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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887


Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.

Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.

Animals , Ecosystem , Murinae , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Feeding Behavior
Acta biol. colomb ; 27(1): 127-130, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360057


ABSTRACT Cerradomys goytaca is a cricetid rodent endemic to "Restinga" formations from southeastern Atlantic Forest. It is known from only five localities, and it is considered endangered of extinction. Herein, we furnish new data on C. goytaca from an additional locality in Rio de Janeiro state. The present record provides new data on habitat and represents the westernmost geographic limit of this poorly known species.

RESUMEN Cerradomys goytaca es un roedor cricetideo endémico de las formaciones de Restinga del sureste de la Selva Atlantica. Es conocido solo en cinco localidades, y se considera en peligro de extinción. Aquí, proporcionamos nuevos datos sobre C. goytaca de una localidad adicional en el estado de Río de Janeiro. El presente registro proporciona nuevos datos del hábitat y representa el límite geográfico más occidental de esta especie poco conocida.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 38-45, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907010


OBJECTIVE To study the absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood. METHODS UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was adopted. SD rats were randomly divided into blank group and administration group ,with 10 rats in each group. Blank group was given water intragastrically ,and administration groups were given 2 g/mL(by the amount of crude drug )Xiebai powder solution intragastrically. Administration volume was 11.3 mL/kg,twice a day for 3 days. One point five hours after last administration,blood was taken from the abdominal aorta of each rat ,the serum was processed to obtain the supernatant for analysis;the relevant data in positive and negative ion mode were collected ,and the absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood were analyzed and identified by using self-built secondary mass spectrometry database and consulting the relevant literature. RESULTS Totally 17 components from Xiebai powder were identified ,among which 6 components came from sovereign Moru salba,7 from minister Cortex Lycii ,12 from assistant Glycyrrhiza uralensis ,i.e. kukoamine A ,chlorogenic acid ,tachiogroside B,astringin,neoglycyrrhizin,glycyrrhizin,azelaic acid ,isoglycyrrhizin,glycyroside,anthocyanin,sebacic acid ,parthenolide, anthocyanin,18β-glycyrrhetinic acid ,6-gingerol,palmitoamide,erucamide. These compounds were mainly flavonoids ,alkaloids and organic acids. CONCLUSIONS In this study ,17 absorbed components of Xiebai powder in blood are preliminarily determined,which are consistent with the effect of Xiebai powder. They may be the pharmacodynamic substances of Xiebai powder.

Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 302-306, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920772


Objective@#To examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S ( BPS ), bisphenol F ( BPF ) and bisphenol AF ( BPAF ) on the proliferation and oxidative stress of BRL 3A rat liver cells, and to preliminarily evaluate their mutagenicities.@*Methods@#In vitro cultured BRL 3A rat liver cells were treated with BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol/L for 48 h, respectively. Then, the cell viability was determined using the CCK-8 assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) was calculated. The minimum inhibitory concentration for BRL 3A cell proliferation was screened, and the intracellular reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was measured in BRL 3A cells using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate ( DCFH-DA ) assay. In addition, the effects of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF at concentrations of 1 000, 200, 40, 8 and 1.6 μg/plate on the mutant colonies of histidine-deficient Salmonella typhimurium ( TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 ) were tested using the Ames test.@*Results@#Treatment with BPA and BPF at concentrations of 100 to 200 μmol/L and with BPAF at concentrations of 25 to 200 μmol/L inhibited BRL 3A cell survival at a concentration-dependent manner, while exposure to BPS at concentrations of 5 to 200 μmol/L resulted in no changes in BRL 3A cell survival. The IC50 values of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF were 131.7, >200, 187.5 and 21.6 μmol/L against BRL 3A cells, respectively. Treatment with BPS at 100 μmol/L or BPAF at 25 μmol/L caused no significant changes in the ROS level; however, exposure to BPA at 100 μmol/L and BPF at 100 μmol/L significantly increased the ROS level. Ames test showed that BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF did not induce mutagenicity in TA1535, TA97a, TA98, TA100 or TA102 strains.@*Conclusions@#BPAF shows the highest cytotoxicity to BRL 3A cells, and low-concentration exposure to BPS has few effects on BRL 3A cells. The cytotoxicity of bisphenols against BRL 3A cells may be associated with the induction of oxidative stress. None of the four bisphenols show mutagenic effects under the present experimental conditions.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 592-596, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920730


OBJECTIVE To optimize th e p rocessing technology of Portulaca oleracea charcoal,and to investigate its improvement effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats. METHODS The effects of roasting temperature ,dosage and roasting time on the processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal were investigated with Box-Behnken response surface methodology using comprehensive score of tannin content ,water-soluble extract content and appearance properties as the index. The optimal process parameters are selected and verified. The hemorrhoid model rats were treated with P. oleracea charcoal(0.8 g/mL)prepared by the optimal processing technology ,once a day ,for 11 days. After last medication ,the perianal pathological score of hemorrhoid model rats were performed ;serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukin 6(IL-6)and IL- 1β were detected. RESULTS The optimal processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal included roasting temperature of 200 ℃, dosage of 150 g and roasting time of 14 min. Results of validation test showed that the comprehensive score of P. oleracea charcoal was 92.57,and relative error of it with predicted value (96.59)was -4.13%. External use of P. oleracea charcoal 0.8 g/mL prepared by the optimal processing technology could significantly promote the wound healing of hemorrhoid model rats ,reduced the amount of exudate ,and decreased the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-β in serum. CONCLUSIONS The optimized processing technology of P. oleracea charcoal is feasible. P. oleracea charcoal prepared by the optimized processing technology has good curative effect on the symptom of hemorrhoid model rats.

Agora (Rio J.) ; 24(3): 46-54, set.-dez. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1355598


RESUMO: O presente artigo pretende abordar, por meio do caso O Homem dos Ratos, o caráter ficcional da neurose. Partindo da proposição lacaniana de que a neurose nasce de um furo no saber soberano, o que se busca ressaltar é que, por mais que haja uma intensificação dos excessos e da falta de referências na contemporaneidade, a angústia e o sintoma já estavam presentes desde os tempos de Freud. Assim, com o objetivo de evidenciar que a função paterna é falha por estrutura, investigaremos o complexo de Édipo, fundador do mito de origem, lançando luz sobre o aspecto paradoxal da castração.

Abstract: This paper aims to approach, through the case The Rat Man, the fictional character of the structure of neurosis. Starting from the Lacanian assumption that neurosis is born from a gap on the sovereign knowledge, hereby we aim at highlighting that even though on the present days there is an intensification of excesses and of a lack of reference, the anguish and the symptom were already present in Freud's days. Hence, with the objective of demonstrating that the paternal figure is structurally flawed, we will investigate the Oedipus' Complex, founder of its origin myth, so that we can shed some light on the paradoxical aspect of castration.

Paternity , Psychoanalysis , Neurotic Disorders
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 300-309, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355226


La administración crónica de cafeína evita la alteración de la glucosa postprandial en ratas. El aumento en el consumo de la cafeína alrededor del mundo no es discutible, es así como su investigación se ha vuelto extensa en sus diferentes campos. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos de la administración crónica de cafeína en ratas alimentadas con dieta de cafetería, a través de evaluar índices de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Materiales y métodos. La dieta de cafetería es un modelo dietético equivalente a las características de la dieta occidental típica que origina síndrome metabólico en humanos. En esta investigación se realizó la administración crónica vía intraperitoneal de cafeína por ocho semanas a ratas adultas macho Wistar alimentadas con dieta de cafetería. Dada la poca evidencia acerca de los efectos biológicos y comportamentales de la administración crónica de dicha sustancia frente a un modelo de dieta de cafetería se evaluaron parámetros de consumo, antropométricos y bioquímicos. Resultados. La dieta de cafetería ocasionó anomalías asociadas al síndrome metabólico; no obstante, la administración de cafeína en las ratas alimentadas con esa dieta resultó ser un factor protector en la glucosa postprandial, más no en la alteración de la tolerancia a la glucosa o perfil lipídico. Conclusiones. La cafeína permitió proteger los niveles de glucosa postprandial al término del experimento y un descenso en el peso corporal y consumo de alimento solo en la primera semana. Sin embargo, no se observaron mejoras significativas en el perfil de lípidos, adiposidad, tolerancia a la glucosa y glucosa plasmática(AU)

Chronic caffeine administration prevents postprandial glucose disturbance in rats. The increase in caffeine consumption is not debatable, this is how his research has become extensive in his different fields. Objective. To analyze the effects of chronic administration of caffeine in rats fed a cafeteria diet, by evaluating consumption, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Previous studies refer to administering caffeine in diets high in carbohydrates and / or in fat that induce obesity or symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Material and methods. The cafeteria diet is a dietary model equivalent to the characteristics of the typical western diet that causes metabolic syndrome in humans. In this research, chronic intraperitoneal administration of caffeine was performed for 8 weeks to adult male Wistar rats fed a cafeteria diet. Given the little evidence about the biological and behavioral effects of the chronic administration of this substance against a cafeteria diet model, consumption, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results. After eight weeks it was found that the cafeteria diet given to the controls caused abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome; regarding the administration of caffeine in the rats fed this diet, the treatment turned out to be a protective factor in postprandial glucose, but not in the alteration of glucose tolerance or lipid profile. Conclusions. Caffeine allowed to protect postprandial glucose levels at the end of the experiment and a decrease in body weight and food consumption only in the first week. However, no significant improvements were seen in lipid profile, adiposity, glucose tolerance, and plasma glucose(AU)

Animals , Rats , Body Weight , Caffeine/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Postprandial Period , Reference Parameters , Glucose/analysis , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Adenosine , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eating , Receptors, Leptin , Obesity
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 34(2): 91-97, June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339031


ABSTRACT Although it has been demonstrated that exposure of lactating rats to CrVI delays tooth eruption, the effects of CrVI exposure on bone remodeling in the developing alveolus during tooth eruption remain unknown. Our purpose was to analyze the effect of CrVI in the alveolus of the first lower molar of rats. Thirty-two suckling Wistar rats were divided into two groups. The experimental group received 12.5 mg/kg body weight/day of potassium dichromate dissolved in saline solution by oral gavage as of day 4 of the experiment; the control group received an equal dose of saline solution. Each group was divided into two sub-sets and euthanized at the ages of 9 and 15 days, respectively. Histochemical and histomorphometric studies of the bone surfaces of the developing tooth alveolus were performed. The percentage of bone formation surfaces was lower in experimental animals than in age-matched controls. The percentage of bone resorption surfaces was significantly lower in 9-day-old experimental rats than in controls and significantly higher in 15-day-old experimental rats than in controls. Exposure to CrVI during lactation alters the sequence of bone resorption and formation in the walls of the developing alveolus, both of which are necessary for tooth eruption, thus causing a delay.

RESUMEN Si bien ya ha sido demostrado que la exposición a CrVI de ratas lactantes retrasa la erupción dentaria, aún se desconocen los efectos de la exposición a CrVI que se producen sobre la modelación y remodelación de las paredes del alvéolo en formación que ocurren en los diferentes estadios de la erupción dentaria. Por tal motivo, el propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del CrVI sobre la formación y la reabsorción óseas del alvéolo del primer molar inferior en desarrollo en ratas, a los 9 y a los 15 días de edad, que corresponden a los estadios intraóseo y de penetración mucosa de la erupción dentaria, respectivamente. El grupo experimental recibió una dosis diaria de 12,5 mg/kg de peso corporal de dicromato de potasio disuelto en solución salina por sonda bucal a partir del 4° día; mientras que el grupo control, un volumen equivalente de solución salina. Cada grupo fue dividido en 2 subgrupos de acuerdo al tiempo experimental en el que se llevó a cabo la eutanasia: 9 y 15 días de edad. Se llevaron a cabo estudios histoquímicos e histomorfométricos de las superficies óseas de los alveólos dentarios en formación. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente utilizando la prueba t de Student; estableciéndose un valor de p<0,05 como estadísticamente significativo. El porcentaje de superficies en formación fue menor en los animales experimentales de 9 y de 15 días de edad que en los respectivos controles. El porcentaje de superficies en reabsorción en los animales experimentales de 9 días de edad fue significativamente menor y en los animales de 15 días de edad fue significativamente mayor con respecto a sus controles. La exposición al cromo hexavalente durante la lactancia altera la secuencia de la reabsorción y la formación ósea de las paredes del alvéolo en desarrollo necesarias para que la pieza dentaria erupcione, causando su retraso. Los hallazgos obtenidos muestran la importancia del control de sustancias tóxicas en el agua potable, ya que sus efectos pueden alterar la remodelación ósea y por ende, el crecimiento y el desarrollo de los individuos que fueron expuestos durante la infancia temprana.

Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 303-314, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343478


In this study, against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diapetic nephropathy (DN); it is aimed to investigate the use of thymoquinone (TQ) and ß-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) and to compare the effects of these agents. With random selection of 35 male rats, five groups (seven rats in each group) were constituted as follows: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. In the STZ group; body weight, glutathione (GSH) and insulin levels decreased, relative kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels were increased. Also, in kidney tissue; histopathological changes (such as thickening of the capsular, glomerular and tubular basement membranes, increased mesangial matrix amount, increased cytoplasmic vacuolization in some of the tubular epithelial cells, increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in interstitial tissue) were detected. It was observed that these changes occurring after diabetes mellitus (DM) reversed significantly in TQ, BAIBA and TQ + BAIBA groups.

En este estudio, contra la nefropatía diapética (ND) inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ); tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de timoquinona (TQ) y ácido ß-aminoisobutírico (BAIBA) y comparar los efectos de estos agentes. Con la selección aleatoria de 35 ratas macho, se constituyeron cinco grupos (siete ratas en cada grupo) como sigue: Control, STZ, STZ + TQ, STZ + BAIBA, STZ + TQ + BAIBA. En el grupo STZ; el peso corporal, los niveles de glutatión (GSH) y de insulina disminuyeron, el peso relativo de los riñones, el malondialdehído (MDA), la glucosa, el nitrógeno ureico en sangre (BUN) y los niveles de creatinina (Cr) aumentaron. Además, en tejido renal; se detectaron cambios histopatológicos (como engrosamiento de las membranas basales capsular, glomerular y tubular, aumento de la cantidad de matriz mesangial, aumento de la vacuolización citoplasmática en algunas de las células epiteliales tubulares, aumento de la expresión del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e infiltraciones de células inflamatorias en tejido intersticial). Se observó que estos cambios que ocurren después de la diabetes mellitus (DM) se revirtieron significativamente en los grupos TQ, BAIBA y TQ + BAIBA.

Animals , Male , Rats , Benzoquinones/administration & dosage , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Aminoisobutyric Acids/administration & dosage , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Weight , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose/analysis , Glutathione/analysis , Kidney/drug effects
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 29-36, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292313


BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose is considered a renewable organic material, but the industrial production of biofuel from lignocellulose is challenging because of the lack of highly active hydrolytic enzymes. The guts of herbivores contain many symbiotic microorganisms that have evolved to hydrolyze plant lignocellulose. Chinese bamboo rats mainly consume high-fiber foods, indicating that some members of the intestinal tract microbiota digest lignocellulose, providing these rats with the energy required for growth. RESULTS: Here, we used metagenomics to analyze the diversity and functions of the gut microbiota in Chinese bamboo rats. We identified abundant populations of lignocellulose-degrading bacteria, whose main functions involved carbohydrate, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism. We also found 587 carbohydrate-active enzyme genes belonging to different families, including 7 carbohydrate esterase families and 21 glycoside hydrolase families. The glycoside hydrolase 3, glycoside hydrolase 1, glycoside hydrolase 43, carbohydrate esterase 4, carbohydrate esterase 1, and carbohydrate esterase 3 families demonstrated outstanding performance. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes and enzymes identified in our study expand the existing arsenal of proficient degraders and enzymes for lignocellulosic biofuel production. This study also describes a powerful approach for targeting gut microbes and enzymes in numerous industries.

Animals , Rats , Cecum/enzymology , Enzymes/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Cecum/microbiology , Cellulose/metabolism , Bacteroidetes , Biofuels , Metagenomics , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 56-59, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341862


ABSTRACT Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is an increasingly frequent metabolic disorder that is important for both baby and mother. New studies on the development and treatment of the disease are required. Objective: To investigate the effects on offspring's survival and the biochemical values of diabetes mellitus, induced by different doses of two chemical agents among 35 rats with advanced pregnancy. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five groups, with the rats in Group 1 as the control group. Alloxan was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 2 and 3, respectively. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 4 and 5, respectively. Deliveries were monitored, and offspring numbers, survival rates and congenital anomalies were recorded. At the end of the study, blood was drawn from one female offspring in each group; glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were measured, and inter-group comparisons were made. Diabetic agents administered at various doses prolonged the duration of pregnancy. Results: Offspring's deaths were most frequent in the alloxan groups. The number of offspring mortalities in the streptozotocin group was higher than that of the control group, but lower than that of the alloxan group. No differences in glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were observed between the groups. These results indicate that the female offspring, born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus induced by different chemicals, were only clinically affected. No effect of the type of chemicals on the results was found. Conclusion: The use of streptozotocin in the studies on female offspring born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus is recommended.

Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 53-61, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153329


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the biological behavior and osteogenic potential of magnesium (Mg) substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres, implanted in a critical bone defect, considering that this ion is of great clinical interest, since it is closely associated with homeostasis and bone mineralization. For the purpose of this study, 30 rats were used to compose three experimental groups: GI - bone defect filled with HA microspheres; GII - bone defect filled with HA microspheres replaced with Mg; GIII - empty bone defect; evaluated at biological points of 15 and 45 days. The histological results, at 15 days, showed, in all the groups, a discrete chronic inflammatory infiltrate; biomaterials intact and surrounded by connective tissue; and bone neoformation restricted to the borders. At 45 days, in the GI and GII groups, an inflammatory response of discrete granulomatous chronic type was observed, and in the GIII there was a scarce presence of mononuclear inflammatory cells; in GI and GII, the microspheres were seen to be either intact or fragmented, surrounded by fibrous connective tissue rich in blood vessels; and discrete bone neoformation near the edges and surrounding some microspheres. In GIII, the mineralization was limited to the borders and the remaining area was filled by fibrous connective tissue. It was concluded that the biomaterials were biocompatible and osteoconductive, and the percentage of Mg used as replacement ion in the HA did not favor a greater bone neoformation in relation to the HA without the metal.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o comportamento biológico de microesferas de hidroxiapatita (HA) substituída com magnésio (Mg) durante o reparo de defeito ósseo crítico, tendo em vista que este íon é de grande interesse clínico, pois está intimamente associado à homeostasia e à mineralização óssea. Para tanto, utilizou-se 30 ratos para compor três grupos experimentais: GI - defeito ósseo preenchido com microesferas de HA; GII - defeito ósseo preenchido com microesferas de HA substituída com Mg; GIII (controle) - defeito ósseo vazio; avaliados nos pontos biológicos de 15 e 45 dias. Os resultados histológicos evidenciaram, aos 15 dias, discreto infiltrado inflamatório crônico e neoformação óssea restrita às bordas, em todos os grupos. Nos grupos GI e GII, os biomateriais mantiveram-se íntegros e circundados por tecido conjuntivo frouxo. Aos 45 dias, notou-se resposta inflamatória do tipo crônica granulomatosa discreta nos grupos GI e GII, e no GIII presença escassa de células inflamatórias mononucleares. As microesferas implantadas no GI e GII mantiveram-se, em sua maioria, íntegras e envolvidas por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Notou-se discreta neoformação óssea próxima às bordas e circunjacente a algumas microesferas. No GIII, a mineralização limitou-se às bordas e a área remanescente foi preenchida por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Conclui-se que os biomateriais foram biocompatíveis, bioativos, osteocondutores e apresentaram biodegradação lenta, indicando seu grande potencial para em aplicações clínica como biomaterial de preenchimento.

Animals , Rats , Durapatite , Magnesium , Osteogenesis , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Regeneration
China Pharmacy ; (12): 967-973, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876267


OBJECTIVE:To study the effec ts of Tibetan Codonopsis tralictrifolia extract (called“ZDS”for short ) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)model rats and its mechanism. METHODS :Eight of 48 rats were randomly selected as normal control group (normal saline ),and the remaining 40 rats were used to establish CIA model. After successful modeling ,the rats were randomly divided into model group (normal saline ),ZDS low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups (0.44,0.88,1.76 g/kg,by crude drug ),dexamethasone group (positive control ,0.002 5 g/kg),with 8 rats in each group. They were given relevant medicine intragastrically ,the volume of 400 μL,once a day ,for consecutive 28 days. The body weight of rats were weighed before medication (0 d),7,14,21 and 28 days after medication ;and arthritis indexes were scored. The pathological changes of the knee joint synoviual tissue were observed after last medication. The thymus index ,spleen index ,the levels of serum inflammatory factors (IL-1β,TNF-α,IL-6),protein expressions of NF-κB p65,p-NF-κB p65,IκB and p-IκB in synovial tissue were detected. RESULTS :Compared with normal control group ,the body weight (14,21,28 days after administration )of rats in model group was significantly reduced (P<0.05);the arthritis index score (before administration and different administration time)was significantly increased (P<0.05);the joint synovial tissue was pathologically damaged ;the thymus and spleen index , inflammation factor level ,the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκB were increased significantly(P<0.05),while the protein expression of IκB was decreased significantly(P<0.05). Compared with model group ,the level of IL- 1β was decreased significantly in ZDS low-dose group (P<0.05). Body weight of rats (21,28 days after administration )were increased significantly in ZDS medium-dose and high-dose groups ,dexamethasone group (P<0.05),while arthritis index score (14,21,28 days after administration ) was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The pathological damage of joint synovial tissue was significantly relieved ;thymus and spleen index ,inflammation factor level ,the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκB were significantly reduced,while the protein expression of IκB was significantly increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS :ZDS can improve CIA model rats to some extent ,and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway.

China Pharmacy ; (12): 915-920, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876259


OBJECTIVE:To study the improve ment effect of salvianolate on renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF)model rats and its possible mechanism. METHODS :Totally 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group ,model group ,losartan group (positive control group ,9 mg/kg)and salvianolate low-dose and high-dose groups (18,36 mg/kg)according to body weight ,with 10 rats in each group. Except for normal group ,other groups were given adenine 250 mg/kg intragastrically to establish RIF model. After modeling ,administration groups were given relevant medicine intragastrically ,and normal group and model group were given constant volume of normal saline intragastrically ,the volume was 10 mL/kg,once a day ,for consecutive 30 days. After last medication,the serum levels of creatinine (Scr),urea nitrogen (BUN)and 24 h proteinuria (24 h UPro )were detected by ELISA. HE staining and Masson staining were used to observe the histopathological characteristics and fibrosis of the kidney. The degree of renal tubular injury and glomerulosclerosis were scored ,and the percentage of positive staining area of renal tissue was calculated ; immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay were used to determine the protein expression of Wnt 5a,Wnt5b,and β-catenin. RESULTS:Compared with normal group ,Scr,BUN and 24 h UPro levels ,renal tubular injury score , glomerulosclerosis score , the percentage of positive staining area in renal tissue ,the protein expression of Wnt 5a and β-catenin were increased significantly in model group (P<0.05),while the expression of Wnt 5b protein was decreased significantly (P<0.05). Pathological changes such as mesangial hyperplasia ,fibrous tissue increase and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed under microscope. Compared with model group ,above indexes of rats were improved significantly in losartan group ,salvianolate low-dose and high-dose groups (P< 0.05),and the effect of salvianolate had dose-dependent trend. CONCLUSIONS :Salvianolate has the improvement effect on RIF model rats induced by adenine ,and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of Wnt/ β-catenin signal pathway.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847232


BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures are the most common serious complications caused by osteoporosis, and their repair is more difficult, which seriously threatens the health and quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interventional effect of Panax Notoginsenosides in ovariectomized osteoporotic fracture rats and the relevant mechanism. METHODS: Fifty healthy female rats were selected. Ten of them were normal group, and the other 40 rats were used to make ovariectomized osteoporotic fracture models. Model rats were divided into model group, low, medium and high dose group. Normal group and model group rats were intragastrically administered normal saline, rats in the low, medium and high dose group were given intragastric administration of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg Panax Notoginsenosides solution. The study protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. (2019)58 on September 23, 2019. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bone mineral density and bone cell index of the high dose group were higher than those of low and middle dose groups (P < 0.05). The bone volume fraction, the number of callus trabeculae and the thickness of trabeculae in the high dose group were all higher than those in the model group, the low dose group and the middle dose group, and the resolution of trabeculae was lower than that in these three groups (P < 0.05). The levels of glutathione peroxidase, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the high dose group were lower than those in the normal group, but higher than those in the model group, low and medium dose groups. The levels of lipid peroxide, malondialdehyde, osteocalcin, type I procollagen carboxy terminal propeptide, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in the high dose group were higher than those in the normal group, but lower than those in the model group, low and medium dose group (P < 0.05). The expression of PI3K, Akt and mTOR in the low, middle and high dose groups was lower than that in the normal group and higher than that in the model group; and the expression of PI3K, Akt and mTOR in the high dose group was higher than that in the low and middle dose groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, treatment with Panax Notoginsenosides can increase the bone miner density and bone cell index, promote the growth of bone trabecula at the callus, alleviate oxidative stress injury, regulate the PI3K / Akt / mTOR signal pathway, and accelerate the formation of new blood vessels in the callus and fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic fracture rats.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847227


BACKGROUND: Ultrashort wave can inhibit the inflammatory response and is often used in symptomatic treatment of pulmonary infection. Uncontrolled inflammatory response is an important pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Inhibiting inflammation is an important strategy for controlling acute lung injury. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ultrashort wave on inflammatory response and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in rats with acute lung injury. METHODS: Twenty-four 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, acute lung injury group (model group) and ultrashort wave group (n=8 per group). Rats in the acute lung injury group and the ultrashort wave group were given intratracheal lipopolysaccharide to replicate the acute lung injury model. Rats in the control group were given intratracheal infusion of the same amount of normal saline. In the ultrashort wave group, rats were given ultrashort wave intervention immediately, 4 and 8 hours after lipopolysaccharide infusion, once for 15 minutes. Experimental animals were sacrificed 24 hours after intratracheal infusion of lipopolysaccharide or normal saline. The lung tissues of rats were compared by hematoxylin-eosin staining, lung histopathological semi-quantitative score and lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D). Serum levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β were detected by ELISA, and mRNA and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The study protocol was approved by the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanhua University, approved No.202002100009. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Lung W/D ratio in the acute lung injury group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the ratio in the ultrashort wave group was lower than that in the acute lung injury group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Pathological manifestations: In the model group, the lung tissue structure was obviously damaged, with different sizes of alveolar septa, the alveolar wall was incomplete, thickened and fractured, a large number of neutrophils were seen in the lung interstitium, and some red blood cells were exudated. In the ultrashort wave group, compared with the model group, the alveolar structure was relatively complete and clear, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells and red blood cell exudation from the lung interstitium were reduced. Semi-quantitative histopathological score of the lung was significantly higher in the model group than the control group (P < 0.01), but significantly reduced in the ultrashort wave group compared with the model group (P < 0.01). Serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the model group were significantly higher than those in the control group (both P < 0.01). After ultrashort wave exposure, the levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1β significantly decreased compared to the model group (both P < 0.05). After ultrashort wave exposure, the mRNA and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β significantly decreased compared to the model group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). To conclude, ultrashort wave may inhibit the inflammatory response of the lung tissue in rats with acute lung injury by down-regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847210


BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted to recruit mesenchymal stem cells from the jaws to repair the defects of the jaws. However, there are relatively few researches on orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells, mainly due to the difficulty in separating mesenchymal stem cells from the jaws. OBJECTIVE: To establish the methods of in vitro isolation and culture of rat orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells and observe and study its related biological characteristics. METHODS: The mandibles of rats were dissected. The attached muscles were stripped and cut into pieces. Cortical bone was loosened by digesting with collagenase II. The migration and adherent growth ability of mesenchymal stem cells was used to isolate orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cell morphology was observed by inverted microscope. Surface markers of the cell were detected by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay and cell growth curve was drawn. Fibroblast colony forming rate was calculated by colony formation. Osteogenic and lipogenic induction experiments were conducted to study the multi-directional differentiation potential of cells. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cells isolated by collagenase digestion and bone slice culture were positive for CD29, CD44 and Sca-1, and negative for CD31, CD34 and CD45. Cell proliferation test showed that the growth curves of orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells exhibited incubation period, logarithmic phase and platform period. In addition, the cells had a strong ability of proliferation, and the cell clone formation rate was 20% and the cells in DNA synthesis stage accounted for 52.5%. Alizarin red and oil red O staining showed positive reaction after osteogenic and lipogenic induction, indicating that the cells have the potential of multi-directional differentiation. It is concluded that the method of bone fragment culture after digestion with collagenase II could separate orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells sufficiently and purely. Besides, the orofacial-bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells show strong proliferative and osteogenic differentiation capacities. Thus, it provides abundant source of seed cells for bone tissue engineering of maxillofacial represented by bone defects repairing of implants.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847207


BACKGROUND: Yougui Decoction is an empirical prescription for the treatment of glucocorticoid-associated femoral head necrosis. Literature has shown that the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-associated femoral head necrosis is associated with glucocorticoid-induced autophagy down-regulation and fate change in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Yougui Decoction on autophagy and fate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in model rats of glucocorticoid-associated femoral head necrosis. METHODS: We used Escherichia coli endotoxin combined with high-dose dexamethasone to make the rat models of early femoral head necrosis. Forty SHR rats were randomly divided into five groups: blank control group, model group, high-dose Yougui Decoction group, medium-dose Yougui Decoction group and low-dose Yougui Decoction group. After 6 weeks of intervention, medullary cavity tissue of the rat proximal femur was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining of autophagy proteins LC3 II, P53 and beclin-1. After culture and induction of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, alizarin red staining, bone alkaline phosphatase quantification, oil red staining and MTT determination were performed and western blot assay was used to quantitatively measure the expression of LC3 II, P53 and beclin-1 proteins. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay results showed that Yougui Decoction significantly increased autophagy protein LC3 II, P53 and beclin 1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. (2) Alizarin red staining, oil red staining and bone alkaline phosphatase quantification suggested that Yougui Decoction could significantly interfere with the fate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, up-regulate their osteogenic differentiation and down-regulate their adipogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. (3) MTT results suggested that Yougui Decoction significantly improved the proliferation ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, but had no significant differences in different doses. (4) To conclude, Yougui Decoction can significantly improve the autophagy expression, change the cell fate, up-regulate osteogenic differentiation and down-regulate adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the rat models of glucocorticoid-associated femoral head necrosis, which provides certain basis for elucidating the mechanism of Yougui Decoction in treating glucocorticoid-associated femoral head necrosis.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847139


BACKGROUND: The research focuses of knee osteoarthritis are on mainly articular cartilage, subchondral bone and synovium. There are few studies on the ultrastructure of the meniscus in animal models. OBJECTIVE: On the basis of observing the ultrastructure and types of chondrocytes in the white zone of the meniscus, to observe the ultrastructural changes of the white zone cells of the meniscus in an animal model of early osteoarthritis, in order to explore the relationship between the microstructural changes and the physiological functional changes in the meniscus. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a model group. Rats in the model group were made into the model of early knee osteoarthritis by intraarticular injection of papain. After 5 weeks, the meniscuses of three rat models in each group were taken, located and observed for the ultrastructure of the white zone cells through a transmission electron microscope. An ethics approval was obtained from the Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In the control group, most of cells were fusiform in the superficial layer of meniscus and were triangular-like in the deeper layer. They were rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, with presence of Golgi and other organelles. Extracellular collagen fibrils were mainly type II collagen fibrils. The cells in the white zone of meniscus were chondrocytes. In the model group, the meniscal surface became rough, the cells were swollen, cytoplasmic organelles were reduced and swollen, glycogen was accumulated, and most of nuclei were abnormal with heterochromatin agglutination. Extracellular collagen fibrils became disordered and sparse. These findings indicate that the mild degeneration of chondrocytes and matrix in the meniscus can reduce the ability of cells to synthesize and secrete matrix components, which may lead to the physiological hypofunction.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-847136


BACKGROUND: The amount of renal blood perfusion is often in parallel with renal function. If contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used to quantitatively analyze changes in renal blood flow perfusion during resuscitation so as to indirectly reflect changes in renal function, this will provide a new way for the clinical assessment of hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of the kidney. OBJECTIVE: To establish a reperfusion model of severe hemorrhagic shock in Sprague-Dawly rats and to explore the value of CEUS parameters in evaluating renal perfusion. METHODS: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, five in each group: sham operation group, and 2-, 6-, and 24-hour hemorrhagic shock reperfusion groups (2-, 6-, and 24-hour HS-R groups). CEUS examination was performed in each group, and the quantitative parameters of peak intensity, time to peak, area under curve, average transit time were checked and obtained. The correlation between time-intensity curve parameters and serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, renal tissue myeloperoxidase, endothelin 1, and prostaglandin E1 levels was analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the sham operation group, the pathological injury was significant in the HS-R groups, especially in the HS-R group, with increased peak intensity, time to peak, area under curve, and average transit time (P < 0.05) as well as increased serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels. There were significant differences in peak arrival time and average transit time among groups. Bivariate Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that time to peak and average transit time were significantly correlated with serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, renal tissue myeloperoxidase, endothelin 1, and prostaglandin E1 levels. To conclude, (1) CEUS can effectively monitor and quantitatively evaluate the renal perfusion changes during the recovery of hemorrhagic shock. (2) Time to peak and average transit time are two indexes of the time-intensity curve with some reference value. (3) After hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion, the kidney injury is aggravated but not alleviated, and the injury is the most serious at 24 hours after resuscitation. (4) CEUS provides a new idea for clinical evaluation of hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion injury of the kidney.