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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-953949


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease with complex and diverse pathogenesis, and there is no effective treatment or specific drugs for its clinical treatment. In recent years, its incidence has been on the rise, and it has become the earnest expectation of medical researchers in China and abroad that related patients could be treated. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions to regulate cellular energy homeostasis and mitochondrial homeostasis. When activated, it has a good intervention effect on NAFLD progression with lipid metabolism disorders and mitochondrial homeostasis disorders. For NAFLD, the activation of AMPK can inhibit the production of new lipogenesis in the liver, promote the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver, and enhance the mitochondrial function of adipose tissues. As a key target of metabolic diseases, AMPK can also improve apoptosis, liver fibrosis, autophagy, and inflammation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is good at treating diseases from multiple targets and multiple pathways and is also commonly used in the treatment of chronic liver disease in clinical practice. A large number of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies on NAFLD have shown that TCM monomers have good prospects for the treatment of NAFLD through the AMPK signaling pathway, including glycosides, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, and lignans, which are natural activators of AMPK. This study reviewed the research progress on TCM monomers in regulating the AMPK pathway to prevent and treat NAFLD, providing a broader perspective for TCM treatment of NAFLD.

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2398-2404, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829386


This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of astragaloside IV (ASIV) on mitochondrial morphology and function of rat cardiomyocytes under hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. H9c2 cells were divided into control group, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) group, and H/R + ASIV group. Cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage were measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and LDH assay kit, respectively. Oxidative stress levels, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA), were analyzed by commercial kits. Intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) and MitoSOX. Changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using the fluorescent probe JC-1. Opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore was examined via calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM). Apoptosis was assessed using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay kit. To detect protein expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitofusin1 (Mfn1), Mfn2, Bax, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and cleaved cysteine-aspartic protease (caspase)-3, Western blot analysis was carried out. Compared with the control group, ASIV (100 μmol·L-1) significantly improved H/R induced cell injury, LDH leakage, decrease of SOD activity, and GSH content, increase of MDA content and ROS content, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, ROS production activation, mitochondrial fission/fusion imbalance, and cell apoptosis. In addition, the effect of ASIV against H/R injury was also verified on primary rat cardiomyocytes. The animal welfare and experimental process follow the rules of Animal Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. In conclusion, ASIV may play a protective role in mitochondria by regulating morphological dynamic stability and mitochondrial function, inhibiting excessive synthesis of ROS, improving the internal environment of oxidative stress, reducing cell apoptosis, and thereby protecting against cardiomyocytes’ hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847450


BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is an important topic in modern medical research, and its development is closely related to common heart diseases such as arrhythmia and chronic heart failure. Exercise intervention can significantly improve myocardial fibrosis, but there is no systematic and comprehensive understanding of the mechanism by which exercise improves myocardial fibrosis as well as the effects of different types of exercises on myocardial fibrosis. To date, it is still unclear about how exercise triggers the production of irisin against myocardial fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the exercise-induced production of irisin and its effect on myocardial fibrosis, and reveal its myocardial protection, so as to improve heart function and provide fundamental basis for preventing against common heart diseases, such as arrhythmia and chronic heart failure. METHODS: A search of ELSEVIER, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFanga, VIP and Taiwan Academic Literature Database was performed for articles regarding exercise, irisin, and myocardial fibrosis. The deadline for publication was August 2019. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 articles were eligible for review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Long-term and single exercise in human experiments has been shown to improve muscular and circulatory irisin levels, which has been better verified in animal experiments. A few experimental results indicate that long-term exercise has no significant effect on blood irisin levels, which may be due to different research subjects, exercise methods, exercise intensity, and exercise frequency. However, the specific mechanism is still unclear. Exercise can improve myocardial fibrosis by acting on myocardial mitochondrial stabilization, energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The occurrence of myocardial fibrosis results from the regulation of neuroendocrine and oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Irisin can influence the processes of oxidative stress and inflammation related to the mechanism of myocardial fibrosis, by inhibiting ROS/p38MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway, endogenous reactive oxygen species and ROS-NLRP3 inflammation signaling pathway, and regulating the expression of uncoupling protein 2 and mitochondrial homeostasis. Therefore, exercise may improve myocardial fibrosis by upregulating the expression of irisin, thus providing myocardial protection.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752906


Septic cardiomyopathy is a common complication in severe sepsis and septic shock,mito‐chondrial function injury is one of the main aspects of its pathogenesis. The heart is a continuous power or‐gan,needs a lot of ATP to maintain normal systolic and diastolic function. Mitochondrial as the main ATP producing organelles,accounts for about one third of the myocardial volume,which being damaged will be harmful to the myocardial energy supply and cardiac function. This paper introduced the latest research pro‐gress of mitochondrial damage in septic cardiomyopathy,including mitochondrial NO production increase and oxidative stress,Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial membrane permeability increase,mitochondrial uncoupling and mitochondrial homeostasis,also discussed the potential treatments.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-484243


Mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in the process of PD, DJ-1 participates in regulating the function of mitochondria,which has an effect on the protection of mitochon-dria. DJ-1 mutations can lead to the decrease of the activity of mitochondrial complex Ⅰ, the decrease of mitochondrial mem-brane potential and then mitochondrial fragmention and mitoph-agy, and then further damage neurons and trigger PD. This re-view presents the role of DJ-1 in regulating the function of the mitochondria in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease(PD).

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-497602


Objective To investigated the different effect of moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) and high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) on ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial homeostasis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods The AMI rat model was achieved by ligating coronary artery.The AMI and sham operation rats were randomly (random number) divided into four groups:sham operation group (Sham),AMI control group (AMI),AMI MCT group (AMI + M),and AMI HIT group (AMI + H).Animals in the AMI + M and AMI + H groups underwent 4 weeks MCT and HIT respectively.Five weeks after AMI,hemodynamic changes,mitochondrial bioenergetics,and PINK1,Beclinl,Mfn2,Drp1,Tfam,COXⅣ,PGC-1α were detected.Results Comparing with AMI group,in AMI + M and AMI + H groups,Beclin1,PINK1,Mfn2 and PGC-1α expression elevated significantly (P <0.05 or P <0.01),whereas ROS generation and Drp1 expression showed dramatic decrease (P < 0.05 or P<0.01).In addition,in AMI + H group,±dp/dt max,mitochondrial membrane potential,ATP synthesis activity,Tfam and COXⅣ expression improved significantly (P < 0.05).Comparing with AMI + M group,in AMI + H group,± dp/dt max,PGC-1α,Tfam and COX Ⅳ expression improved significantly (P < 0.05).Conclusions HIT is superior to MCT for ameliorating ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial homeostasis after AMI.