2017. The association between categorical variables was assessed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and binary logistic models were built to investigate mortality. We considered p <0.05 statistically significant. Results The median age of the sample was 48 (33-59) years old, 70.6% were men, and the most prevalent pathogen was Staphylococcus spp. (19%). Mortality was 22.3%, with increasing age being the leading risk factor for death (p = 0.028). Regarding the location of the disease, native valves were the most affected site, with the aortic valve being more affected in men than women (p = 0.017). The mean number of cases of Staphylococcus spp. (τ = 0.293, p = 0.148) and Streptococcus spp. (τ = -0.078, p = 0.727) has remained stable over the years. Conclusion No trend towards reduced or increased mortality was evident between 2003 and 2017. Although Staphylococcus spp. were the most prevalent pathogen, the expected epidemiological transition could not be observed.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Streptococcus/pathogenicity , Endocarditis/epidemiology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Endocarditis/complications , Endocarditis/diagnosis
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e701, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1390036


La endocarditis infecciosa es una patología heterogénea con una alta mortalidad y requiere tratamiento quirúrgico en al menos la mitad de los casos. Cuando asienta en posición mitral, la reparación valvular en lugar de su sustitución, si bien representa un desafío técnico, ha ido ganando terreno en los últimos años. Describimos el caso de un paciente que se presentó con una endocarditis sobre válvula nativa mitral en quien se realizó una plastia valvular exitosa. Revisaremos la evidencia acerca de su beneficio.

Infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality and that requires surgical treatment in at least half of cases. When seated in mitral position, valve repair rather than replacement, while technically challenging, has been gaining popularity in recent years. We describe the case of a patient who presented with a mitral valve endocarditis in whom a successful valve repair was performed. Evidence supporting its use will be reviewed.

A endocardite infecciosa é uma doença heterogênea com alta mortalidade que requer tratamento cirúrgico em pelo menos metade dos casos. Quando sentado na posição mitral, o reparo da válvula, em vez da substituição da válvula, embora seja um desafio técnico, tem ganhado espaço nos últimos anos. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente que apresentou endocardite valvar mitral nativa, no qual foi realizada plastia valvar com sucesso. Vamos revisar as evidências sobre o seu benefício.

Humans , Male , Adult , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/drug therapy
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(5): 976-988, maio 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374373


Resumo Após catorze décadas de evolução médica e tecnológica, a endocardite infeciosa continua a desafiar médicos no seu diagnóstico e manejo diário. O aumento da incidência, alterações demográficas (afetando pacientes mais idosos), microbiologia com taxas de infeção por Staphylococcus mais elevadas, com complicações graves ainda frequentes e uma mortalidade substancial tornam a endocardite uma doença muito complexa. Apesar de tudo, a inovação no seu diagnóstico, nomeadamente na área da microbiologia e imagem, e a melhoria nos cuidados intensivos e na cirurgia cardíaca (quanto às técnicas, materiais usados e momento de intervenção) podem ter um impacto no seu prognóstico. Os desafios persistem, incluindo repensar a profilaxia, melhorar os critérios de diagnóstico incluindo a endocardite com culturas negativas e endocardite de prótese valvar, o timing para a intervenção cirúrgica, e sua realização ou não na presença de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico e em usuários de drogas intravenosas. Uma estratégia combinada na endocardite infeciosa é fundamental, incluindo decisões e protocolos clínicos avançados, um manejo multidisciplinar, organização e políticas de saúde que culminem em melhores resultados para os nossos pacientes.

Abstract After fourteen decades of medical and technological evolution, infective endocarditis continues to challenge physicians in its daily diagnosis and management. Its increasing incidence, demographic shifts (affecting older patients), microbiology with higher rates of Staphylococcus infection, still frequent serious complications and substantial mortality make endocarditis a very complex disease. Despite this, innovations in the diagnosis, involving microbiology and imaging, and improvements in intensive care and cardiac surgical techniques, materials and timing can impact the prognosis of this disease. Ongoing challenges persist, including rethinking prophylaxis, improving the diagnosis criteria comprising blood culture-negative endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis, timing of surgical intervention, and whether to perform surgery in the presence of ischemic stroke or in intravenous drug users. A combined strategy on infective endocarditis is crucial, involving advanced clinical decisions and protocols, a multidisciplinary approach, national healthcare organization and health policies to achieve better results for our patients.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933001


Propionibacterium acnes infective endocarditis has a low incidence, high mortality rate and insidious manifestation, the delay in diagnosis leads to disease progression, which not only affects the physical and mental health and quality of life of patients, but also brings a heavy burden to their family and society. This article reviews the microbiological characteristics of Propionibacterium acnes, the epidemiological and clinical features of Propionibacterium acnes infective endocarditis, and the current state of diagnosis, treatment and prevention, to provide reference for clinical management of this disease.

Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 304-309, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932472


Objective:To study the clinical features of infective endocarditis (IE) with positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in order to improve the level of diagnosis and treatment.Methods:Eighteen IE cases with positive ANCA admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2016 to July 2021 were collected. The demographic information, clinical symptom, laboratory tests, imaging examinations, treatment and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. Statistical program for social sciences (SPSS) 20.0 statistical software was used for analysis. Enumeration data were expressed as the number of cases and percentage (%), and measurement data were expressed as Mean± SD. Results:Twelve cases were male and 6 cases were female, with an average age of (50±16) years. Sixteen patients had positive PR3-ANCA, in which 2 cases had positive myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. The major clinical manifestations included fever (88.9%, 16/18), anemia (72.2%, 13/18), splenomegaly (44.4%, 8/18), cardiac murmur (33.3%, 6/18), arthralgia (22.2%, 4/18), liver damage (22.2%, 4/18), thromboembolic events (16.7%, 3/18), Osler's node (11.1%, 2/18) and renal dysfunction (11.1%, 2/18). Higher C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) and procalcitionin (PCT) were detected in 83.3% (15/18) patients. The positive rate of blood culture was 50.0%(9/18) and streptococcus was the most common pathogen (77.8%, 7/9). Echocardiograms of all patients showed abnormal vegetation, most commonly involving the mitral valve (66.7%, 12/18) and aortic valve (33.3%, 6/18). Two patients were misdiagnosed as ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV), but the other one was diagnosed as AAV with IE as the first manifestation. Except for one case who died of multiple organ failure, all cases reached clinical recovery after surgery and antibiotic therapy.Conclusion:IE patients with positive ANCA may present with the clinical manifestations similar to AAV. We should highly alert to avoid misdiagnosis and treatment.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941005


Infective endocarditis in pregnancy is extremely rare in clinical practice. Guidelines addressing prophylaxis and management of infective endocarditis do not extensively deal with concomitant pregnancy, and case reports on infective endocarditis are scarce. Due to increased blood volume and hemodynamic changes in late pregnancy, endocardial neoplasms are easy to fall off and cause systemic or pulmonary embolism, respiratory, cardiac arrest and sudden death may occur in pregnant women, the fetus can suffer from intrauterine distress and stillbirth at any time, leading to adverse outcomes for pregnant women and fetuses. The disease is dangerous and difficult to treat, which seriously threatens the lives of mothers and babies. Early diagnosis and reasonable treatment can effectively improve the prognosis of patients. The most important method for the treatment of infective endocarditis requires early, adequate, long-term and combined antibiotic therapy. Moreover, surgical controversies regarding indication and timing of treatment exist, especially in pregnancy. In terms of the timing of termination of pregnancy, the timing of cardiac surgery, and the method of surgery, individualized programs must be adopted. A pregnant woman with 30+5 weeks of gestation is reported. She was admitted to hospital due to intermittent chest tightness, suffocation and fever, with grade Ⅲ cardiac insufficiency. Imaging revealed large mitral valve vegetation, 22.0 mm×4.1 mm and 22.0 mm×5.1 mm, respectively, and severe valve regurgitation. Mitral valve perforation was more likely, blood culture suggested Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, after antibiotic conservative treatment, the effect was poor. After the joint consultation including cardiology, neonatology, interventional vascular surgery, anesthesiology, and obstetrics, the combined operation of obstetrics and cardiac surgery was performed in time. The heart was blocked for 60 minutes, the bleeding was 1 200 mL, the newborn was mildly asphyxiated after birth, and the birth weight was 1 890 g. Nine days after the operation, the patient was discharged from the hospital, and the newborn was discharged with the weight of 2 020 g. Critical cases like this require a thorough weighing of risks and benefits followed by swift action to protect the mother and her unborn child. An optimal outcome in a challenging case like this greatly depends on effective interdisciplinary communication, informed consent of the patient, and concerted action among the specialists involved.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/therapy , Female , Heart Valve Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Mitral Valve/surgery , Pregnancy , Staphylococcal Infections
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923384


@#Objective    To summarize the clinical data and efficacy of surgical treatment of aortic periannular abscess. Methods    The clinical data of 35 aortic periannular abscess patients admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 21 males and 14 females, aged 36 to 67 (53.0±12.3) years. Among them, there were 14 patients of native aortic valve endocarditis and 21 patients of prosthetic valve endocarditis (16 patients of mechanical valve and 5 patients of biological valve). Preoperative blood cultures were positive in 15 patients, including 8 patients of Staphylococcus aureus, 2 patients of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3 patients of Streptococcus grass green, 1 patient of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 1 patient of Enterococcus. Results    Eleven patients underwent emergency or urgent surgery. Thirty patients underwent aortic valve replacement, and 5 patients underwent modified Cabrol surgery to replace the aortic root. Early postoperative complications included 1 patient of bleeding, 8 patients of low cardiac output syndrome, 5 patients of renal insufficiency, 10 patients of respiratory insufficiency, 3 patients of tracheotomy, 8 patients of pulmonary infection and 1 patient cerebrovascular accident. The postoperative follow-up period was 6 to 120 (53.6±20.8) months. During the follow-up, 4 patients died and 4 patients were lost. No infection recurred during the follow-up. Perivalval leakage occurred in 3 patients, and one patient underwent occlusion 12 months following the procedure. The survival curve indicated that the 1-year survival rate was 85.5%, and the 5-year survival rate was 67.3%. Conclusion    Although the lesions of periannular abscesses are complicated and critical, effective perioperative antibiotic treatment, individualized surgical timing, and appropriate surgical strategies can significantly reduce mortality and achieve better results.

Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936680


The patient was a 68-year-old woman. She was diagnosed with uterine cancer after experiencing irregular genital bleeding. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 30 mm left ventricular mass and splenic infarction, and head MRI showed multiple cerebral infarctions. The patient was suffering from systemic embolism caused by the cardiac mass, and we decided to perform cardiac mass removal prior to uterine cancer treatment. A yellowish-white thrombus-like mass attached to the mitral valve, subvalvular tissue, and left ventricular endocardium was removed by a trans-septal approach under cardiopulmonary bypass. Pathological examination revealed that the mass was a fibrin-based thrombus with almost no inflammatory findings, we diagnosised non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE). Postoperatively, the patient developed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and treatment for uterine cancer, was delayed. Hypercoagulability was not controlled well, and she developed recurrence of left ventricle vegitation, acute arterial occlusion of the lower extremities and inferior vena cava thrombosis, making active intervention for uterine cancer difficult. The patient was treated palliatively and died on POD 36. NBTE tends to be characterized by multiple small growths, but giant vegetation may also occur as in this case. Unless the primary disease causing the hypercoagulability is treated, recurrence of NBTE is possible, and prompt treatment of the primary disease is required.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936433


Objective To analyze and discuss the epidemiological characteristics and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of infective endocarditis in Nanjing in the past five years, and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of infective endocarditis. Methods A total of 220 infective endocarditis cases in Nanjing area from 2015 to 2020 were included in the analysis. The distribution characteristics of pathogens were collected and analyzed. Information on drug resistance was also collected, and the potential relationship between pathogen distribution and drug resistance was explored. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0. Results The ratio of male to female patients included in this study was 143:77, and most of them were aged from 41 to 60 years old. There were 195 patients with underlying cardiac diseases (88.64%). A total of 1132 pathogenic bacteria were detected in the blood samples of all 220 patients, among which 1 007 were mainly gram-positive bacteria (88.96%): 725 strains of Streptococcus viridans (725/1 132, 64.05%), 124 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (124/1 132, 10.95%), 96 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (96/1 132, 8.48%), and 62 strains (62/1 132, 5.48%) of others (Staphylococcus human, etc.); the main gram-negative bacteria ( a total of 125 strains , 11.04%) were 73 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (73/1 132, 6.45%) and 52 strains of Escherichia coli (52/1 132, 4.59%). Among the strains isolated from subjects of different ages and genders, the distribution difference was consistent with the total trend, and there was no significant difference (all P>0.05). Among gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus was sensitive to antibiotics such as penicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were sensitive to vancomycin and resistant to oxacillin and penicillin. Gram-negative bacteria were less resistant to amikacin and meropenem. All these differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with infective endocarditis, antibiotics should be selected reasonably according to the type of pathogenic bacteria and the corresponding drug resistance characteristics.

International Journal of Surgery ; (12): 174-181,C2, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929990


Objective:To explore the effect of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in the operation of infective endocarditis (IE) and the risk factors of death within half a year after operation.Methods:Used retrospective research methods, a total of 61 patients who were diagnosed as IE and received surgical treatment in Department of Cardiovascular and Large Vascular Surgery, Huizhou Central People′s Hospital from April 2017 to November 2020 were selected as subjects. The patients were divided into autologous group ( n=30) and allogeneic group ( n=31) according to different blood transfusion methods. Patients in the autogenous group received IBS, and patients in the allogeneic group received allogeneic blood transfusion. The indexes of coagulation function [activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin tim(TT), prothrombin time(PT), D-dimmer(D-D), fibrinogen degradation product(FDP)], immune reaction (CD3 + CD4 + T cells, CD3 + CD8 + T cells, CD16 + CD56 + NK cells, TLR2 + cells, TLR4 + cells) and inflammatory reaction [soluble CD40 ligand(sCD40L), neutrophil chemokine -1(CINC-1), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6)] were compared between the autologous group and the allogeneic group, as well as the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions. The end event was death half a year after operation, and the subjects were divided into death group ( n=15) and survival group ( n=46). The clinical data of the death group and the survival group were compared. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation ( ± s), and t-test was used for comparison between groups; Chi-square test was used for comparison of enumeration data between groups, and the IBS variables were included and excluded to establish the prediction models of death half a year after operation, respectively. The model was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), and the model was internally verified by the method of Bootstrap repeated sampling. IBS was included and removed to establish the prediction model of death within half a year after surgery, and ROC was used to evaluate the model. Bootstrap repeated sampling was used to verify the model internally. Results:Cardiac insufficiency, hypotension, IBS, multivalvular disease and age were independent risk factors for postoperative death ( P<0.05). The model with IBS variables has higher predictive value. 5 days after operation, there were significant differences in the indexes of immune reaction [CD3 + CD4 + T cells: (37.49±5.74)% vs (31.68±4.46)%, CD3 + CD8 + T cells: (23.07±3.24)% vs (17.82±2.29)%, CD16 + CD56 + NK cells: (1.61±0.18)% vs (1.02±0.15)%, TLR2 + cells: (9.24±1.15)% vs (18.40±2.21)%, TLR4 + cells: (7.79±0.82)% vs (12.33±1.57)%] and inflammatory reaction [sCD40L: (59.21±7.80) pg/mL vs (84.33±9.35) pg/mL, CINC-1: (40.27±5.83) pg/mL vs (72.86±9.35) pg/mL, TNF-α: (10.86±1.26) ng/mL vs (17.03±2.20) ng/mL and IL-6: (6.32±0.77) ng/mL vs (11.35±1.74) ng/mL] between autologous group and allogeneic group ( P<0.01). Intra-group comparison of patients in autologous group, before and 5 days after operation, there were significant differences in the indexes of immune response [CD3 + CD4 + T cells: (48.55±6.67)% vs (37.49±5.74)%, CD3 + CD8 + T cells: (30.38±4.69)% vs (23.07±3.24)%, CD16 + CD56 + NK cells: (2.53±0.44)% vs (1.61±0.18)%, TLR2 + cells: (6.50±0.61)% vs (9.24±1.15)%, TLR4 + cells: (4.02±0.63)% vs (7.79±0.82)%] and inflammatory response [sCD40L: (38.64±6.75) pg/mL vs (59.21±7.80) pg/mL, CINC-1: (31.65±5.68) pg/mL vs (40.27±5.83) pg/mL, TNF-α: (7.59±0.85) ng/mL vs (10.86±1.26) ng/mL and IL-6 (5.10±0.63) ng/mL vs (6.32±0.77) ng/mL] ( P<0.01). Intra-group comparison of patients in allogeneic group, before and 5 days after operation, there were significant differences in the indexes of immune reaction [CD3 + CD4 + T cells: (49.13±6.82)% vs (31.68±4.46)%, CD3 + CD8 + T cells: (30.65±4.91)% vs (17.82±2.29)%, CD16 + CD56 + NK cells: (2.51±0.26)% vs (1.02±0.15)%, TLR2 + cells: (6.36±0.66)% vs (18.40±2.21)%, TLR4 + cells (4.08±0.56)% vs (12.33±1.57)%] and inflammatory response [sCD40L: (39.14±6.03) pg/mL vs (84.33±9.35) pg/mL, CINC-1: (31.24±5.77) pg/mL vs (72.86±9.35) pg/mL, TNF-α: (7.64±0.76) ng/mL vs (17.03±2.20) ng/mL and IL-6: (5.04±0.82) ng/mL vs (11.3±1.74) ng/mL] ( P<0.01). There were 3 cases of hypoproteinemia, 2 cases of incision infection and 1 case of cardiac adverse event in the autologous group; 4 cases of hypoproteinemia, 3 cases of incision infection and 1 case of cardiac adverse event in the allogeneic group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusions:The predictive model included in IBS can better predict the mortality of within half a year after IE. The use of IBS in IE surgery will not significantly affect the blood coagulation function and the incidence of postoperative adverse reactions, but can improve immune function and inhibit inflammatory reaction.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(6): 939-945, ago. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365086


Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad que en las últimas décadas ha mostrado cambios en su presentación, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de 252 pacientes ingresados en un hospital de referencia en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con diagnóstico de EI, agrupados según década de ingreso: Grupo A: enero 1988 a diciembre 1997 (89 pacientes -35.3%-), Grupo B: enero 1998 a diciembre 2007 (88 pacientes -34.9%-), y Grupo C: enero 2008 a diciembre 2018 (75 pacientes -29.8%). Se analizaron y compararon las características: edad, sexo, cardiopatía de base, hemocultivos y gérmenes, presencia de vegetaciones, tratamiento quirúrgico y mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Durante las tres décadas, la cardiopatía predisponente mostró que la enfermedad valvular reumática disminuyó significativamente (p < 0.0001) mientras que la EI en los dispositivos cardíacos aumentó significativamente (p < 0.0001). El porcentaje de hemocultivos negativos disminuyó significativamente a lo largo de los años (p < 0.0001). La mortalidad hospitalaria mostró una reducción en la última década (p = 0.069). El desarrollo de complicaciones durante la hospitalización, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca al ingreso fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria. La presencia de vegetaciones y síndrome febril al ingreso fueron predictores independientes de menor mortalidad. La comparación a través de los años mostró cambios importantes en el perfil epidemiológico de la EI. Probablemente por el avance en las técnicas diagnósticas, el tratamiento y la implementación de equi pos interdisciplinarios de EI de la última década, la mortalidad intrahospitalaria marca una fuerte tendencia a la reducción.

Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease that in recent decades has shown changes in its presentation, diagno sis and treatment. This is a prospective study of 252 patients admitted at a reference hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with a diagnosis of IE and they were grouped according to the decade of admission: Group A: from January 1988 to December 1997 (89 patients -35.3%-), Group B: from January 1998 to December 2007 (88 patients -34.9%-), and Group C: from January 2008 to December 2018 (75 patients -29.8%). The characteristics were analyzed and compared: age, sex, underlying heart disease, blood cultures and germs, presence of veg etations, surgical treatment and in-hospital mortality. Over the three decades, the predisposing heart condition showed that rheumatic valve disease decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) while the IE in cardiac devices also increased significantly (p < 0.0001). The percentage of blood culture-negatives decreased significantly over the years (p < 0.0001). In-hospital mortality showed a downward trend in the last decade (p = 0.069). The devel opment of complications during hospitalization, the indication for surgery, and the presence of heart failure on admission were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The presence of vegetations and febrile syndrome on admission were independent predictor for lower mortality. The comparison over the years showed important changes in the epidemiological profile of IE. Probably due to advances in diagnostic techniques, treatment, and the implementation of interdisciplinary IE teams in the last decade, in-hospital mortality shows a strong tendency to decrease.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(3): 239-245, mayo-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341291


Resumen Introducción: Los procedimientos vasculares invasivos ocasionan infecciones sanguíneas asociadas a cuidados de la salud, entre ellas endocarditis infecciosa. Este evento adverso conlleva mayor morbimortalidad que la endocarditis infecciosa adquirida en la comunidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de endocarditis infecciosa asociada al cuidado de la salud y describir las características demográficas de esta población, así como los agentes etiológicos. Método: Estudio de corte transversal, en el que se incluyó población mayor de 18 años con endocarditis infecciosa asociada al cuidado de la salud, documentada entre enero de 2013 y junio de 2018 en la Fundación Cardioinfantil. Se realizó un análisis estadístico con distribución de variables de edad, sexo, procedimientos invasivos asociados, mortalidad y microorganismo aislado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 41 pacientes con una edad promedio de 60,6 años. No hubo distinción entre hombres (22, 53.6%) y mujeres (19, 46.3%). Los pacientes se agruparon, según el procedimiento realizado, en implantación de dispositivos intravasculares de alto flujo (16, 39.02%), catéter venoso central (12, 29.26%) y dispositivos intracardiacos (11, 26.82%). La prevalencia general en los procedimientos evaluados fue del 0.21%, siendo del 1.42% en dispositivos intravasculares de alto flujo, del 0.72% en dispositivos intracardiacos y del 0.08% en catéteres centrales. La mortalidad registrada fue del 4.9% (2 pacientes). En el 78.05% de los pacientes se obtuvo aislamiento microbiológico. Conclusiones: Los pacientes sometidos a procedimientos invasivos pueden tener un riesgo elevado de endocarditis infecciosa, conferido por el procedimiento. La baja tasa de mortalidad intrahospitalaria puede estar relacionada con la notable tasa de aislamiento positivo en hemocultivos, lo cual facilitó la terapia antibiótica dirigida.

Abstract Introduction: Invasive procedures the vascular tract cause health, are related to blood stream infections, among them, infective endocarditis. This adverse event leads to greater morbidity and mortality compared with community acquired infective endocarditis. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of healthcare-associated infective endocarditis, describe the demographic characteristics of this population and the etiological agents. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive, prevalence study of prevalence. It included patients ≥18 years old with healthcare-associated infective endocarditis, documented at Fundación Cardioinfantil. Statistical analysis with distribution of variables of age, gender, invasive procedure associated and isolated microorganism was made. Results: 41 patients were obtained. The average age was 60.6 years. There was no distinction between men (22, 53.6%) and women (19, 46.3%). The patients were grouped according to the procedure performed in: implantation of high-flow intravascular devices (16, 39.02%), central venous catheter (12, 29.26%) and intracardiac devices (11, 26.82%). The general prevalence in the evaluated procedures was 0.21%, being 1.42% in high-flow intravascular devices, 0.72% in intracardiac devices and 0.08% in central catheters. The registered mortality was 4,9% (2 patients). In 78.05% of the patients, microbiological isolation was obtained. Conclusions: patients who has invasive procedures may have an incremented risk of infective endocarditis because of the procedure. The low intrahospital mortality could be related with the remarkable number of microbiological identification which facilitated a directed antimicrobial therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Endocarditis , Cross Infection , Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 40(1)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388081


Resumen: La endocarditis infecciosa, la infección cardiovascular en general, es una enfermedad médico-quirúrgica compleja que requiere un tratamiento multidisciplinario precoz, específico y agresivo. A pesar de los avances médicos, ésta sigue siendo una enfermedad con una morbi-mortalidad elevada, por lo que el tratamiento antibiótico se complementa en un 40-50% de los pacientes mediante intervención quirúrgica. Por lo tanto, es necesario conocer las opciones que pueden llegar a ser utilizadas para extirpar el tejido infectado. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir aspectos de interés en la cirugía de la endocarditis infecciosa.

Abstract: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a complex disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach and early and aggressive treatment. Despite médical and surgical advances, this disease still has high morbidity and mortality. The antibiotic treatment is complemented in 40-50% of the cases with surgical intervention. Thus, it is useful to be aware of the possibilities that might be contemplated in order to excise the infected tissues. The aim of this work is to discuss current surgical aspects of interest in the surgery IE.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2)abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388227


Resumen La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es una enfermedad de alta mortalidad, caracterizada por una infección endocárdica y frecuentes complicaciones multiorgánicas, que requiere un diagnóstico rápido y preciso, y un manejo agresivo, ya sea médico o quirúrgico. Su diagnóstico se realiza tomando en cuenta criterios bacteriológicos, clínicos y ecocardiográficos. Es objetivo de este artículo realizar una actualización del estudio imagenológico en paciente con EI, con especial énfasis en aquellos exámenes no ecocardiográficos disponibles en nuestro medio. En los últimos años, estudios de imagen avanzados han adquirido un rol creciente en su estudio inicial, particularmente la tomografía computada multicorte (TCMC) cardiaca y el positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), y han sido recomendados como criterios diagnósticos en las guías recientes para el manejo de esta entidad. La TCMC cardiaca proporciona información anatómica detallada de las válvulas cardiacas y tejido perivalvular, identificando pseudoaneurismas, abscesos y dehiscencias valvulares. El PET/CT con F18-fluorodeoxiglucosa (F18-FDG) permite aumentar la sensibilidad en la detección de EI, y pesquisar con alta eficiencia fenómenos embólicos sistémicos, de elevada frecuencia en esta población. Ambos métodos prestan particular utilidad en EI de válvula protésica, donde la ecocardiografía presenta menor rendimiento diagnóstico. La resonancia magnética (RM) cerebral es el mejor método de imagen para descartar eventos isquémicos/embólicos del sistema nervioso central.

Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is an entity characterized by endocardial infection and frequent multiorgan complications, resulting in high mortality. It requires a rapid and accurate diagnosis, and a medical or surgical aggressive treatment. Currently, IE diagnosis rests on bacterial, clinical and ultrasonographic criteria. The objective of this article is to update the imaging study in patients with IE, with special emphasis on those non-echocardiographic examinations available in our environment. Last years, advanced imaging had achieved a growing role in IE diagnosis, especially cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which have been recommended in recent clinical guidelines to be included as part of diagnostic criteria. Cardiac MSCT provides detailed anatomic information of cardiac valves and perivalve tissue, allowing identification of pseudoaneurysm, abscess and valve dehiscence. F18-FDG PET/CT increases sensitivity for IE detection and shows high accuracy in searching for extracranial systemic embolic events. Both MSCT and PET/CT have particular utility in cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis, where cardiac ultrasonography shows lower performance. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging method for evaluating ischemic/embolic events of central nervous system.

Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3675, mar.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251797


Introducción: La Endocarditis infecciosa sigue desafiando a la Medicina moderna a pesar de no ser una entidad frecuente. Objetivo: Se presenta un caso con una lesión valvular previa no diagnosticada antes, y sin síntomas, y que se consideró el diagnóstico tempranamente de endocarditis en el nivel hospitalario. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 20 años, mujer, con antecedentes de salud referidos, fumadora. Ingresa en sala del Servicio de Medicina el 21 de enero de 2020 por fiebres que se mantienen todo el día de 38-38,50 C, con picos que alcanzan los 400 C con escalofríos en determinados momentos. Desde hace un mes presenta esta sintomatología. Ruidos cardiacos rítmicos, taquicárdicos, de buena intensidad. Clic sistólico con arrastre sistólico fuerte de regurgitación IV/VI audible en foco mitral con frémito que se irradia a la axila, anemia, VSG acelerada, leucocitosis con desviación izquierda, hemocultivos negativos y en ecocardiograma prolapso de válvula mitral, valva anterior y posterior, con regurgitación que ocupa toda la aurícula izquierda hasta el techo de la misma. Múltiples vegetaciones en cara auricular de valva posterior de válvula mitral, la mayor de 7 x 3 mm. Conclusiones: El método clínico es fundamental en el proceso diagnóstico en la práctica clínica secundado por los medios diagnósticos como en la enfermedad que nos ocupa(AU)

Introduction: Infective endocarditis continues to be a great challenge for modern medicine although it is not a frequent entity. Objective: We present a case of an undiagnosed previous valve lesion without symptoms. The early diagnosis of endocarditis was made at the hospital level. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old woman, smoker, with previous history of good health was admitted to the medical ward on January 21, 2020. The patient reported continuous fever (38-38,50 C) throughout the day, with spikes up to 400 C and intermittent chills. She has been having these symptoms for a month. Rhythmic heart sounds and high intensity tachycardia and systolic click with strong systolic displacement of regurgitation grade IV/VI audible in mitral area with fremitus radiating to the armpit were heard. Anemia, accelerated ESR, leukocytosis with left deviation, and negative blood cultures were confirmed. The echocardiogram showed a mitral valve prolapse with regurgitation of anterior and posterior valves that occupies all the left atrium until its top. There was multiple vegetation in the atrial side of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve; the greatest is 7 x 3 mm. Conclusions: The clinical method is essential in the diagnostic process performed in clinical practice supported by diagnostic means, as in the current case(AU)

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Mitral Valve Prolapse/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Prolapse/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Endocarditis/diagnosis , Blood Culture/methods
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 46(1): 20-26, Mar. 30,2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292872


Introducción: la endocarditis infecciosa es una afección con elevada morbilidad y mortalidad, con una incidencia en Chile de 2-3 casos por 100.000 habitantes al año, con una edad de presentación en ascenso y una clínica diversa e inespecífica que requiere un manejo multidisciplinario para el manejo de estos pacientes. Materiales y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo, se consideró el número total de fichas clínicas del hospital clínico Herminda Martín de Chillán durante los años 2015 al 2019, con diagnóstico confirmado de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos se registraron en la hoja de recolección de datos elaborada, realizándose los análisis estadísticos pertinentes. Resultados:la muestra (n=17) que pudo ser analizada tenía una edad promedio de 53,5 años; 70,5% (DE 14,50) fueron hombres y el agente más común identificado fue Staphylococcus aureus sensible a meticilina. En promedio los pacientes recibieron 28,8 días de antibióticos y la válvula más afectada fue la aórtica. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es una patología con una gran morbimortalidad, que presenta un cuadro clínico inespecífico capaz de simular cualquier enfermedad. Se requieren aún de más estudios que reflejen la realidad nacional.

Introduction: Infective endocarditis is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, with an incidence in Chile of 2-3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year, with increasing age of presentation and a diverse and nonspecific clinic that requires multidisciplinary management for treatment of these patients. Materials and methods: Descriptive observational study, the total number of clinical records of the Herminda Martín de Chillán clinical hospital during the years 2015 to 2019, with a confirmed diagnosis of infective endocarditis, was considered. The data were recorded in the data collection sheet prepared, performing the relevant statistical analyses. Results: The sample (n = 17) that could be analysed had an average age of 53.5 years (DS 14.50), 70.5% were men, and the most common agent identified was methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. On average, patients received 28.8 days of antibiotics, and the most affected valve was the aortic valve. Conclusions: Infective endocarditis is a pathology with high morbidity and mortality, which presents a nonspecific clinical spectrum, capable of simulating any disease. Still, more studies are required that reflect the national reality

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881253


@#Infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease with severe complications and high mortality. It is heterogeneous in etiology, clinical manifestations, and course. At the same time, there are many disputes on the clinical practice of antibiotic treatment, surgical indications and timing. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of IE, especially the latest advances in surgical treatment after the release of European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines in 2015.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 570-576, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1144253


Resumen Introducción: La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es causa importante de morbimortalidad. En los últimos años se han visto cambios en la epidemiología de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y microbiológicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de EI ingresados en un hospital pediátrico de 2011 al 2018. Pacientes y Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes bajo 15 años de edad, hospitalizados con EI en un hospital pediátrico de referencia de Uruguay. Se utilizaron cálculos de medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, así como frecuencias absolutas y porcentuales. Resultados: Se identificaron 11 niños, media de edad 4 años 6 meses (rango 5 meses - 13 años). Cinco sin factores de riesgo, seis con factores de riesgo: cinco con cardiopatía congénita (2 con cirugía cardíaca) y uno con catéter venoso central. En 11 se obtuvo hemocultivo previo a la antibioterapia, en 10 una sola muestra, en uno hubo dos muestras. En nueve casos se recuperó el microorganismo causal; Staphylococcus aureus en cuatro (dos cepas resistentes a meticilina), seguido de Streptococcus grupo viridans tres niños. En 10 niños se encontraron vegetaciones en el ecocardiograma, seis valvulares. El tratamiento empírico más frecuente fue ceftriaxona y vancomicina. Las complicaciones fueron falla cardiaca y embolias sépticas. Cinco niños requirieron cirugía cardíaca. Falleció un paciente. Conclusiones: Se observó un aumento de EI en niños sin cardiopatía, por tanto, es necesario tener alta sospecha clínica en pacientes febriles. Importante es realizar hemocultivos previos al inicio de la antibioterapia y contemplar una cobertura contra Staphylococcus aureus en la terapia empírica inicial.

Abstract Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In recent years there have been changes in the epidemiology of this disease. Aim: To describe epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of IE admitted to a pediatric hospital from 2011 to 2018. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study. Children under 15 years of age hospitalized with IE in a reference pediatric hospital in Uruguay were included. Calculations of measures of central tendency and dispersion were used, as well as absolute and percentage frequencies. Results: 11 children were identified, mean age 4 years 6 months (range 5 months - 13 years). Five without risk factors, 6 with risk factors: 5 congenital heart disease (2 with cardiac surgery) and 1 central venous catheter. In 11 blood cultures were obtained prior to antibiotics, 10 a single sample, 1 with two samples. In 9 cases a microorganism was isolated. The most frequent was Staphylococcus aureus 4 children (2 methicillin resistant), followed by group viridans Streptococcus 3 children. In 10 children vegetations were found in the echocardiogram, 6 valvular. The most frequent empirical treatment was ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Complications were heart failure and septic emboli. 5 children required heart surgery. One patient died. Conclusions: An increase of IE in children without heart disease has been observed, then, it is necessary to have high clinical suspicion in febrile patients. It is important to perform blood cultures prior to the start of antibiotics and to consider coverage against Staphylococcus aureus in empirical initial treatment.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-204755


Neonatal endocarditis is a rare but usually fatal disease. Fungal endocarditis is an uncommon complication of invasive fungal infections and is associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. It frequently occurs in premature infants. The majority of these infections are caused by Candida (60-70%) and Aspergillus species (20-25%). The diagnosis is difficult because the criteria that have suggested and used in adults are not readily applicable for neonates. The incidence of fungal endocarditis in a neonate is on the rise, reported in the last decade secondary to use of central venous lines, frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and neonatal surgical interventions.