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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965379


@#Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner is an irreplaceable instrument in clinical diagnosis. The exposure dose that a patient receives is the sum of the doses caused by PET and CT examination. This study discussed the exposure dose level that a patient received during PET/CT examination according to the research data. Like other radiological diagnostic methods, PET/CT examination brings benefits outweighing its radiation risk. It is not advisable to exaggerate or ignore the exposure dose. The patient’s exposure dose caused by PET/CT examination should be controlled as much as possible under the premise of meeting clinical needs.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965375


@#Worldwide, the incidence of cancer is greatest in China. Tumor screening is effective to achieve early diagnosis, improve prognosis, increase the quality of life, and reduce mortality among cancer patients. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging provides metabolic data to support initial staging, treatment planning, and response evaluation in tumor screening, as well as tumor follow-up. The progressive integration of PET/CT imaging in radiotherapy has its basic principle in the biological heterogeneity of inter- and intra-tumor malignant lesions, and the radiation dose is required to be adjusted to achieve effective local tumor control among cancer patients. In addition, PET/CT imaging provides data on the biological features of tumor lesions, such as metabolism, hypoxia, and proliferation, which is useful to identify radiation-resistant regions and optimize treatment plans. These data are effective to reduce the uncertainty and variability in the anatomic description of tumor sites. This review summarizes the application of PET/CT imaging in common tumors.

Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(6): 891-902, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405170


ABSTRACT Objective: To explore the feasibility of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in diagnosing primary prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published before July 2020. The studies that used 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for detecting primary prostate cancer, and pathological biopsy as the reference standard were included. The selecting process used preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). The quality of enrolled studies was assessed by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Results: According to our search strategy, 9 studies were included for analysis. A total of 547 patients with primary prostate cancer and 443 lesion segments that underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scans were included and their pathological biopsies were compared. The results of these studies showed some differences. For instance, the lowest sensitivity of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in diagnosing primary prostate cancer was 67%, while the highest sensitivity recorded was 97%. Conclusions: Compared with conventional imaging examinations, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT had higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting primary prostate cancer. At present, most of the studies that used 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer are retrospective studies. Based on its advantage of high detection rate, the use of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the detection of primary prostate cancer is worthy of promotion.

Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(6): 845-850, dic. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1422078


Resumen Introducción: La tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) con antígeno de membrana específico de próstata (PSMA) mejora la estadificación del cáncer de próstata. Además, la intensidad de captación intraprostática del PSMA puede predecir resultados oncológicos clínicamente relevantes. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la intensidad de captación de PSMA se asocia con el cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo y poder conocer qué valor de captación de PSMA discrimina mejor esta relación. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte de 40 pacientes con cáncer de próstata comprobado por biopsia previo a la realización de radioterapia externa. Se evaluó correlación entre intensidad de captación del PSMA intraprostático y los resulta dos patológicos adversos en la biopsia prostática. Se estudió qué valor de captación de PSMA discrimina mejor el cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo utilizando curvas ROC. Resultados: El 40% de los pacientes tuvieron un cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo, el maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) tuvo una media de 11.5 (DE ± 7). La muestra arrojó un coeficiente de correlación Spearman de 0.4 (p = 0.007). El área bajo la curva (AUC) fue de 0.73, mostrando el punto de corte un SUV max ≥ 9.5, sensibilidad 0.81 y especificidad 0.71 en la detección de cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo. Conclusión: la intensidad de captación del PSMA intraprostático puede ser una nueva herramienta diagnóstica en la detección del cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo. Una intensidad de captación ≥ 9.5 tuvo una buena correlación con el cáncer de próstata clínicamente significativo.

Abstract Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) improves prostate cancer staging. Furthermore, the intensity of intraprostatic uptake of PSMA can predict clinically relevant oncologic outcomes. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the intensity of PSMA uptake is associated with clinically significant prostate cancer and to determine which value of PSMA uptake best dis criminates this relationship. Methods: A cohort study of 40 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer prior to external radiotherapy was conducted. The correlation between intraprostatic PSMA uptake intensity and adverse pathological findings in prostate biopsy was evaluated. Which PSMA uptake value better discriminates clinically significant prostate cancer was assessed using ROC curves. Results: Forty percent of the patients had a clinically significant prostate cancer and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) had a mean of 11.5 (SD ± 7). The sample showed a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.4 (p = 0.007). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.73 and a SUV max ≥ 9.5 showed a sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.71 in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Conclusion: Intraprostatic PSMA uptake intensity can be a new diagnostic tool in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. An uptake intensity equal or greater than 9.5 is correlated with clinically significant prostate cancer.

Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 44(5): 495-506, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403774


Objective: Positron emission tomography (PET) allows in vivo evaluation of molecular targets in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediate stage between normal cognition and Alzheimer-type dementia. In vivo fibrillar amyloid-beta can be detected in PET using [11C]-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB). In contrast, [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) is a neurodegeneration biomarker used to evaluate cerebral glucose metabolism, indicating neuronal injury and synaptic dysfunction. In addition, early cerebral uptake of amyloid-PET tracers can determine regional cerebral blood flow. The present study compared early-phase 11C-PiB and 18F-FDG in older adults without cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease. Methods: We selected 90 older adults, clinically classified as healthy controls, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, or with probable Alzheimer's disease, who underwent an 18F-FDG PET, early-phase 11C-PiB PET and magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were also classified as amyloid-positive or -negative in late-phase 11C-PiB. The data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Results: We found that the probable Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment group had lower early-phase 11C-PiB uptake in limbic structures than 18F-FDG uptake. The images showed significant interactions between amyloid-beta status (negative or positive). However, early-phase 11C-PiB appears to provide different information from 18F-FDG about neurodegeneration. Conclusions: Our study suggests that early-phase 11C-PiB uptake correlates with 18F-FDG, irrespective of the particular amyloid-beta status. In addition, we observed distinct regional distribution patterns between both biomarkers, reinforcing the need for more robust studies to investigate the real clinical value of early-phase amyloid-PET imaging.

Acta med. peru ; 39(4)oct. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419915


Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease (RDD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, with sinus involvement and massive lymphadenopathy. RDD is usually self-limited; it can appear alone or related to other diseases. We present a 9-year-old male with biopsy of that lesion was taken, giving as result a benign histiocytosis, compatible with RDD. The patient was scanned with full body 18F-FDG PET/CT, the results of the study showed hypermetabolic focal lesions in the sphenoid sinus, ethmoid sinus, and bilateral nasal involvement with hypermetabolic focal injury in the middle third of the left tibia, findings in relation to high-grade expansive injury. The study of 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated avid FDG lesions at nodal and extranodal sites, and it also can be used in monitoring and/or evaluating response to treatment.

La enfermedad de Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes (RDD) es una rara histiocitosis de células no Langerhans, con compromiso de los senos nasales y linfadenopatías masivas. RDD es usualmente autolimitada, y puede aparecer sola o asociada a otras enfermedades. Se presenta el caso de un niño varón de 9 años cuyo resultado histopatológico mostró histiocitosis benigna compatible con RDD. El paciente se sometió a una Tomografía Computarizada/Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones con 18F-fluorodeoxyglucosa (18F-FDG-TEP/TC) de todo el cuerpo, que mostró lesiones focales hipermetabólicas en los senos esfenoidales, etmoidales, y nasales bilaterales, junto a una lesión focal hipermetabólica en el tercio medio de la tibia izquierda. El estudio con 18F-FDG-PET/CT pudo demostrar lesiones ávidas de glucosa en sitios nodales y extra-nodales, y también puede servir en la monitorización o evaluación de la respuesta al tratamiento.

Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(5): 691-700, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403941


Abstract Introduction The end point of treatment in skull base osteomyelitis is a matter of debate. A treatment based on symptoms alone is fraught with recurrence. There is a need to restrict imaging though more informative. The inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate used commonly need a detailed evaluation to optimize its utility. Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of inflammatory markers with a hybrid PET scan in monitoring skull base osteomyelitis. The secondary objective was to obtain a cut-off value of these markers to decide upon antibiotic termination. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care center with fifty-one patients with skull base osteomyelitis meeting eligibility criteria. Patients diagnosed with skull base osteomyelitis were serially monitored with weekly markers and PET scan after the initiation of treatment. A hybrid scan was taken at 6-8 weeks of treatment and repeated if required. The follow-up period varied from 6 weeks to 15 months. The outcome measures studied were the values of markers and the metabolic activity of PET scan when the patient became asymptomatic and when disease-free. Results C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate had a statistically significant correlation to disease activity in PET tomography scan as a prognostic marker. Both showed good clinical correlation. A cut off value of ≤ 3.6 mg/L for C-reactive protein and ≤ 35 mm/hour for erythrocyte sedimentation rate were taken as normalized values. Conclusion A consistent normalized value of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate for 8-12 weeks in an asymptomatic patient may be an indicator of disease control, though not cure. So, relying solely on markers alone for antibiotic termination may cause relapse. It may be used cautiously in a peripheral setting without access to more specific hybrid scans. In a tertiary care, follow-up scans may be done based on the titres, thereby limiting the radiation exposure.

Resumo Introdução O endpoint do tratamento da osteomielite da base do crânio ainda é uma questão de debate. Um tratamento baseado apenas em sintomas é sujeito a altas taxas de recorrência. Por outro lado, embora sejam mais informativos, o uso dos exames de imagem tem sido cada vez mais restringido. Os marcadores inflamatórios como a proteína-C reativa e a velocidade de hemossedimentação, VHS, comumente usados, precisam de uma avaliação detalhada para aprimorar sua utilidade. Objetivos Comparar a acurácia diagnóstica de marcadores inflamatórios em relação à tomografia computadorizada por emissão de pósitrons, PET-TC, no monitoramento de osteomielite da base do crânio. O objetivo secundário foi obter um valor de corte desses marcadores para decidir sobre o momento da interrupção do antibiótico. Método Um estudo de coorte prospectivo foi conduzido em um centro de atendimento terciário com 51 pacientes com osteomielite da base do crânio que atendiam aos critérios de elegibilidade. Os pacientes com diagnóstico de osteomielite da base do crânio foram monitorados semanalmente por meio de exames seriados de marcadores e PET-CT após o início do tratamento. O exame de imagem foi feito em 6 a 8 semanas de tratamento e repetido se necessário. O período de acompanhamento variou de 6 semanas a 15 meses. As medidas de desfecho estudadas foram os valores dos marcadores inflamatórios e a atividade metabólica obtida por PET-CT quando o paciente se tornou assintomático e quando estava livre da doença. Resultados Proteína-C reativa e VHS apresentaram uma correlação estatisticamente significante com a atividade da doença ao PET-TC como marcadores prognósticos. Ambos mostraram boa correlação clínica. Um valor de corte de ≤ 3,6 mg/L para proteína-C reativa e ≤ 35 mm/hora para VHS foi considerado como normalizado. Conclusão Um valor normalizado consistente de proteína-C reativa e VHS por 8 a 12 semanas em um paciente assintomático pode ser um indicador de doença controlada, embora não de cura. Portanto, o uso apenas nesses marcadores para a interrupção do antibiótico pode ser causa de recidiva. Eles devem ser usados com cautela quando não há acesso a exames mais específicos. Em centros de atendimento terciários, o seguimento com exames de imagem pode ser feito com base nos títulos desses marcadores inflamatórios, o que limita a exposição dos pacientes à radiação.

Radiol. bras ; 55(5): 286-292, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406520


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the maximum and mean standardized uptake values, together with the metabolic tumor value and the total lesion glycolysis, at the primary tumor site, as determined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT), performed before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), as predictors of residual disease (RD) in patients with esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: The standardized uptake values and the volumetric parameters (metabolic tumor value and total lesion glycolysis) were determined by 18F-FDG-PET/CT to identify RD in 39 patients before and after nCRT for esophageal carcinoma. We used receiver operating characteristic curves to analyze the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters in the definition of RD. The standard of reference was histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen. Results: Eighteen patients (46%) presented RD after nCRT. Statistically significant areas under the curve (approximately 0.72) for predicting RD were obtained for all four of the variables evaluated after nCRT. Considering the presence of visually detectable uptake (higher than the background level) at the primary tumor site after nCRT as a positive result, we achieved a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 48% for the detection of RD. Conclusion: The use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT can facilitate the detection of RD after nCRT in patients with esophageal cancer.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar os valores máximo e médio de captação padronizada, o valor metabólico do tumor e a glicólise total da lesão do local do tumor primário, medidos no estudo de 18F-FDG-PET/CT realizado antes e depois da quimiorradioterapia neoadjuvante (nQRT) em pacientes com câncer de esôfago, como preditores de doença residual (DR). Materiais e Métodos: Os valores máximo e médio de captação padronizada e os parâmetros volumétricos (valor metabólico do tumor e glicólise total da lesão) da 18F-FDG-PET/CT realizada em 39 pacientes antes e após a nQRT para carcinoma de esôfago foram avaliados para RD. Usamos curvas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) para analisar o desempenho diagnóstico dos parâmetros 18F-FDG-PET/CT na definição de RD. O estudo anatomopatológico foi utilizado como padrão ouro. Resultados: Dezoito pacientes (46%) apresentaram DR após a nQRT. Áreas estatisticamente significativas sob a curva ROC para predizer DR foram obtidas para as quatro variáveis nos estudos realizados após a nQRT, com áreas sob a curva ROC semelhantes em torno de 0,72. Considerando a presença de captação visualmente detectável (captação maior que o background) no local da lesão primária após a nQRT como resultado positivo, teríamos uma sensibilidade de 94% e uma especificidade de 48% para detecção de DR. Conclusão: A 18F-FDG-PET/CT pode ser útil para detectar a presença de doença neoplásica residual no câncer de esôfago após a nQRT.

Radiol. bras ; 55(5): 273-279, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406525


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18F-FDG PET/CT) in localizing epileptogenic zones, comparing 18F-FDG injection performed in the traditional interictal period with that performed near the time of a seizure. Materials and Methods: We evaluated patients with refractory epilepsy who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT. The reference standards for localization of the epileptogenic zone were histopathology and follow-up examinations (in patients who underwent surgery) or serial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, long-term video EEG, and magnetic resonance imaging (in patients who did not). The 18F-FDG injection was performed whether the patient had an epileptic seizure during the EEG monitoring period or not. The 18F-FDG PET/CT results were categorized as concordant or discordant with the reference standards. Results: Of the 110 patients evaluated, 10 were in a postictal group (FDG injection after a seizure) and 100 were in the interictal group. The 18F-FDG PET/CT was concordant with the reference standards in nine (90%) of the postictal group patients and in 60 (60%) of the interictal group patients. Among the nine postictal group patients in whom the results were concordant, the 18F-FDG PET/CT showed hypermetabolism and hypometabolism in the epileptogenic zone in four (44.4%) and five (55.6%), respectively. Conclusion: Our data indicate that 18F-FDG PET/CT is a helpful tool for localization of the epileptogenic zone and that EEG monitoring is an important means of correlating the findings. In addition, postictal 18F-FDG PET/CT is able to identify the epileptogenic zone by showing either hypometabolism or hypermetabolism.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade da PET/CT FDG detectar a zona epileptogênica, com injeção da FDG realizada tanto no período interictal como perto de uma crise epiléptica. Materiais e Métodos: Foram avaliados pacientes com epilepsia de difícil controle que realizaram PET/CT FDG. A zona epileptogênica foi definida pelo follow up/anatomopatológico ou eletroencefalogramas (EEGs) seriados, telemetria e ressonância magnética. PET/CT FDG foi realizada independentemente se o paciente tinha crise epiléptica durante a monitoração com EEG ou no período interictal. Os resultados foram definidos como concordantes ou discordantes, comparando com a zona epileptogênica. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 110 pacientes: 10 no grupo pós-ictal (injeção de FDG depois da crise) e 100 no grupo interictal. A PET/CT FDG foi concordante com a zona epileptogênica em nove pacientes do grupo pós-ictal (90%) e 60 pacientes do grupo interictal (60%). Entre os nove pacientes concordantes do grupo pós-ictal, quatro mostraram hipermetabolismo (44,4%) e cinco mostraram hipometabolismo na zona epileptogênica (55,6%). Conclusão: Nossos resultados confirmaram que a PET/CT FDG é uma ferramenta útil na localização da zona epileptogênica e a monitoração com EEG é muito importante para correlacionar os achados. Além disso, PET/CT FDG realizada no período pós-ictal é capaz de identificar a zona epileptogênica, mostrando tanto hipometabolismo como hipermetabolismo.

Dement. neuropsychol ; 16(2): 249-252, Apr.-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384675


ABSTRACT. Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) is a rare neurological disorder. Drug toxicity is among the differential diagnoses, including the use of lithium, in which an overdosage might cause cognitive dysfunction. Clinical suspicion, laboratory confirmation, and drug interruption are key points in the management of lithium intoxication. We described a 66-year-old female patient under treatment with lithium who developed an RPD associated with parkinsonian symptoms. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) showed an "Alzheimer-like" pattern, while cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the disease were negative. There was a significant clinical and radiological improvement after lithium interruption. Lithium intoxication is a potentially reversible cause of RPD, as demonstrated in this case report. Drug discontinuation should be considered even in patients with normal levels of this metal, if cognitive impairment is detected. 18F-FDG PET/CT images may show an "Alzheimer-like" image pattern in acute intoxication and are useful for monitoring these patients.

RESUMO. Demência rapidamente progressiva é uma condição rara, cujos diagnósticos diferenciais incluem intoxicação por drogas como lítio, podendo causar importante disfunção cognitiva. A suspeita clínica, a confirmação laboratorial e a interrupção do uso medicamentoso são elementos fundamentais em seu diagnóstico e manejo. Trata-se de paciente feminina, de 66 anos de idade, que apresentou quadro demencial após intoxicação por lítio. Tal quadro foi acompanhado de sintomas parkinsonianos, além de Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons com 18F-Fluodeoxiglicose (18F-FDG PET/CT) compatível com padrão "Alzheimer-like". Houve melhora objetiva de parâmetros clínicos e imaginológicos após a interrupção do uso medicamentoso. A intoxicação por lítio é uma causa potencialmente reversível de demência rapidamente progressiva. A descontinuação da droga deve ser considerada também em pacientes com níveis normais do metal no sangue se alterações cognitivas forem encontradas. Imagens 18F-FDG PET/CT podem demonstrar achados sugestivos de doença de Alzheimer na intoxicação aguda e parecem ser um método útil no seguimento.

Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 454-462, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377387


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of head and neck cancers is highly challenging owing to the complexity of regional anatomy and wide range of lesions. The diagnostic evaluation includes detailed physical examination, biopsy and imaging modalities for disease extent and staging. Appropriate imaging is done to enable determination of precise tumor extent and involvement of lymph nodes, and detection of distant metastases and second primary tumors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the initial staging discrepancy between conventional contrasted computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on management plans for head and neck malignancies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cross-sectional study in two tertiary-level hospitals. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with primary head and neck malignant tumors who underwent contrasted computed tomography and whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments. The staging and treatment plans were compared with the incremental information obtained after 18F-FDG PET/CT. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was found to raise the stage in 33.3% of the cases and the treatment intent was altered in 43.3% of them, while there was no management change in the remaining 56.7%. 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity (96% versus 89.2%) and accuracy (93% versus 86.7%) than conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher sensitivity and accuracy for detecting head and neck malignancy, in comparison with conventional contrast-enhanced computed tomography. 18F-FDG PET/CT improved the initial staging and substantially impacted the management strategy for head and neck malignancies.

Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography , Neoplasm Staging
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 126-136, May 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393935


ABSTRACT Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are sporadic adult-onset primary tauopathies clinically classified among the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. They are intrinsically related with regard to their clinical features, pathology, biochemistry, and genetic risk factors. Objectives: This review highlights the current knowledge on PSP and CBD, focusing on evolving clinical concepts, new diagnostic criteria, and advances in biomarkers. Methods: We performed a non-systematic literature review through the PubMed database. The search was restricted to articles written in English, published from 1964 to date. Results: Clinicopathologic and in vivo biomarkers studies have broadened PSP and CBD clinical phenotypes. They are now recognized as a range of motor and behavioral syndromes associated with underlying 4R-tauopathy neuropathology. The Movement Disorders Society PSP diagnostic criteria included clinical variants apart from the classical description, increasing diagnostic sensitivity. Meanwhile, imaging biomarkers have explored the complexity of symptoms and pathological processes related to corticobasal syndrome and CBD. Conclusions: In recent years, several prospective or clinicopathologic studies have assessed clinical, radiological, and fluid biomarkers that have helped us gain a better understanding of the complexity of the 4R-tauopathies, mainly PSP and CBD.

RESUMO Antecedentes: A paralisia supranuclear progressiva (PSP) e a degeneração corticobasal (DCB) são taupatias esporádicas primárias clinicamente classificadas no grupo das síndromes parkinsonianas atípicas. Ambas estão intrinsecamente relacionadas no que concerne aos aspectos clínicos, patológicos, bioquímicos e genéticos. Objetivos: Abordar os avanços recentes no conhecimento da PSP e DCB, focando na evolução dos conceitos clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, e avanços em biomarcadores. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão não-sistemática através da base de dados PubMed. Foram revisados artigos escritos em língua inglesa, publicados desde 1964 até a presente data. Resultados: Estudos com biomarcadores e análises postmortem ampliaram os fenótipos conhecidos da PSP e DCB. Tais doenças englobam um espectro amplo de síndromes motoras e cognitivas, associadas a neuropatologia tau com isoforma predominante 4R. O atual critério para PSP estabeleceu novas variantes clínicas para além da descrição clássica, aumentando a sensibilidade diagnóstica. Concomitantemente, biomarcadores in vivo exploraram a complexidade dos sintomas e processos patológicos relacionados à síndrome e degeneração corticobasal. Conclusões: Recentemente, alguns estudos prospectivos e clinicopatológicos investigaram aspectos clínicos, radiológicos e de biofluidos, que ajudaram a melhor compreender a heterogeneidade e complexidade clínica das taupatias 4R, sobretudo PSP e DCB.

Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5,supl.1): 24-35, May 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393952


ABSTRACT Neurodegenerative dementias are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of misfolded proteins. However, its diagnostic criteria are still based on the clinical phenotype. The development of biomarkers allowed in vivo detection of pathophysiological processes. This article aims to make a non-systematic review of the use of molecular neuroimaging as a biomarker. Molecular neuroimaging is based on the use of radiotracers for image acquisition. The radiotracer most used in PET is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), with which it is possible to study the regional brain glucose metabolism. The pattern of regional hypometabolism provides neuroanatomical information on the neurodegenerative process, which, in turn, has a good specificity for each type of proteinopathy. FDG is very useful in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias through the regional pattern of involvement, including dementia with Lewy bodies and the spectrum of frontotemporal dementia. More recently, radiotracers with specific ligands to some of the pathological proteins have been developed. Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) labeled with 11C and the ligands that use 18F (florbetapir, florbetaben and flutemetamol) are the most used radiotracers for the detection of insoluble β-amyloid peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A first generation of ligands for tau protein has been developed, but it has some affinity for other non-tau protein aggregates. A second generation has the advantage of having a higher affinity for hyperphosphorylated tau protein, including in primary tauopathies.

RESUMO As demências neurodegenerativas caracterizam-se pelo acúmulo anormal de proteínas mal dobradas. Entretanto, os seus critérios diagnósticos ainda se baseiam no fenótipo clínico. O desenvolvimento de biomarcadores permitiu a detecção in vivo do processo fisiopatológico. O objetivo deste artigo é fazer uma revisão não-sistemática sobre o papel da neuroimagem molecular como biomarcador. A neuroimagem molecular baseia-se no uso de radiotraçadores para aquisição da imagem. O mais usado no PET é o 18F-fluorodeoxiglicose (FDG), com o qual é possível estudar o metabolismo regional de glicose cerebral. O padrão de hipometabolismo regional fornece uma informação neuroanatômica do processo neurodegenerativo que, por sua vez, tem uma boa especificidade para cada tipo de proteinopatia. O PET-FDG é muito útil no diagnóstico diferencial das demências neurodegenerativas através do padrão de acometimento regional, incluindo a demência com corpos de Lewy e o espectro das demências frontotemporais. Mais recentemente, radiotraçadores com ligantes específicos a algumas das proteínas patológicas têm sido desenvolvidos. O composto B de Pittsburgh (PIB) com 11C e os ligantes dos que usam 18F (florbetapir, florbetaben e flutemetamol) são os radiotraçadores mais usados para a detecção de peptídeo β-amiloide insolúvel na doença de Alzheimer (DA). Uma primeira geração de ligantes para proteína tau foi desenvolvida, mas apresenta alguma afinidade a outros agregados proteicos não-tau. Uma segunda geração tem a vantagem de apresentar uma maior afinidade à proteína tau hiperfosforilada, incluindo nas taupatias primárias.

Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(3): 372-376, Mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376133


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary actinomycosis, clinically and radiologically, mimics abscess, tuberculosis, and lung malignancy, resulting in misdiagnosis or delay in diagnosis. In this study, we analyzed the clinicoradiological features of pulmonary actinomycosis, the presence of any differences between clinical prediagnosis and radiological diagnosis, and whether imaging modalities help distinguish pulmonary actinomycosis from lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 22 patients who had a histopathological diagnosis of actinomycosis in a tertiary health center participated in this study. Of these, 14 had positron-emission tomography/computed tomography. RESULTS: In all, 81.8% of the patients were males. The diagnostic procedures employed for the diagnosis of actinomycosis were surgery in 54.5% of patients, fiberoptic bronchoscopy in 36.4% of patients, and rigid bronchoscopy in 9.1% of patients. Radiological and clinical prediagnosis showed malignancy in 31.8 and 40.9% of patients, respectively. The mean of the maximum standardized uptake value was 6.33±3.6 on positron-emission tomography/computed tomography. Kappa compliance analysis revealed that clinical and radiological diagnoses were significantly compatible with each other and that radiological pre-diagnoses were not superior to clinical diagnoses (κ=0.701 and p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary actinomycosis shows high metabolic uptake in positron-emission tomography/computed tomography, and this may mislead clinicians for a diagnosis of malignancy. Our results suggest that positron-emission tomography/computed tomography does not help distinguish pulmonary actinomycosis from lung malignancy and does not provide a clear diagnostic benefit to the clinician, so pathological diagnosis is necessary.

Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 13-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360671


Abstract Objective: To compare 68Ga-DOTA-DPhe1,Tyr3-octreotate (68Ga-DOTATATE) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings with those of conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective study including 41 patients (25 males; mean age, 55.4 years) with biopsy-proven NETs who underwent whole-body 111In-octreotide scintigraphy and whole-body 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. The patients had been referred for tumor staging (34.1%), tumor restaging (61.0%), or response evaluation (4.9%). Images were compared in a patient-by-patient analysis to identify additional lesions, and we attempted to determine the impact that discordant findings had on treatment planning. Results: Compared with 111In-octreotide scintigraphy, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT revealed more lesions, the additional lesions typically being in the liver or bowel. Changes in management owing to the additional information provided by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT occurred in five patients (12.2%), including intermodal changes in three (7.3%) and intramodal changes in two (4.9%). In addition, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT yielded incidental findings unrelated to the primary NET in three patients (7.3%): Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid, bowel non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and a suspicious breast lesion. Conclusion: We conclude that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is superior to conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy for the management of NETs because of its ability to determine the extent of the disease more accurately, which, in some cases, translates to changes in the treatment plan.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os achados da PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE em relação aos da cintilografia com 111In-octreotide em pacientes com tumores neuroendócrinos (TNEs). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo unicêntrico incluindo 41 pacientes (25 homens; média de idade: 55,4 anos) com TNEs comprovados por biópsia submetidos a cintilografia de corpo inteiro com 111In-octreotide e PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE. Os pacientes incluídos foram encaminhados para estadiamento do tumor (34,1%), reestadiamento (61,0%) ou avaliação da resposta (4,9%). As imagens foram comparadas para identificar lesões adicionais e o impacto dos achados discordantes no planejamento terapêutico. Resultados: Na comparação com a cintilografia com 111In-octreotide, a PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE revelou mais lesões, mais frequentemente localizadas no fígado e intestino. Mudanças no tratamento devidas às informações adicionais reveladas pela PET/ CT ocorreram em 5/41 pacientes (12,2%), incluindo mudanças intermodalidade em três casos (7,3%) e intramodalidade em dois casos (4,9%). A PET/CT também identificou achados incidentais não relacionados ao TNE em 3/41 pacientes (7,3%), incluindo um carcinoma de células de Hürthle da tireoide, um linfoma não Hodgkin de intestino e uma lesão mamária suspeita. Conclusão: A PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE é superior à cintilografia convencional com 111In-octreotide para o manejo de pacientes com TNEs, em virtude da sua capacidade de detectar a extensão da doença com mais precisão, o que se traduz, em alguns casos, em alterações terapêuticas.

Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(2): 199-205, feb. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389644


BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity to detect medullary and extramedullary lesions in multiple myeloma (MM). AIM: To describe the findings of PET-CT in extramedullary multiple myeloma (EMM) at diagnosis and at relapse, and correlate its results with clinical variables, response to treatment and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of medical records and PET-CT reports of 39 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who had at least one PET-CT study, treated between January 1, 2015, and January 1, 2019 at a clinical hospital. RESULTS: The Standard Uptake Values for each hypermetabolic lesion were not described in PET-CT reports. Fifteen patients had an EMM and in eight, without a previous clinical suspicion, PET-TC lead to the diagnosis. The mortality rate in the 39 patients with MM was 46%. Sixty seven percent of deaths occurred in patients with EMM. CONCLUSIONS: PET-TC was useful to diagnose EMM. However, a standardization in PETCT reports would be required to unify criteria. As previously reported, EMM had a greater aggressiveness and lower survival.

Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/diagnostic imaging , Radiopharmaceuticals , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6599, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375335


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the predictive value of positron emission computed tomography or magnetic resonance (PET-CT and PET-MRI) using gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) in lymph node involvement in prostate cancer. Methods A retrospective study comprising 91 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2016 to 2020, who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT or PET-MRI for staging before prostatectomy. The patients were divided into Group 1, with 65 patients with satisfactory pathological lymph node analysis, and Group 2, with 91 patients representing the sum of patients with pathological lymph node analysis and those with postoperative prostate-specific antigen within 60 days after surgery. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to assess accuracy of predictive capacity of imaging exams for lymph node involvement. Results Regarding local clinical staging, the groups showed similar results, and 50% were classified as staging T2a. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT for prostate cancer lymph node staging was 86.5% (95%CI 0.74-0.94; p=0.06), with a sensitivity of 58.3% and specificity of 95%. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-MRI was 84.6% (95%CI 0.69-0.94; p=0.09), with a sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 100%. Considering both 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI, the accuracy was 85.7% (95%CI 0.76-0.92; p=0.015), with sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 97%. Conclusion The imaging tests 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI were highly accurate to detect preoperative lymph node involvement, and could be useful tools to indicate the need for extended lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO0104, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1404658


Abstract Objective To evaluate whether there is a significant difference in somatostatin analog uptake in meningiomas treated or not with radiation therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed comparing measurements of somatostatin analog (68Ga-DOTATATE) uptake in two independent groups of ten patients each - one consisting of patients with meningiomas previously treated with radiation therapy and another comprising patients who had never been submitted to radiation therapy. All patients underwent PET/CT and MRI scans in an interval shorter than 24 hours between exams. Results A total of 32 meningiomas from 20 patients were analyzed, all presenting significant somatostatin analog uptake in different degrees. The uptake levels of somatostatin analog were similar between the lesions treated or not with radiation therapy, and the mean values of SUVmax were 27.62 and 24.82, respectively (p=0.722). For SUVmean, the values were 16.20 and 14.82, respectively (p=0.822). Conclusion Comparative analysis between the groups showed no significant differences in degree of somatostatin analog uptake in successfully irradiated and non-irradiated meningiomas.