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1.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 335-342, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of kaempferol against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: H9C2 cells were pretreated with kaempferol for 24 hours and further insulted with IR injury. Cell vitality, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, glutathione (GSH) level, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), and Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) expressions were evaluated. Moreover, short interfering ribonucleic acid targeting SIRT3 was used to investigate the role of SIRT3 against IR mediated by kaempferol in vitro. IR mice models were also established to confirm the protective effects of kaempferol on IR in vivo. Results: After IR injury, H9C2 cells vitality was reduced, ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and Bax expressions were increased, and GSH levels and Bcl2 expressions were decreased. After kaempferol pretreatment, the vitality of H9C2 cells was increased. The levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase activity, and Bax expression were decreased. In addition, levels of GSH and Bcl2 expression were enhanced. Furthermore, silencing SIRT3 attenuated the protective effect mediated by kaempferol, with increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and Bax expression, along with reduced GSH level and Bcl2 expression. In vivo IR model showed that kaempferol could preserve IR-damaged cardiac function. Conclusion: Kaempferol has the capability of attenuating H9C2 cells IR injury through activating SIRT3 to inhibit oxidative stress.

2.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 263-267, ene.-abr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376889

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common hazard involved in many human diseases, such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, solid organ transplant dysfunction or failure, and vascular diseases. Understanding the molecular bases of this injury is essential for the prevention and control of these life-threatening conditions. Ischemic and remote ischemic preconditioning techniques (IPC and RIPC, respectively) have gained increasing importance in the clinical practice to protect against the IRI; however, the exact mechanisms of these techniques are not fully understood, which renders their clinical application query. Possible effectors: Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported by multiple studies to be an important mediator of the protective effects of those techniques. While the physiological concentrations of NO and fibrinogen (FB) are known to antagonize each other, the circulating levels of both effectors increase in response to RIPC. Hypothesis: While NO has potential anti-inflammatory effects, non-soluble fibrinogen (sFB) shows pro- inflammatory effects. However, the sFB may have the potential to act synergistically rather than antagonistically with NO toward the attenuation of the IRI. Conclusion: While increased FB is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular and inflammatory conditions that is also able to decrease the efflux of NO, and increase the NO oxidative metabolits and S- nitroglutathione, the increased sFB during the acute phase reaction might have other protective aspects that should be carefully investigated.


Resumen Antecedentes: La lesión por isquemia-reperfusión (LIR) es un riesgo común involucrado en muchas enfermedades humanas tales como derrame cerebral, infarto del miocardio, disfunción o falla de trasplante de órgano sólido, y enfermedades vasculares. Una comprensión de la base molecular de esta lesión es fundamental para la prevención y el control de estas enfermedades potencialmente mortales. Las técnicas de preacondicionamiento isquémico y preacondicionamiento isquémico remoto (PIR) han cobrado una creciente importancia en la práctica clínica para la protección contra la LIR, sin embargo, los mecanismos precisos de estas técnicas no se entienden plenamente, lo cual pone en duda su aplicación clínica. Posibles efectores: El óxido nítrico (ON) ha sido reportado por varios estudios como un importante mediador de los efectos protectores de estas técnicas. Si bien se sabe que las concentraciones fisiológicas del ON y fibrinógeno son antagónicas, los niveles circulantes de ambos efectores aumentan en respuesta al PIR. Hipótesis: Aunque el ON tiene posibles efectos anti-inflamatorios, el fibrinógeno insoluble muestra efectos proinflamatorios. Sin embargo, el fibrinógeno soluble puede tener el potencial de actuar de manera sinérgica en lugar de antagónica con el ON hacia la atenuación de la LIR. Conclusión: Aunque el fibrinógeno elevado se considera un factor de riesgo para las enfermedades cardiovasculares e inflamatorias, que también puede disminuir la descarga de ON y aumentar los niveles de metabolitos oxidantes del ON y de S-nitrosoglutatión, el aumento de fibrinógeno soluble durante la reacción de fase aguda puede tener otros aspectos protectores que deben ser cuidadosamente investigados.

3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 50(1): e300, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360948

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adult In-hospital Cardiac Arrest (IHCA) is defined as the loss of circulation of an in-patient. Following high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), if the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is achieved, the post-cardiac arrest syndrome develops (PCAS). This review is intended to discuss the current diagnosis and treatment of PCAS. To approach this topic, a bibliography search was conducted through direct digital access to the scientific literature published in English and Spanish between 2014 and 2020, in MedLine, SciELO, Embase and Cochrane. This search resulted in 248 articles from which original articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical practice guidelines were selected for a total of 56 documents. The etiologies may be divided into 56% of in-hospital cardiac, and 44% of non-cardiac arrests. The incidence of this physiological collapse is up to 1.6 cases/1,000 patients admitted, and its frequency is higher in the intensive care units (ICU), with an overall survival rate of 13% at one year. The primary components of PCAS are brain injury, myocardial dysfunction and the persistence of the precipitating pathology. The mainstays for managing PCAS are the prevention of cardiac arrest, ventilation support, control of peri-cardiac arrest arrythmias, and interventions to optimize neurologic recovery. A knowledgeable healthcare staff in PCAS results in improved patient survival and future quality of life. Finally, there is clear need to do further research in the Latin American Population.


Resumen El paro cardiaco intrahospitalario en el adulto (IHCA) se define como el cese de circulación ocurrido dentro de las instalaciones hospitalarias. Después de la reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) de alta calidad, si se logra el retorno de circulación espontánea (ROSC), aparece entonces el síndrome posparo cardiaco (SPPC). En esta revisión se pretende presentar el estado actual del diagnóstico y tratamiento del SPPC. Para abordar este tema, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica mediante la consulta digital directa de la literatura científica publicada entre 2014 y 2020 en inglés y español recogida en las bases de datos MedLine, SciELO, Embase y Cochrane. La búsqueda inicial arrojó 248 artículos, de los cuales se eligieron artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis y guías de práctica clínica, para una selección final de 56 documentos. Las etiologías del paro cardiaco intrahospitalario se pueden dividir en cardiacas y no cardiacas, en el 56 % y 44 %, respectivamente. El colapso fisiológico tiene incidencias de hasta 1,6 casos/1.000 pacientes admitidos, y es más frecuente en las unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCI), con una tasa de supervivencia general de 1 año del 13 %. Los componentes principales del SPPC son la lesión cerebral, la disfunción miocárdica y la persistencia de la patología precipitante. Los pilares del manejo del SPPC son la prevención del paro cardiaco, soporte ventilatorio, control de arritmias periparo cardiaco y las intervenciones para optimizar la recuperación neurológica. El conocimiento del SPPC por parte del personal de la salud ofrece mejor sobrevida y futura calidad de vida a los pacientes. Finalmente, se resalta la clara necesidad de ahondar en mayores investigaciones en la población latinoamericana.

4.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 126-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907043

ABSTRACT

Common marginal donor liver mainly consists of fatty donor liver, elderly donor liver, small volume donor liver and liver graft from donation after cardiac death (DCD), etc. The application of marginal donor liver may resolve the severe shortage of donor liver to certain extent. Nevertheless, marginal donor liver yields a higher risk of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and causes more severe IRI than normal donor liver, which is a main cause for the failure of transplantation. In addition, oxidative stress is a major risk factor causing IRI of marginal donor liver. Therefore, how to mitigate oxidative stress and alleviate IRI of marginal donor liver has become a hot spot in clinical practice. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress occurs throughout the whole process of IRI. In this article, the role of oxidative stress in IRI of marginal donor liver transplantation and the ROS-targeted prevention and treatment were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinical practice.

5.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 88-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907038

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/ cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (Caspase)-1/Gasdermin D (GSDMD) signaling axis-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the sham operation group (Sham group), IRI 2 h group, IRI 6 h group, IRI 12 h group, glycyrrhizic acid (GA)+Sham group and GA+IRI 12 h group (n=8 in each group). AML12 cells were evenly divided into the Sham group, IRI 12 h group, GA+Sham group and GA+IRI 12 h group. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in each group were detected by enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay(ELISA). The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The pathological score of liver ischemia and cell apoptosis were compared among all groups. The expression level of HMGB1 in the liver tissues of each group was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of HMGB1, Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins in the mouse liver tissues and AML12 cells were measured by Western blot. Results Compared with the Sham group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, IL-1β and IL-6 and the relative expression levels of IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA in the liver tissues were all significantly up-regulated after IRI in each group (all P < 0.05), and showed significant time-dependent pattern along with the prolongation of reperfusion time. Compared with the Sham group, the pathological score of hepatic ischemia and the apoptosis rate of hepatocytes were significantly increased after IRI in each group (all P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical results showed that the expression level of HMGB1 in the liver tissues was significantly up-regulated after IRI, which showed an increasing trend along with the prolongation within the period of 2-12 h. Western blot showed that compared with the Sham group, the relative expression levels of HMGB1, Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins in vivo and in vitro were up-regulated in the IRI 12 h group. The relative expression level of HMGB1 protein was significantly up-regulated, whereas those of Caspase-1 and GSDMD proteins were significantly down-regulated in the GA+IRI 12 h group compared with those in the IRI 12 h group (all P < 0.05). Conclusions Hepatocytes probably activate the Caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway by releasing HMGB1, thereby triggering hepatocyte pyroptosis and leading to liver IRI. Inhibition of extracellular release of HMGB1 by GA may mitigate liver IRI.

6.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 74-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907036

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the predictive values of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urine NGAL, serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and serum creatinine (Scr) for early delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplant recipients. Methods Clinical data, blood and urine samples of 159 kidney transplant recipients were collected. All recipients were divided into the DGF group (n=42) and immediate graft function (IGF) group (n=117) according to the incidence of DGF. Clinical data of all recipients were analyzed. The changes of serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels were statistically compared between two groups. The predictive values of different markers for early DGF were assessed. Results Among 159 kidney transplant recipients, DGF occurred in 42 cases with an incidence rate of 26.4%. There were statistically significant differences in donor age, cold ischemia time of donor kidney and complement-dependent cytoxicity (CDC) between the two groups(all P < 0.05). Within postoperative 2 weeks, the serum NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher than those in the IGF group (all P < 0.05). The Cys-C, Scr and urine NGAL levels in the DGF group were higher compared with those in the IGF group within 3 weeks after kidney transplantation(all P < 0.001). Serum NGAL, urine NGAL, Cys-C and Scr levels had certain predictive values for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients. Cys-C yielded the highest predictive value with a cut-off value of 4.73 mg/L, sensitivity of 0.833, specificity of 0.812 and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.895. Conclusions Cys-C has higher predictive value for early DGF in kidney transplant recipients compared with serum NGAL, urine NGAL and Scr.

7.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 471-476, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920916

ABSTRACT

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is a very common complication of liver transplantation, liver resection, and shock. At present, many studies have been conducted on HIRI, but there is still a lack of drugs for radical treatment in clinical practice. Many factors, such as related cells, molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress response, nitric oxide, and mitochondria, mediate the development and progression of HIRI, which leads to the decline of patients' quality of life and even endangers their life safety. Based on the pathogenesis of HIRI and related articles, this article summarizes the research advances in the prevention and treatment of HIRI with traditional Chinese medicine components, so as to provide theoretical support for basic research and clinical research on HIRI.

8.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 277-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920861

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria is one of the important organelles, which is composed of outer mitochondrial membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial structure and function are regulated by mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins may participate in the process of mitochondrial fusion and fission, mediate mitochondrial dynamics, thereby regulating cell structure, function and energy metabolism. Mitofusin (MFN) 2, a protein located on the outer mitochondrial membrane of mammalian, has guanosine triphosphatase activity, which may mediate mitochondrial fusion, participate in mitophagy, formation of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane and apoptosis, and significantly affect the incidence and development of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this article, the structure, regulation, function of MFN2 and its role in IRI were reviewed, and the relationship between MFN2 and IRI and underlying mechanism were investigated, aiming to provide novel targets and ideas for the prevention and treatment of IRI.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920349

ABSTRACT

@#BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the gene expression of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using stress and toxicity pathway gene chip technology and try to determine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The mononuclear cells were separated by ficoll centrifugation, and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The expression of toxic oxidative stress genes was determined and verified by oligo gene chip and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed on DAVID website to analyze the potential mechanism further. RESULTS: The total numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils (N) in the peripheral blood of STEMI patients (the AMI group) were significantly higher than those in the control group (WBC: 11.67±4.85 ×109/L vs. 6.41±0.72 ×109/L, P<0.05; N: 9.27±4.75 ×109/L vs. 3.89±0.81 ×109/ L, P<0.05), and WBCs were significantly associated with creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) on the first day (Y=8.945+0.018X, P<0.05). In addition, the T-AOC was significantly lower in the AMI group comparing to the control group (12.80±1.79 U/mL vs. 20.48±2.55 U/mL, P<0.05). According to the gene analysis, eight up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) included GADD45A, PRDX2, HSPD1, DNAJB1, DNAJB2, RAD50, TNFSF6, and TRADD. Four down-regulated DEGs contained CCNG1, CAT, CYP1A1, and ATM. TNFSF6 and CYP1A1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to verify the expression at different time points, and the results showed that TNFSF6 was up-regulated and CYP1A1 was down-regulated as the total expression. GO and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis suggested that the oxidative stress genes mediate MIRI via various ways such as unfolded protein response (UPR) and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: WBCs, especially neutrophils, were the critical cells that mediating reperfusion injury. MIRI was regulated by various genes, including oxidative metabolic stress, heat shock, DNA damage and repair, and apoptosis-related genes. The underlying pathway may be associated with UPR and apoptosis, which may be the novel therapeutic target.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 210-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913145

ABSTRACT

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is a common clinical problem after hepatectomy and liver transplantation and is the main cause of liver dysfunction and liver failure after transplantation. In recent years, autophagy-mediated pathways have become a research hotspot in alleviating HIRI. Autophagy refers to the process in which a large number of substrates such as cytoplasm and damaged organelles are transported into lysosomes for digestion and degradation, so as to constantly renew, reshape, and reuse cells. This article summarizes the research advances in the mechanism of targeting autophagy to alleviate HIRI from the aspects of gene, protein, signaling pathway, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress, as well as existing problems and prospects in research, in order to provide theoretical support for the future research on alleviating HIRI by targeting autophagy.

11.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 537-2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934777

ABSTRACT

Ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) refers to biliary tract injury caused by insufficient blood supply of hepatic artery, which is one of the main factors affecting the long-term survival and quality of life of liver transplant recipients. The incidence of ITBL is associated with cold and warm ischemia, acute and chronic rejection, cytomegalovirus infection and the bile effect, etc. The occurrence of ITBL is a complicated process involving with multiple factors and steps. The therapeutic option of ITBL is extremely limited. A large proportion of ITBL patients should undergo repeated liver transplantation. ITBL has become one of the most critical factors preventing further advancement of liver transplantation. Hence, it is of significance to strengthen prevention and explore more effective modalities. Recent studies have found that toxic injury of bile salts plays a central role in ITBL. Active regulation of bile components, regulation of bile acid-related receptor expression and blockage or activation of bile acid-related signaling pathways probably have potentials in the prevention and treatment of ITBL. In this article, the cytotoxicity of bile salts and the mechanism of bicarbonate umbrella in the incidence and progression of ITBL after liver transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of ITBL.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934585

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) with three frequencies (100 Hz, 2 Hz, and 2 Hz/100 Hz) on the apoptosis of neurons and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VD), and explore the mechanism of EA intervention for VD. Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a model group, a sham operation group, a 100 Hz EA group, a 2 Hz EA group, and a 2 Hz/100 Hz EA group, with ten rats in each group. The VD model rats were established by repeated ischemia-reperfusion of bilateral common carotid arteries. The rats in the EA groups received EA intervention at Baihui (GV20), Dazhui (GV14), Geshu (BL17) and Zusanli (ST36), once a day for 14 d. Afterward, Morris water maze was used to examine the learning and memory performances of the rats in each group, hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe the histomorphological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling to test the apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, and Western blot to detect the protein expression levels of JNK, phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK), Caspase-8, and Caspase-3 in the hippocampus tissue. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, the escape latency of the model group in water maze test was prolonged; the number of crossing the original platform was decreased (P<0.01); the hippocampal neurons were severely damaged and the number of surviving neurons was decreased (P<0.01), whereas the number of apoptotic neurons was increased (P<0.01); the protein expression levels of JNK, p-JNK, Caspase-8, and Caspase-3 in the hippocampus were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the escape latency of each EA group was significantly shortened; the number of crossing the original platform was significantly increased (P<0.01); the damage of hippocampal neurons was alleviated, the number of surviving neurons was increased (P<0.01), and the number of apoptotic neurons was decreased (P<0.01); the protein expression levels of JNK, p-JNK, Caspase-8, and Caspase-3 in the hippocampus were decreased (P<0.01). The results in the 2 Hz EA group and the 2 Hz/100 Hz EA group were superior to those in the 100 Hz EA group. Conclusion: EA with the three frequencies (100 Hz, 2 Hz, and 2 Hz/100 Hz) can improve the learning and memory performances in VD rats subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis and the regulation of the related protein expression of JNK signaling pathway, and the intervention effects of EA with 2 Hz and 2 Hz/100 Hz are more significant.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-934327

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanovesicles actively secreted by cells, which selectively encapsulate biologically active molecules such as proteins, RNA, and cytokines. They play an important role in intercellular communication, immune regulation, and maintenance of homeostasis, which can also be used as carriers for targeted drug delivery. Retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) is a retinopathy that seriously threatens human vision. At present, the clinical treatment of these diseases are symptomatic treatments, and some patients have poor efficacy or even blindness. As extracellular vesicles rich in functional proteins and RNAs, exosomes can not only be used as drugs for the treatment of RIRI, but also be used as carriers for drug delivery to play synergistic therapeutic effects. In the future, with the deepening of the research on the molecular structure, contents and biological functions of exosomes, as well as the continuous development of ophthalmic biology and genetic engineering technology, exosomes are expected to exert their great potential as therapeutic drugs and carriers, and become an important means of treating RIRI.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933667

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the construction and mechanism of Mindin gene specific macrophage knockout mice in acute lung injury induced by lung ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI).Methods:Mindin gene knockout mice were constructed by CRE-LOP system, Mice were divided into four groups of C57/B6 wild-type mice sham operation(n=10), C57/B6 mice operation(n=10), Mindin-/-macrophage-specific knockout mice operation(n=10)and C57/B6 mice operation + Mindin recombinant protein intervention(n=10). And lung ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by clamping pulmonary portal.The effects of Mindin gene knockout and recombinant protein intervention on acute lung injury were observed in vivo and in vitro.t-test and ANOVA test were employed for data processing.Results:Mindin gene macrophage specific knockout mice was successfully constructed.Surgery(Mindin-/-)group significantly reduced pulmonary edema, release of inflammatory factors(IL1β: 2.73±0.19 vs. 5.81±0.61; IL-18: 6.52±0.63 vs. 11.03±0.34; TNF-α 2.18±0.14 vs. 4.76±0.20; HMGB1: 4.57±0.33 vs. 8.76±0.87), expression of NLRP3(2.07±0.27 vs. 4.91±0.22)and secretion of GSDMD(2.78±0.37 vs. 5.78±0.29)as compared with surgery group in vivo.In surgery(WT)+ Mindin group, the expression of lung IRI, inflammatory factors and cell pyroptosis were opposite, And the results were consistent in vitro and in vivo.As compared with surgery group, the above parameters were up-regulated in surgery(WT)+ Mindin protein group.And inter-group differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). In vitro, the expressions of NLRP3(1.00±0.36, 0.41±0.06, 4.13±0.23), GSDMD(1.00±0.17, 0.34±0.16, 6.32±0.46)and integrin β4(1.00±0.11, 0.28±0.07, 3.53±0.17)were detected in different groups including hypoxia-recovery oxygen(HR), HR+ Mindin siRNA and HR+ Mindin protein groups in macrophage cell line(J774A); As compared with HR group, the above parameters were up-regulated in HR+ Mindin protein group and down-regulated in HR+ Mindin siRNA group.And the differences were statistically significant( P<0.05). The expressions of NLRP3(1.00±0.07, 1.13±0.11, 0.51±0.14)and GSDMD(1.00±0.09, 0.87±0.16, 0.37±0.12)were detected in Mindin, Mindin protein+ vehicle and Mindin protein+ integrin β4 knockout groups.The above parameters were down-regulated in Mindin protein+ integrin β4 knockout group as compared with Mindin protein and Mindin protein + vehicle groups.And the inter-group differences were statistically significant(all P<0.05). Conclusions:During pulmonary IRI, Mindin knockdown can alleviate pulmonary IRI.Mindin gene may promote the expression of inflammatory factors, NLRP3 and GSDMD protein by activating integrin β4 and aggravate cell pyroptosis to promote the development of pulmonary IRI.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933347

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of Alda-1 on ferroptosis in cardiomyocytes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine.Methods:Twenty-two healthy male white swine, weighing 35-43 kg, were divided into 3 groups using a random number table method: sham operation group (group S, n=6), cardiac arrest-cardiopulmonary resuscitation group (group CA-CPR, n=8) and Alda-1 group ( n=8). The animals only underwent the general preparation in group S, and the swine model of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was developed by 8 min of electrically induced cardiac arrest through the pacing catheter in the right ventricle followed by 8 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in CA-CPR and Alda-1 groups.Alda-1 0.88 mg/kg was intravenously injected at 5 min after resuscitation in group Alda-1, and the equal volume of vehicle was administered instead in the other two groups.Stroke volume (SV) and global ejection fraction (GEF) were measured using PiCCO before developing the model and at 1, 2 and 4 h after resuscitation (T 0-3). Venous blood samples were collected from the femoral vein to measure the concentrations of serum cardiac troponin (cTnI) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at T 0-3, and at 24 h after resuscitation (T 4). The animals were then sacrificed, and myocardial tissues in the left ventricle were harvested to measure the expression of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) (by Western blot), iron deposition (by Prussian blue staining), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) content (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents (by colorimetry). Results:Compared with group S, SV and GEF were significantly decreased at T 1-3, the serum concentrations of cTnI were increased at T 1-4, myocardial ACSL4 expression was up-regulated, GPX4 expression was down-regulated, iron deposition and contents of 4-HNE and MDA were increased, and the content of GSH was decreased in CA-CPR and Alda-1 groups ( P<0.05). Compared with group CA-CPR, SV and GEF were significantly increased at T 2-3, the serum concentrations of cTnI were decreased at T 3-4, myocardial ACSL4 expression was down-regulated, GPX4 expression was up-regulated, iron deposition and contents of 4-HNE and MDA were decreased, and the content of GSH was increased in group Alda-1 ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Alda-1 can alleviate myocardial injury after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine and further improve cardiac dysfunction, and the mechanism may be related to inhibition of cell ferroptosis.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933333

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effect of melatonin preconditioning on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).Methods:Forty-eight SPF male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks, weighing 200-230 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: control group (Con group), NAFLD group, NAFLD + hepatic I/R group (NAFLD+ HIR group), and NAFLD + hepatic I/R + melatonin treatment group (NAFLD+ HIR+ MT group). The NAFLD model was developed by a high-fat and high-glucose diet (10% glucose, 10% fat) for 8 consecutive weeks in NAFLD, NAFLD+ HIR and NAFLD+ HIR+ M groups, and rats were fed with common chow and freely drank water in the other groups.Melatonin 10 mg/kg was given intragastrically daily for 2 consecutive weeks before developing the model in group NAFLD+ HIR+ MT.The model of liver I/R injury was developed by clipping the hepatic artery and portal vein for 20 min, opening for 5 min, and re-clamping for 20 min followed by restoration of perfusion.Blood samples from inferior vena cava were collected and liver tissues were obtained at 6 h of reperfusion to detect serum levels of insulin, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and ferritin, and insulin resistance index was calculated.The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Fe 2+ in liver tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the pathological changes of liver tissues were examined with a light microscope after hematoxylin-eosin staining.The expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3), long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthase 4 (ACSL4) and glutathione peptide peroxidase 4 (GPX4) was detected by Western blot. Results:Compared with Con group, the levels of serum FFA, TG, ALT, AST and ferritin and insulin resistance index were significantly increased, the levels of ROS and Fe 2+ in liver tissues were increased, the levels of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased, the expression of ACSL4 and LPCAT3 was up-regulated, and the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was down-regulated in NAFLD group ( P<0.05). Compared with NAFLD group, the serum levels of FFA, TG, ALT, AST and ferritin and insulin resistance index were significantly increased, the levels of ROS and Fe 2+ were decreased, the levels of GSH-Px and SOD were increased, the expression of ACSL4 and LPCAT3 was up-regulated, and the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was down-regulated in NAFLD+ HIR group ( P<0.05). Compared with NAFLD+ HIR group, the serum levels of FFA, TG, ALT, AST and ferritin and insulin resistance index were significantly increased, the levels of ROS and Fe 2+ were decreased, the levels of GSH-Px and SOD were increased, the expression of ACSL4 and LPCAT3 was down-regulated, and the expression of Nrf2 and GPX4 was up-regulated in NAFLD+ HIR+ MT group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Melatonin preconditioning can alleviate hepatic I/R injury in rats with NAFLD, and the mechanism may be related to activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway, reduction of lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ferroptosis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933311

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role of Caveolin (Cav-3)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in reduction of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by morphine preconditioning in rats with chronic heart failure.Methods:Clean-grade healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 200-250 g, were used in this study.Chronic heart failure was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 weeks.Thirty-six Langendorff-perfused hearts with chronic heart failure were divided into 4 groups ( n=9 each) by a random number table method: myocardial I/R group (group IR), morphine preconditioning group (group MP), morphine preconditioning plus methyl-β-cyclodextrin group (group MP+ MβCD), and methyl-β-cyclodextrin group (group MβCD). Global myocardial I/R was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion.In group MP, after 15 min of equilibration, hearts were subjected to 3 cycles of 5 min perfusion with K-H solution containing 1 μmol/L morphine for preconditioning followed by 5 min perfusion with K-H solution, 30 min in total, and after the end of treatment, hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion.In group MP+ MβCD, hearts were perfused with K-H solution containing 200 μmol/L methyl-β-cyclodextrin at 10 min before preconditioning with morphine, and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in group MP.In group MβCD, hearts were perfused with K-H solution containing 200 μmol/L methyl-β-cyclodextrin at 40 min before ischemia, and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in group IR.At the end of 15 min of equilibration (T 0) and 5 and 10 min of reperfusion (T 1, 2), coronary outflow was collected for determination of actate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity by chemical colorimetry.Myocardial infarct size (IS) and area at risk (AAR) were measured, and IS/AAR was calculated at the end of 120 min reperfusion.Myocardial tissues of left ventricle were taken to detect the expression of Cav-3, ERK1/2 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) by Western blot, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio was calculated. Results:Compared with group IR, IS, IS/AAR and LDH activity in coronary outflow were significantly decreased, the expression of Cav-3 was up-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio was increased in group MP ( P<0.05). Compared with group MP, IS, IS/AAR and LDH activity in coronary outflow were significantly increased, the expression of Cav-3 was down-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio was decreased in group MP+ MβCD ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The mechanism by which morphine preconditioning reduces I/R injury may be related to activation of Cav-3/ERK signaling pathway in rats with chronic heart failure.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933310

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effects of the alpha-lipoic acid on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the role of (ALDH2).Methods:This experiment was performed in two parts in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vivo experiment Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 250-300 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=6 each) by the random number table method: sham operation group (Sham group), hepatic I/R group (IR group), and hepatic I/R plus α-lipoic acid group (IR+ ALA group) and hepatic I/R+ α-lipoic acid+ daidzin group (IR+ ALA+ D group). Hepatic I/R was induced by occlusion of the left and middle hepatic lobes for 60 min, followed by 6 h of reperfusion in anesthetized rats.In IR+ ALA+ D group, ALDH2 inhibitor daidzin 50 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 45 min before ischemia.Alpha-lipoic acid 100 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 30 min before ischemia in IR+ ALA group and IR+ ALA+ D group.Blood samples from the inferior vena cava were collected at the end of reperfusion to determine serum AST and ALT activities.Then the rats were sacrificed, and livers were removed for microscopic examination of pathological changes of the lung tissues which were scored and for determination of ALDH2 activity, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (by immuno-histochemistry). In vitro experiment Rat BRL-3A hepatocytes cultured in vitro were divided into 4 groups ( n=15 each) by the random number table method: control group (C group), hypoxia-reoxygenation group (HR group), hypoxia-reoxygenation+ α-lipoic acid group (HR+ ALA group) and hypoxia-reoxygenation+ α-lipoic acid+ daidzin group (HR+ ALA+ D group). BRL-3A hepatocytes were exposed to 95% N 2-5% CO 2 in an incubator at 37 ℃ for 6 h followed by reoxygenation with 95% O 2-5% CO 2 for 24 h. At 60 min before hypoxia, alpha-lipoic acid 100 μmol/L was addded in HR+ ALA group, and alpha-lipoic acid 100 μmol/L and daidzin 60 μmol/L were added in HR+ ALA+ D group.At 24 h of reoxygenation, cell viability was measured by CCK-8 method, ALDH2 activity was determined by spectrophotometry, ROS level was detected by DCFH-DA fluorescent probe method, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by JC-1 method. Results:In vivo experiment Compared with Sham group, the serum AST and ALT activities, liver injury score, level of ROS in liver tissues and expression of 4-HNE and MDA were significantly increased ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in ALDH2 activity in IR group ( P>0.05). Compared with IR group, the serum AST and ALT activities, liver injury score, level of ROS in liver tissues and expression of 4-HNE and MDA were significantly decreased, and the ALDH2 activity was increased in IR+ ALA group ( P<0.05). Compared with IR+ ALA group, the serum AST and ALT activities, liver injury score, level of ROS in liver tissues and expression of 4-HNE and MDA were significantly increased, and the ALDH2 activity was decreased in HR+ ALA+ D group ( P<0.05). In vitro experiment Compared with C group, the cell viability and MMP were significantly decreased, and the level of ROS was increased ( P<0.05), and no significant change was found in the activity of ALDH2 in HR group ( P>0.05). Compared with HR group, the cell viability, ALDH2 activity and MMP were significantly increased, and the level of ROS was decreased in HR+ ALA group ( P<0.05). Compared with HR+ ALA group, the cell viability, ALDH2 activity and MMP were significantly decreased, and the level of ROS was increased in HR+ ALA+ D group ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Alpha-lipoic acid can reduce hepatic I/R injury in rats, and the mechanism is related to activation of ALDH2, reduction of accumulation of toxic aldehyde and restoration of MMP.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933303

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the relationship between nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and ferroptosis during lung ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats.Methods:Fifty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=18 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (Sham group), lung I/R group (IR group), and lung I/R+ Nrf2 agonist sulforaphane group (IR+ SFP group). Lung I/R model was developed by clamping the left pulmonary hilum for 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion.In IR+ SFP group, SFP 500 μg/kg was intraperitoneally injected at 3 days before lung ischemia once a day for 3 consecutive days, and the model was developed at 2 h after the end of administration.The rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to determine the protein concentration (using bicinchoninic acid method), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The animals were then sacrificed, and lung tissue specimens were harvested for microscopic examination of the pathological changes (with a transmission electron microscope) and for determination of wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, contents of iron, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) (by chemical colorimetric) and expression of nuclear Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) (by Western blot). Results:Compared with Sham group, the concentrations of protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF, W/D ratio, and contents of Fe 2+ and MDA were significantly increased, GSH content was decreased, GPX4 expression was down-regulated, the expression of nuclear Nrf2and ACSL4 was up-regulated ( P<0.05), and the mitochondrial morphology of type Ⅱalveolar epithelial cells showed the characteristic changes of ferroptosis, including the presence of smaller mitochondria and reduced cristae in IR group.Compared with IR group, the concentrations of protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in BALF, W/D ratio, and contents of Fe 2+ and MDA were significantly decreased, GSH content was increased, the expression of nuclear Nrf2 and GPX4 expression was up-regulated, ACSL4 expression was down-regulated ( P<0.05), and the pathological changes of lung tissues were significantly attenuated in IR+ SFP group. Conclusions:Nrf2 can inhibit ferroptosis during lung I/R and is involved in the endogenous protective mechanism in rats.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933299

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling pathway in sevoflurane postconditioning-induced attenuation of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.Methods:Eighty SPF healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 300-340 g, were divided into 4 groups ( n=20 each) by a random number table method: sham operation group (group S), myocardial I/R group (group I/R), myocardial I/R plus sevoflurane postconditioning group (group ISP), and myocardial I/R plus sevoflurane postconditioning plus GLP-1R antagonist group (group ISPE). The myocardial I/R injury model was developed by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery for 40 min followed by 2-h reperfusion in anesthetized rats.In group ISP, the rats inhaled 2.4% sevoflurane for 15 min starting from the beginning of reperfusion.In group ISPE, GLP-1R antagonist Exendin9-39 50 μg/kg (in 1 ml 0.9% normal saline) was intraperitoneally injected once a day from 28 days before development of the model, the last intraperitoneal injection was completed at 40 min before inhalation of sevoflurane, and the other treatments were the same as those previously described in group ISP.Blood samples from the abdominal aorta were collected immediately after reperfusion to determine the serum levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Then the rats were sacrificed, and the hearts were obtained for microscopic examination of the histopathological changes of myocardial tissues (by HE staining) and the ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes (with a transmission electron microscope) for determination of the myocardial infarct size (TTC staining), expression of GLP-1R in myocardium (by immunohistochemical staining), expression of GLP-1R, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phospho-CREB (p-CREB), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated x protein (Bax) in myocardium (by Western blot). The ratios of p-CREB/CREB and Bcl-2/Bax were calculated. Results:Compared with group S, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of GLP-1R was up-regulated, the expression of cAMP and PKA was down-regulated, and the p-CREB/CREB ratio and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were decreased in group I/R ( P<0.05). Compared with group I/R, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly decreased, the expression of GLP-1R, cAMP and PKA was up-regulated, and p-CREB/CREB ratio and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were increased in group ISP ( P<0.05). Compared with group ISP, the serum levels of CK-MB and LDH and percentage of myocardial infarct size were significantly increased, the expression of GLP-1R, cAMP and PKA was down-regulated, and the p-CREB/CREB ratio and Bcl-2/Bax ratio were decreased in group ISPE ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Sevoflurane postconditioning can attenuate myocardial I/R injury by activation of GLP-1R signal pathway and inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats.

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