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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Resumo Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.

2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
3.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 26(1): 125-131, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364917

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction All patients with a new head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) undergo diagnostic panendoscopy as part of the screening for synchronous second primary tumors. It includes a pharyngolaryngoscopy (PLS), a tracheobronchoscopy and esophagoscopy, and a stomatoscopy. Rigid techniques are risky, with long learning curves. Objective We propose a precise description of the panendoscopy protocol. We include an optimization of the PLS technique that completes the flexible esophagoscopy when rigid esophagoscopy isn't performed. Methods The present retrospective observational study includes 122 consecutive patients with a new primary HNSCC who underwent traditional panendoscopy and the new PLS technique between January 2014 and December 2016. A two-step procedure using a Macintosh laryngoscope and a 30° telescope first exposes panoramically the larynx, the upper trachea, and the oropharynx; then, in a second step, the hypopharynx is exposed down to the upper esophageal sphincter. Broncho-esophagoscopy is performed with a rigid and flexible scope. Results In total, 6 (5%) patients presented synchronous tumors (3 in the esophagus, 2 in the oral cavity, and 1 in the larynx 1). Rigid endoscopy was complicated by 2 (1,6%) dental lesions, and had to be completed with a flexible scope in 38 (33%) cases for exposition reasons. The two-step PLS offered a wide-angle view of the larynx, upper trachea, and oroand hypopharynx down to the sphincter of the upper esophagus. The procedure was easy, reliable, safe, repeatable, and effectively completed the flexible endoscopies. Conclusion Rigid esophagoscopy remains a difficult procedure. Two-step PLS combined with flexible broncho-esophagoscopy offers good optical control.

4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 1097-1106, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364675

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Denver II tem como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de crianças entre 0 e 6 anos de idade. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores, validade concorrente, sensibilidade e especificidade da versão brasileira do Denver II. Estudo metodológico transversal. Participaram 254 crianças, entre 0 e 72 meses, com risco para atraso no desenvolvimento. Dois examinadores verificaram a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores do Denver II. Validade concorrente, sensibilidade e especificidade foram verificadas com relação à versão brasileira do Ages & Stages Questionnaires como teste de critério. Análise estatística utilizou o Intraclass Correlation Coeficiente, Teste de Correlação de Spearman e Tabela de Contingência, nível de significância α=0.05. Os resultados identificaram que a confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores foi excelente em toda a amostra. A validade concorrente apresentou índices moderados a muito fortes entre 13 e 60 meses. Índices de sensibilidade e especificidade variaram de 73-99% e 58-92%, respectivamente. A versão brasileira do Denver II apresenta bons índices de propriedades psicométricas sendo um instrumento confiável e válido para ser aplicado em crianças brasileiras sob risco de atraso no desenvolvimento.


Abstract The scope of the Denver II Developmental Screening Test is to assess the development of children between 0 and 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to verify evidence of intra- and inter-examiner reliability, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Brazilian version of Denver II. It involved a cross-sectional methodological study. A total of 254 children, between 0 and 72 months with risk of developmental delay, participated in the study. Two examiners verified the Denver II intra- and inter-examiner reliability. Concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity were checked against the Brazilian version of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires as a criterion-referenced test. Statistical analysis used the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Spearman's Correlation Test and Contingency Table, the level of significance being α=0.05. The results identified that intra and inter examiner reliability was excellent in all age groups. Concurrent validity showed moderate to very strong rates in the 13-to-60-month age group. The sensitivity and specificity indices ranged from 73-99% and 58-92%, respectively. The Brazilian version of Denver II has good rates of psychometric properties and is a reliable and valid instrument to be applied to Brazilian children at risk of developmental delay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Psychometrics , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 81-90, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365132

ABSTRACT

Resumen La retinopatía diabética es uno de los grandes problemas que enfrenta la salud pública en el siglo XXI. La prevalencia mundial se encuentra en constante aumento; sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la frecuencia de esta enfermedad en la Argentina. Los programas de tele-oftalmología han ayudado a combatir y a comprender mejor esta enfermedad, principalmente en áreas rurales. El objetivo del siguiente tra bajo fue estimar la prevalencia de la retinopatía diabética en la provincia de La Pampa. Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte transversal, evaluando las características de la población asistida por un programa de tele-oftalmología en la zona rural de la provincia. Se evaluaron imágenes de retina obtenidas con un retinógrafo no midriático, la presión intraocular y características generales de la población. Se estimó una prevalencia del 21.5% y un 14.1% de estas personas tenían una amenaza visual grave. Además, se observó que el 5.0% tenían glaucoma, 63.4% hipertensión arterial y 42.6% dislipemia. Estos resultados son similares a los presentados en otros países del mundo. Son datos fundamentales para comprender detalles de la situación epidemiológica en esta región y poder armar estrategias sanitarias para enfrentar a esta enfermedad.


Abstract Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major problems public health is facing in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence is increasing; however, little is known about the frequency of this disease in Argentina. Tele-ophthalmology programs have helped to face and to better understand this disease, mainly in rural areas. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the province of La Pampa. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out, evaluating the characteristics of the population assisted by a tele-ophthalmology program in a rural area of the province. The images, taken with a non-mydriatic retinal camera, the intraocular pressure and general characteristics of the population were evaluated. A disease prevalence of 21.5% was estimated and 14.1% of them had a vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy. In addition, it was observed that 5.0% had glaucoma, 63.4% hypertension and 42.6% dyslipidemia. These findings are similar to those reported in other countries around the world. These data are fundamental to understand the details of the epidemiological situation in this region and to be able to develop health strategies to deal with this disease.

6.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 13-16, Jan.-Mar. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Soon after the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, viral screening by nasopharyngeal swab became mandatory for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donor eligibility. Methods We described our monocenter experience with allogeneic HSC donors from February 1 to the October 31, 2020 to verify whether the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 screening altered the donor eligibility and/or entailed a prolongation of the evaluation process. Results A total of 21 allogeneic HSC donors were screened during the above-mentioned period upon request by the local transplant physicians or by the Italian Bone Marrow Donor Registry; among the HSC donors (n = 17) who completed the eligibility process and further received the nasopharyngeal swab, all but one were negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. The positive donor remained asymptomatic for the whole duration of the infection, which lasted six weeks. However, he was temporarily excluded from donation. The median duration of the evaluation process was not significantly different, compared to the same period of 2019 (p-value = 0.11). Conclusion The mandatory SARS-CoV-2 screening in allogeneic HSC donors allowed for the detection of 6% positivity in this monocenter series over a 9-month period. Despite the inconvenience of this unexpected non-eligibility, the exclusion of a SARS-CoV-2 positive donor represented an important safety measure for the donor, with respect to a new and still partially unknown virus. The screening did not alter the length of the donor evaluation and thus, did not cause a delay in the eligibility process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Mass Screening
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907143

ABSTRACT

@#Along with the popularity of low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening, an increasing number of lung ground-glass opacity (GGO) lesions are detected. The pathology of GGO could be benign, but persistent GGO indicates early-stage lung cancer. Distinct from traditional lung cancer, GGO-featured lung cancer is more common in the young, nonsmokers and females. GGO-featured lung cancer represents an indolent type of malignancy with a long time to intervene. However, there is still no consensus on the screening, pathology, surgical procedure, and postoperative surveillance of GGO-featured lung cancer. Therefore, we proposed a personalized treatment strategy for GGO-featured lung cancer. The screening for GGO-featured lung cancer should be conducted at young age and low frequency. Adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic, and non-lepidic growth patterns could present as GGO. The following issues should be taken into consideration while determining the treatment of GGO-featured lung cancer: avoiding treating benign disease as malignancies, avoiding treating early-stage disease as advanced-stage disease, avoiding treating indolent malignancy as aggressive malignancy, and choosing appropriate timing to receive surgery without affecting life tracks and career developments. Bronchoscope and bone scan are not necessary for preoperative examinations of GGO-featured lung adenocarcinoma. For selected patients, sublobar resection without mediastinal lymph node dissection might be sufficient. Intraoperative frozen section is an effective method to guide resection strategy. Given the excellent survival of GGO-featured lung cancer, a less intensive postoperative surveillance strategy may be sufficient.

8.
International Eye Science ; (12): 9-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906721

ABSTRACT

@#AIM: To provide a scientific basis for the development of children's eye health measures in Binhu District of Wuxi City by understanding the visual development status of children aged 0-6 years old in the region.<p>METHODS: A total of 3 695 children of 0-6 years old from preschool children in Binhu District received quickly check of eye's refractive status by using the SureSight automatic screening refractor, and determine the results by referring to the refractive screening referral standard norm for each age groups offered by the US Welch Allyn company. All participating preschool children have completed a vision screening and a comprehensive eye examination. <p>RESULTS: The total of abnormal rate was 9.76%, suspicious rate was 5.40% in vision screened children, along with the age increase, the abnormal and suspicious detection rates had a tendency to rise, differences in vision screening results of each age group were statistically significant(χ<sup>2</sup>=15.913, <i>P</i>=0.014), and differences between boys and girls had no statistical significance(χ<sup>2</sup>=7.200, <i>P</i>=0.066). The highest proportion of abnormal vision was astigmatism(13.89%, 17.96%, 17.62%, 11.50%), followed by hyperopia(0.35%, 1.91%, 3.60%, 8.86%)and anisometropia(0.69%, 0.67%, 1.64%, 2.07%)in different age groups. Hyperopia(4.38%), myopia(0.82%), astigmatism(15.65%), anisometropia(1.42%)and any refractive(0.466%), these five types in the distribution of various age groups. The prevalence of astigmatism in preschool children in 0-3 years old were 6.94%(95%<i>CI</i>: 4.90%-9.00%)and the 3-4 years old were 8.98%(95%<i>CI</i>: 7.80%-10.20%), the 4-5 years old were 8.81%(95%<i>CI</i>: 7.70%-9.90%), the 5-6 years old were 5.75%(95%<i>CI</i>: 4.80%-6.70%). The prevalence of astigmatism in different age groups had no statistical difference(χ<sup>2</sup>=0.872, <i>P</i>=0.929).<p>CONCLUSION: Astigmatism was the most common type of ametropia in preschool children, followed by hyperopia and anisometropia. Although no myopia was found, it confirmed the previous research that myopia was not formed at early age. Preschool children vision screening and eye care should be implemented regularly.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 515-520, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922944

ABSTRACT

Hepatobiliary tumor is a type of malignant tumor including primary liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder carcinoma. At present, hepatobiliary tumors have become the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, while the treatment methods for such tumors cannot effectively meet clinical needs. Therefore, it is a key scientific problem in this field to explore and develop the experimental technology of accurate drug screening for hepatobiliary tumors, find new strategies and methods for clinical treatment, and provide new ideas for early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of hepatobiliary tumors. This article introduces the latest research advances in the novel technologies for accurate drug screening for hepatobiliary tumor and their application potential by focusing on the construction of individualized pathological models of hepatobiliary tumor, drug screening technologies, the design and screening strategy of specific target drugs, and drug screening strategy based on artificial intelligence and big data analysis, as well as the directions for future development.

10.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 510-514, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922943

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in China. In recent years, the application of targeted therapy and immunotherapy has improved the survival rate of HCC patients. However, a significant difference in treatment response is observed among HCC patients due to tumor heterogeneity and a lack of biomarkers to predict efficacy. The advance in proteogenomics-centered multi-omics studies and the development of high-throughput drug screening platforms will help to develop new clinical treatment strategies for HCC and new methods for predicting the efficacy of precision medication, thereby realizing personalized precision diagnosis and treatment.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 499-504, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922941

ABSTRACT

It is an effective way to improve the early diagnosis rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China by conducting standardized screening among the population with chronic liver diseases, achieving accurate stratification and standardized management of the population at a risk of HCC, and realizing the early warning for HCC through effective technical means. In clinical practice, the risk scoring models for liver cancer including aMAP can be used for preliminary risk screening of the population with chronic liver diseases to identify the population with a moderate or high risk of liver cancer. Novel serum biomarkers can be used to further screen out the population with an extremely high risk of liver cancer, and then imaging technology can be used for early diagnosis. Constant exploration and improvement of the "pyramid" screening and management mode through stratified enrichment may help to achieve the goal of improving early diagnosis rate of HCC and reducing HCC-related mortality.

12.
International Eye Science ; (12): 647-651, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922869

ABSTRACT

@#AIM:To determine the prevalence of screening myopia and refractive correction among primary and middle school students aged from 6-18 years in Xuzhou city, Jiangsu Province.METHODS: A cross-sectional cluster sampling study was designed. The total number of screened students was 63 488 in 70 schools from Xuzhou city in this study from September 2020 to December 2020. After excluding the unqualified data, 58 149 students aged 6-18 years were included to analyse. The prevalence of screening myopia, refractive correction and full correction with the aspect of different ages, genders, regions and degrees of myopia were described.RESULTS: The overall rate of screening myopia and refractive correction were 49.26% and 31.11%, respectively and both showed an increasing trend with age(<i>P</i><0.01). Additionally, the degree of myopia also gradually deepened with age. For the two rates, there appeared to be higher for girls than boys(53.70% <i>vs</i> 45.67% for screening myopia and 32.45% <i>vs</i> 29.84% for refractive correction, all <i>P</i><0.01). However, girls showed a lower rate than boys for full refractive correction(56.60% <i>vs</i> 63.98%, <i>P</i><0.01), which was 60.23% totally among all the myopic students with refractive correction. The corrective and full refractive correction rate of urban primary and secondary school students are higher than that of townships(46.50% <i>vs</i> 18.33%,62.20% <i>vs</i> 56.07%, all <i>P</i><0.01). CONCLUSION:The prevalence of screening myopia among primary and middle school students was not optimistic in Xuzhou city in 2020. The rates of refractive correction and full correction were relatively low among myopic students, possibly because of the progression of myopia.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920796

ABSTRACT

Objective To screen for malignant tumors and high-risk factors in rural residents over 60 years old, so as to prevent and control the occurrence and development of tumors in the future. Methods The survey was conducted with reference to part of the questionnaire in the "Urban Cancer Early Diagnosis and Treatment Project and Evaluation of High-risk Populations". Clinical examinations included serum tumor marker detection, CT screening for lung cancer, occult blood (+) plus colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, and mammography screening. Individuals who were positive in the abovementioned clinical tests were defined as high-risk subjects. Results A total of 271 high-risk subjects (1.91%) were screened out of 14 161. Among the high-risk subjects, 71 cases of malignant tumors (26.19%) were found, with an incidence rate of 501.38 per 105. The top five tumors (63.38% of all diagnosed) were mainly concentrated in lung, upper digestive tract, blood system, urinary system, and rectum-colon. The proportion of malignant tumors detected by positive indicators was 61.54% of blood; 46.15% of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 125; 23.08% of alpha-fetoprotein; 16.66% of lung CT; and 3.09% of prostate PSA. The positive indicators in the high-risk subjects were mainly for the tumors in the prostate, lungs, liver, and CEA/CA125. The subjects with positive test indicators had lower average annual income in the last 5 years than the normal subject group (χ2=3.380, P=0.040). The subjects with positive test indicators had higher proportion in family history of tumors than the normal group (χ2=2.596, P=0.046). People in thehigh-risk group had a higher proportion than the normal group in suffering from hypertension, liver disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory system disease, and surgical treatment. Patients with high-risk tumors were found to have higher proportion than the normal group in showing pre-tumor clinical symptoms in the last 1 year. Study of the tumor-related risk factors found that the high-risk group had a higher proportion of high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, alcohol drinking, passive smoking, and personality depression. Conclusion High tumor risk factors have been identified in this population. It is necessary to strengthen the corresponding intervention and follow-up treatment of precancerous diseases in the future. We recommend the government to conduct tumor screening among high-risk groups to improve cost-effectiveness.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920575

ABSTRACT

Objective @# To analyze the adverse drug reaction(ADR) reports of hydroxychloroquine for clinical medication safety. @* Methods@#The ADR reports of hydroxychloroquine between May 2019 and May 2021 were analyzed. Age, reasons for drug use, time of ADR, combined drug use, and ADR outcomes were statistically analyzed. @*Results@# No severe ADR was reported. Patients over 60 years old accounted for 53.85% of the total cases, and the time of ADR appearance was significantly earlier among those under 60 years old. A total of 61.54% of ADRs were involved in multiple organs, and optic neurotoxicity was reported in 46.15% of cases. @*Conclusion@# In the treatment of oral lichen planus with hydroxychloroquine, adverse drug reactions should be monitored, and increased attention should be given to patients over 60 years old to ensure the safety of this medication.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920543

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical value of the third-generation hybrid capture nucleic acid detection technology (DH3) typing detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) combined with thin-prep cytology test (TCT) in screening cervical cancer. Methods A total of1 582 female patients who received HPV and TCT cervical screening in Liuzhou Workers Hospital, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, from October 2020 to March 2021, were selected for this retrospective analysis. The cervical histopathological diagnosis was used as the gold standard to evaluate the diagnosis accuracies of HPV and TCT test results. Results Among the 1 582 patients, 334 were positive for HPV and 1 248 were negative; 234 were positive for TCT and 1 348 were negative; 180 were positive for histopathological diagnostic and 1 402 were negative. The sensitivity of HPV detection was 100%, the positive predictive value was 53.9%, the specificity was 89.0%, and the negative predictive value was 100.0%. In the HPV typing test, the positive rate for high-risk types 16/18 was 94.8%, and the positive rate for other 12 high-risk types was 73.8%. There was a little difference between TCT test and pathological test, and the detection consistency rate of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and squamous carcinoma was same. Conclusion HPV testing combined with TCT to screen cervical cancer can reduce the misdiagnosis rate by a single test. The classification test is helpful for the hierarchical management of patients, and has a high clinical value for examination triage and grade screening.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920541

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the prevalence of myopic refractive error and its associated risk factors among primary school students in Shanghai Minhang Distict. Methods A total of 11 356 primary school students who participated in the children's refraction screening project in Meilong Community, Minhang District, Shanghai from January 1 to December 31, 2019 were selected for visual inspection and computer optometry Results The detection rate of myopic refractive error among 6-10 year-old students was 45.59%, with a higher rate in girls and older age group. The detection rates of 6-10 year-old students were 22.88% (6 year-old), 31.77% (7 year-old), 47.62% (8 year-old), 60.53% (9 year-old) and 69.84% (10 year-old), respectively, showing a linear trend(χ 2=1.31, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that myopic refractive error was statistically significantly associated with gender, age and parents' myopic. Birth weight, preterm birth and body mass index (BMI) had no influence on refractive myopic in primary school students. Conclusion Myopic refractive error is still a major public health problem in primary school students. A combined strategies for myopic refractive error reduction should be called to focus on high risk persons and behaviors.

17.
J. inborn errors metab. screen ; 10: e20210024, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a correctable inborn error of metabolism which causes lethal intellectual delay and neurobehavioral anomalies. A screening package, especially for early recognition can support to regulate the PKU process of most patients. New-born screening program in any country focuses at the earliest detection of inheritance deficiency disorders in order to avoid the most severe repercussion by appropriate medication. This screening program needs a concomitant diagnosis and involves additional clinical research. Strategies from developed countries recommend that new-born screening should be done as soon as possible after birth before hospital/clinic discharge because if detected later, it conveys to significantly increase in disability as well as morbidity. Although exact protocol differs among different countries, testing procedures for PKU should be followed universally recognized in the developed world. Unfortunately, new-born screening program in Bangladesh is in lying-in room or possibly in pilot study in particular hospital, because the health-care system is classically targeted mortality (like childbirth complications) and transmittable morbidities (such as COVID-19) but not inborn frailties. Although policies and management of childbirth complications have been successfully lowered infant and mother mortality rates, the number of disabled babies increased tremendously. The study aims to investigate the current status of new-born screening (NBS) program of PKU in the Rajshahi Division Bangladesh, and focus on future plans to manage with life-long treatment. The primary challenges such as financial support for newborn screening, publicity, should be identified and implemented for national PKU-NBS policy as a role model of Bangladesh for developing countries.

18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e210402, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365147

ABSTRACT

Diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites affect millions of people mainly living in developing countries. Novel drugs are highly needed since there are no vaccines and available treatment has several limitations, such as resistance, low efficacy, and high toxicity. The drug discovery process is often analogous to finding a needle in the haystack. In the last decades a so-called rational drug design paradigm, heavily dependent on computational approaches, has promised to deliver new drugs in a more cost-effective way. Paradoxically however, the mainstay of these computational methods is data-driven, meaning they need activity data for new compounds to be generated and available in databases. Therefore, high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds still is a much-needed exercise in drug discovery to fuel other rational approaches. In trypanosomatids, due to the scarcity of validated molecular targets and biological complexity of these parasites, phenotypic screening has become an essential tool for the discovery of new bioactive compounds. In this article we discuss the perspectives of phenotypic HTS for trypanosomatid drug discovery with emphasis on the role of image-based, high-content methods. We also propose an ideal cascade of assays for the identification of new drug candidates for clinical development using leishmaniasis as an example.

19.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20201217, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341041

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the understanding of mothers about sickle cell disease and/or trait of the family from a diagnosed child. Methods: this is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview with 23 mothers, at a sickle cell disease outpatient clinic of a public institution, from October to December 2017. Analysis was thematic. Results: all participants had sickle cell trait as well as the parents of their children. Twenty children were diagnosed with sickle cell disease by Heel Prick Test, and three, after hospitalization due to the disease. Most did not know how to report the presence of the trait or disease in relatives other than nuclear. Final considerations: diagnosis cannot be restricted to the result of neonatal screening, requiring that preventive information on sickle cell crises be reinforced. It is recommended to search for other affected relatives to learn about their genetic condition, reflecting on their reproductive decisions.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el entendimiento de las madres sobre células y/o anemia falciformes de la familia del niño diagnosticado. Métodos: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 23 madres, en el ambulatorio de anemia falciforme de una institución pública, de octubre a diciembre de 2017. El análisis fue temático. Resultados: todos los participantes tenían células falciformes, así como los padres de sus hijos. Veinte niños fueron diagnosticados con anemia de células falciformes mediante la prueba de punción del talón y tres, después de la hospitalización debido a la enfermedad. La mayoría no sabía cómo informar la presencia de células o anemia en miembros de la familia distintos del nuclear. Consideraciones finales: el diagnóstico no puede restringirse al resultado del cribado neonatal, requiriendo que se refuerce la información preventiva sobre las crisis drepanocíticas. Se recomienda buscar a otros familiares afectados para conocer su condición genética, reflexionando sobre sus decisiones reproductivas.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o entendimento de mães acerca da condição do traço e/ou doença falciforme da família a partir da criança diagnosticada. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, sendo utilizada entrevista semiestruturada, com 23 mães, no ambulatório de doença falciforme de uma instituição pública, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2017. A análise foi temática. Resultados: todos os participantes tinham traço falciforme, bem como os pais dos seus filhos. Vinte crianças foram diagnosticadas com doença falciforme pelo teste do pezinho, e três, após hospitalização decorrente da doença. A maioria não sabia informar a presença do traço ou doença em outros membros da família que não a nuclear. Considerações finais: o diagnóstico não pode ficar restrito ao resultado da triagem neonatal, necessitando que as informações preventivas de crises falcêmicas sejam reforçadas. Recomenda-se a busca de outros membros da família afetados para conhecimento da sua condição genética, refletindo sobre suas decisões reprodutivas.

20.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(3): e20210050, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to measure the frequency and compliance of breast cancer screening, according to the risk for this disease. Methods: a cross-sectional study with 950 female users of 38 public Primary Health Care services in São Paulo, between October and December 2013. According to UHS criteria, participants were grouped into high risk and standard risk, and frequency, association (p≤0.05), and screening compliance were measured. Results: 6.7% had high risk and 93.3% standard risk, respectively; in these groups, the frequency and compliance of clinical breast examination were 40.3% and 37.1%, and 43.5% and 43.0% (frequency p=0.631, compliance p=0.290). Mammograms were 67.7% and 35.5% for participants at high risk, and 57.4% and 25.4% for those at standard risk (frequency p=0.090, compliance p=0.000). Conclusions: in the groups, attendance and conformity of the clinical breast exam were similar; for mammography, it was higher in those at high risk, with assertiveness lower than the 70% set in UHS.


RESUMEN Objetivos: mensurar frecuencia y conformidad de rastreo del cáncer mamario, segundo riesgo para esa enfermedad. Métodos: estudio transversal con 950 usuarias de 38 servicios de Atención Primaria púbicos en São Paulo, entre octubre y diciembre de 2013. Segundo criterios del SUS, agruparon las participantes en riesgo elevado y riesgo-estándar, y mensurado frecuencia, relación (p≤0,05) y conformidad del rastreo. Resultados: 6,7% tenían riesgo elevado y 93,3% riesgo-estándar, respectivamente; en eses grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron de 40,3% y 37,1% y de 43,5% y 43,0% (frecuencia, p=0,631; conformidad, p=0,290). Realización de mamografía alcanzó porcentuales de 67,7% y 35,5% para participantes con riesgo elevado, y de 57,4% y 25,4% en con riesgo-estándar (frecuencia, p=0,090; conformidad, p=0,000). Conclusiones: En los grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron semejantes, para mamografía fue mayor en las con riesgo elevado, habiendo asertividad inferior a 70% pactados en el SUS.


RESUMO Objetivos: mensurar a frequência e conformidade de rastreio do câncer mamário segundo risco para esta doença. Métodos: estudo transversal em São Paulo, com 950 usuárias de 38 da atenção primária no SUS entre outubro a dezembro de 2013. Segundo critérios do SUS, as participantes foram agrupadas como risco elevado ou padrão e mensurou-se frequência, associação (p≤0,05) e conformidade do rastreio. Resultados: 6,7% tinha risco elevado e 93,3% risco padrão, respectivamente, nestes grupos a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram de 40,3% e 37,1% e de 43,5% e 43,0% (frequência p=0,631, conformidade p=0,290). Realização de mamografia alcançou percentuais de 67,7 e 35,5 para as com risco elevado, e de 57,4 e 25,4 nas com risco padrão (frequência p=0,090, conformidade p=0,000). Conclusões: nos grupos, a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram semelhantes, para mamografia foi maior nas com risco elevado, tendo assertividade inferior aos 70% pactuados no SUS.

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