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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(4): 594-601, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394164

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: One of the main goals of the team approach in management of oro-facial clefts is to help the children with cleft palate have adequate speech development. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of articulation and resonance disorders following palate closure in children who were visited for routine examination by the Isfahan Cleft Care Team between 2011 and 2015, and to study the impact of cleft type and age at the time of palatoplasty on speech outcomes. Methods: Clinical records of 180 preschool children with repaired cleft palate were reviewed. The percentage of children demonstrating hypernasality, nasal emission, nasal turbulence, and compensatory misarticulations was calculated. The relationship between cleft type and age at the time of palatal surgery, as independent variables, and speech outcomes were examined. Results: 67.7 and 64.5 percent of the children demonstrated respectively moderate/severe hypernasality and nasal emission, and 71.1 percent produced compensatory misarticulations. Age at the time of palatal repair was significantly associated with compensatory misarticulations and also with moderate/severe hypernasality. The prevalence of compensatory misarticulations, significant hypernasality, nasal emission and also nasal turbulence was not significantly different in various types of cleft. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of different speech disorders in preschool children with repaired cleft palate compared to other studies. This can be partly due to late palatal repair in the studied population. Despite many advances in cleft palate management programs in Iran, there are still many children who do not access the interdisciplinary team cares in their early childhood. We should, therefore, try to increase accessibility of appropriate and timely management services to all Iranian children with cleft lip/palate.


Resumo Introdução: Um dos principais objetivos da abordagem em equipe no tratamento das fendas orofaciais é contribuir para que as crianças com fenda palatina tenham um desenvolvimento adequado da fala. Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de distúrbios de articulação e ressonância após o reparo da fenda palatina em crianças acompanhadas no Isfahan Cleft Care Team entre 2011 e 2015; e avaliar o impacto do tipo de fenda e da idade na época da palatoplastia nos resultados da fala. Método: Os prontuários de 180 pré-escolares com fenda palatina reparada foram revisados para determinação da porcentagem de crianças com hipernasalidade, emissão nasal, turbulência nasal e distúrbios articulatórios compensatórios. A relação entre o tipo de fenda e a idade no momento da cirurgia de palato, como variáveis independentes, e os resultados de fala também foram avaliados. Resultados: Das crianças, 67,7% e 64,5% apresentavam hipernasalidade moderada/grave e emissão nasal, respectivamente, e 71,1% tinham distúrbios articulatórios compensatórios. A idade no momento do reparo do palato foi significantemente associada aos distúrbios articulatórios compensatórios e também à hipernasalidade moderada/grave. A prevalência de distúrbios articulatórios compensatórios, hipernasalidade significativa, emissão nasal, assim como da turbulência nasal, não foi significantemente diferente nos vários tipos de fenda. Conclusão: Observou-se maior prevalência de diferentes alterações de fala em pré-escolares com fenda palatina reparada em comparação a outros estudos. Isso pode ser parcialmente decorrente do reparo palatino tardio na população estudada. Apesar dos muitos avanços nos programas de tratamento de fenda palatina no Irã, ainda existem muitas crianças que não têm acesso aos cuidados de uma equipe interdisciplinar na primeira infância. Devemos, portanto, tentar aumentar a acessibilidade de serviços de tratamento apropriados e oportunos para todas as crianças iranianas com fenda labiopalatina.

2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 187-193, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Individuals with cleft palate can present with velopharyngeal dysfunction after primary palatoplasty and require a secondary treatment due to insufficiency. In these cases, the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis can be used temporarily while awaiting secondary surgery. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the outcome of treatment of hypernasality with pharyngeal bulb prosthesis in patients with history of cleft palate presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency after primary palatal surgery. We hypothesized that the use of the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis is an effective approach to eliminate hypernasality related to velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with cleft palate. Methods: Thirty speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (15 males and 15 females) with operated cleft palate, ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (mean: 9 years; SD = 1.87 years), participated in the study. All patients were fitted with a pharyngeal bulb prosthesis to manage velopharyngeal insufficiency while they were awaiting corrective surgery to be scheduled. Auditory-perceptual analysis of speech recorded in the conditions with and without pharyngeal bulb prosthesis were obtained from three listeners who rated the presence or absence of hypernasality for this study. Results: Seventy percent of the patients eliminated hypernasality while employing the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis, while 30% still presented with hypernasality. The comparison was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis is an effective approach to eliminate hypernasality related to velopharyngeal insufficiency.


Resumo Introdução: Indivíduos com fissura palatina podem apresentar disfunção velofaríngea após a palatoplastia primária e necessitam de um secundário devido à insuficiência velofaríngea. Nesses casos, o obturador faríngeo pode ser usado temporariamente enquanto se aguarda uma cirurgia secundária. Objetivo: Investigar o resultado do tratamento da hipernasalidade com o uso de obturador faríngeo em pacientes com histórico de fissura palatina que apresentam insuficiência velofaríngea após a palatoplastia primária. Nossa hipótese é que o uso do obturador faríngeo seja uma abordagem eficaz para eliminar a hipernasalidade relacionada à insuficiência velofaríngea em pacientes com fissura palatina Método: Participaram do estudo 30 indivíduos falantes do Português Brasileiro (15 homens e 15 mulheres) com fissura palatina operada, de 6 a 14 anos de idade (média: 9 anos; DP = 1,87 anos). Todos os pacientes receberam obturador faríngeo para o tratamento da insuficiência velofaríngea, enquanto aguardavam vaga para a cirurgia secundária. A análise perceptivo-auditiva da fala, realizada nas condições com e sem obturador faríngeo, foi realizada por três ouvintes, quanto à presença e ausência da hipernasalidade. Resultados: 70% dos pacientes eliminaram a hipernasalidade de fala com o uso do obturador faríngeo, enquanto 30% não eliminaram. A comparação foi estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Conclusão: O uso temporário do obturador faríngeo é uma abordagem efetiva para eliminar a hipernasalidade decorrente da insuficiência velofaríngea.


Subject(s)
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology , Voice Disorders , Nose Diseases , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/complications , Prostheses and Implants , Speech , Treatment Outcome
3.
CoDAS ; 34(6): e20210152, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364753

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The present study is aimed towards determining and comparing normative nasalance scores in Chilean Spanish-speaking adult men and women. Methods 40 women (age range 18 to 35, X = 25.79, SD = 5.83) and 36 men (age range 18 to 35, X = 26.45, SD = 4.08) were invited to participate, all of them without any previous speech therapy, neurological pathologies, intellectual deficits, hearing loss, syndromes, or other diagnosed pathologies that could impact speech production. A study of proper velopharyngeal function was performed, using a perceptual resonance evaluation. Nasalance was determined using a model 6450 Nasometer, during the reading of three standardized speech samples in Spanish: a nasal passage (NP), an oronasal passage (ONP), and an oral passage (OP). Also, the nasalance distance was calculated. Genders were compared using Wilcoxon tests for independent samples. Results The NP presented the highest percentage of nasalance, with 52.13% (± 4.73), followed by the ONP with 25.38% (± 3.7), and finally the OP, which presented the lowest value of 14.15% (± 5.03). Meanwhile, nasalance distance was 37.98% (± 5.32). Finally, no significant differences were observed when comparing the nasalance between genders (p >0.05). Conclusion The nasalance values obtained were similar to those observed for other Spanish speakers. Also, male and women showed similar scores. The results of this study are a contribution to the indirect assessment of velopharyngeal function in Chilean adults.


RESUMEN Objetivo El presente estudio tiene como objetivo determinar y comparar puntajes normativos de nasalancia en hombres y mujeres chilenos de habla hispana. Método Participaron 40 mujeres (rango de edad de 18 a 35, X = 25.79, DE = 5.83) y 36 hombres (rango de edad de 18 a 35, X = 26.45, DE = 4.08), todos sin ningún antecedente de tratamiento fonoaudiológico, patologías neurológicas, déficit intelectual, hipoacusia, síndromes u otras patologías diagnosticadas que podrían afectar la producción del habla. La adecuada función velofaríngea fue determinada en vivo a través de una evaluación perceptual de la resonancia. La nasalancia se determinó utilizando un Nasometer modelo 6450, durante la lectura de tres muestras de habla estandarizadas en español: un párrafo nasal (PN), un párrafo oronasal (PON) y un párrafo oral (PO). Además, se calculó la distancia de nasalancia. La comparación entre ambos sexos fue realizada con el test de Wilcoxon para muestras independientes. Resultados El PN presentó el mayor porcentaje de nasalancia con 52.13% (± 4.73), seguido del PON con 25.38% (± 3.7), y finalmente el PO, que presentó el valor más bajo de 14.15% (± 5.03). En tanto, la distancia de nasalancia fue del 37.98% (± 5.32). Por último, no se observaron diferencias significativas al comparar entre ambos sexos (p> 0.05). Conclusión Los valores de nasalancia obtenidos fueron similares a los observados para otros hispanohablantes. Además, hombres y mujeres mostraron puntuaciones similares. Los resultados de este estudio son una contribución a la evaluación indirecta de la función velofaríngea en adultos chilenos.

4.
CoDAS ; 34(3): e20210069, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356161

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a efetividade de proposta de classificação da mímica facial (MF), e sua correlação com avaliação objetiva do fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF). Método Vinte indivíduos com fissura labiopalatina reparada foram submetidos à medida da área velofaríngea por meio da rinomanometria e à gravação de amostra de fala. A MF foi classificada em dois momentos, por três fonoaudiólogas. Inicialmente as avaliadoras classificaram a MF, utilizando critérios próprios, em: 1=MF ausente; 2=leve; 3=moderada; 4=grave. Posteriormente, foram submetidas a um treinamento com o estabelecimento dos seguintes critérios de classificação: 1=MF normal; 2=movimento somente de nariz ou terço superior da face; 3=movimento acentuado de nariz ou terço superior da face; 4=movimento de nariz e terço superior da face e, classificaram a MF utilizando os critérios estabelecidos. Concordância intra e interavaliadores foram calculadas pelo coeficiente Kappa ponderado. A correlação entre os resultados das etapas com o FVF foi feita pelo coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados Na primeira etapa, a concordância interavaliadores variou de regular a substancial e na segunda, de substancial a quase perfeita. A concordância intra-avaliadores variou de moderada a quase perfeita na primeira etapa, e de moderada a substancial, na segunda etapa. A correlação entre a MF e área velofaríngea na primeira e na segunda etapa foi positiva e significativa. Conclusão A proposta de julgamento da MF mostrou-se efetiva na determinação do sintoma e confiável no diagnóstico da gravidade da disfunção velofaríngea. A correlação significativa entre os métodos perceptivo e instrumental sugere que a MF pode ser utilizada na previsão do FVF.


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the effectiveness of a proposal for classification of facial grimace (FG) and its correlation with objective evaluation of velopharyngeal closure (VPC). Methods Twenty individuals with repaired cleft lip and palate underwent velopharyngeal area measurement by means of rhinomanometry and speech sample recording. The FG was rated in two steps, by three speech-language pathologists. First the evaluators rated the FG using their own criteria as: 1= absent FG; 2=mild; 3=moderate; 4=severe. Subsequently, they were submitted to a training session that established the following FG rating criteria: 1=absent FG; 2=movement only of the nose or upper third of the face; 3=strong movement of the nose or upper third of the face; 4=movement of the nose and upper third of the face. The evaluators rated the FG using the established criteria. Intra- and inter-rater agreement were calculated using weighted Kappa coefficient. Correlation between the two stage ratings with the VPC was calculated by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results In the first stage inter-rater agreement ranged from fair to substantial; in the second stage, from substantial to almost perfect. Intra-rater agreement ranged from moderate to almost perfect in the first stage, and from moderate to substantial in the second stage. The correlation between FG and velopharyngeal area was positive and significant in both stages. Conclusion The proposed FG judgement proved to be effective in determining the symptom and reliable in diagnosing the severity of velopharyngeal dysfunction. The significant correlation between perceptual and instrumental methods suggests that FG can be used in predicting VPC.

5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20210320, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340108

ABSTRACT

Abstract During times of increasingly recognized importance of interprofessional practices, professionals in Medicine, Dentistry, and Speech Pathology areas cooperate to optimize treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD), after primary palatoplasty for correction of cleft palate. Objective Our study aims to compare velar length, velar thickness, and depth of the nasopharynx of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) with the presence, or absence, of hypernasality and nasal air emission; and to verify if the depth:length ratio, between nasopharynx and velum, would be predictive of consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (speech signs of VPD). Methodology Cephalometric radiographs and outcome of speech assessment were obtained from 429 individuals, between 6 and 9 years of age, with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate. Velar length, velar thickness, depth of the nasopharynx, depth:length ratio, scores of hypernasality, and scores of nasal air emission were studied and compared; grouping the radiographs according to presence or absence of hypernasality and nasal air emission. Results For the group with speech signs of velopharyngeal dysfunction (those with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission), the velums were shorter and thinner; the nasopharynx was deeper and the depth:length ratio was larger than the group without hypernasality and nasal air emission. Velar length was significantly shorter in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001) and with history of palatal fistula (p=0.032). Depth of nasopharynx was significantly greater in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001). Depthlength ratio was significantly larger in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001). A depth:length ratio larger than 0.93 was always associated with speech signs of VPD. Conclusion Estimated with cephalometric radiographs, a depth:length ratio greater than 0.93, between the nasopharyngeal space and the velum, was 100% accurate in predicting hypernasality and nasal air emission after primary repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Cleft Lip/diagnostic imaging , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/diagnostic imaging , Palate, Soft , Speech , Cephalometry , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(4): e2421, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340669

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Intensive therapy is an alternative to accelerate the therapeutic process of individuals with cleft lip and palate. The purpose of this study is to describe an intensive speech therapy program and compare the results before and after the program on a child with previously operated right unilateral cleft lip and palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency, using a speech bulb. Sixty therapy sessions were carried out over a 4-week period. Before and after, anamnesis, speech assessment and evaluation of the velopharyngeal function with nasofibroscopy, were performed. The patient presented with adequate resonance and speech intelligibility, reduction of obligatory disorders and compensatory articulations, after intensive therapy with the speech bulb and reduction of velopharyngeal gap, after intensive therapy with and without the speech bulb. Progress was achieved with the intensive speech therapy.


RESUMO A terapia intensiva é uma alternativa para acelerar o processo terapêutico de indivíduos com fissura labiopalatina. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever, aplicar um programa de terapia intensiva e comparar a evolução antes e após o programa de fonoterapia de uma criança com fissura transforame incisivo unilateral direita operada e insuficiência velofaríngea em uso de prótese de palato obturadora. Foram realizadas 60 sessões de terapia, durante 4 semanas. Antes e após, aplicou-se anamnese, avaliação da fala e nasofibroscopia. Como resultado, a paciente apresentou adequação da ressonância e da inteligibilidade de fala, diminuição dos distúrbios obrigatórios e das articulações compensatórias após terapia intensiva com prótese de palato obturadora; e redução do gap velofaríngeo após a terapia intensiva com e sem o uso da prótese. Concluiu-se que a fonoterapia intensiva proporcionou evolução do caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Speech Disorders/etiology , Speech Disorders/therapy , Speech Therapy/methods , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Cleft Lip/complications , Cleft Palate/complications
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843031

ABSTRACT

@#Postoperative fistulae are one of the most significant complications of cleft palate repair. They usually has an adverse effect on patients’ oral hygiene, speech and even mental health. There has been a wide range of rates of fistula occurrence, from 0.8%-60%, with the classification and definition of fistulae differing from one author to the next. In this paper, the definition and classification of palatal fistulae and their reconstruction method are reviewed. At present, there is a lack of a consistent definition of palatal fistulae and a classification that can fully reflect the characteristics of palatal fistula. Adjacent flap is mainly used for repairing small fistulae with an adequate amount of surrounding tissue; anteriorly based dorsal tongue flaps are a safe and reliable method for large fistulae; free flap is beneficial for refractory and complicated palatal fistulae that are difficult to repair by the local and pedicle flap; and different synthetic materials are used in multilayer repair of fistulae; among them, composite polymer membrane is highly biocompatible, promoting cell attachment and proliferation in animal models, but its security in the human body needs further research.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-843024

ABSTRACT

@#Autologous fat transplantation in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency has the advantages of good histocompatibility, small local trauma, few complications, reversible operation and simple postoperative nursing, which can effectively increase the velopharyngeal closure area. If the clinical effect is poor, other surgical methods can be used at any time for replacement. Although there are many advantages in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency with autologous fat transplantation, there are still some problems in the selection of indication, donor site, injection dose, recipient site, follow-up evaluation, complications and prevention and treatment. Current research shows that autologous fat transplantation is mainly used in patients with mild or moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency, but with the improvement of fat acquisition and treatment techniques, the indications for autologous fat transplantation continue to expand, and autologous fat transplantation combined with palatoplasty or pharyngoplasty has been proposed for the treatment of severe velopharyngeal insufficiency. However, there are complications, such as fat absorption and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In addition, the application of autologous fat transplantation in severe VPI patients and how to improve the long-term stability of autologous fat transplantation need further study.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in cleft patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after pharyngeal flap surgery (PFS) and explore the influence of operation age.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted in 82 cleft patients after PFS. The patients were divided into two groups according to their age at the time of surgery. The incidence and severity of OSA were assessed at least 1.2 years (mean 6.0 years) postoperatively by polysomnography (PSG).@*RESULTS@#The incidence rates of OSA were 20% in the adult group and 31% in the child group. No significant difference was found between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Some patients still have OSA average of 6.0 years after PFS, and operation ageis unrelated to the incidence and severity of OSA.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Pharynx , Polysomnography , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology
10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-213884

ABSTRACT

Background:Cleft palates are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies in children, and their treatment is challenging in terms of outcomes. The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI), and of the oronasal fistula after a veloplasty. Methods:By a retrospective study, over a period of 2 years, going from January 2017 to December 2018, carried out in the department of ENT and head and neck surgery of the August 20 hospital in Casablanca, Morocco. The inclusion criteria were all patients operated on for a cleft palate. The main results were the incidence of VPI, and of the oronasal fistula after a primary repair of the palate.Results:Out of a total of 21 cases, the average age was 4 years, and the sex ratio was 0.61, the average postoperative follow-up duration was 1 year and 9 months. VPI was found in 13 patients (62%), it was mild in 3 patients (14%), moderate in 6 patients (28%), and severe in 4 patients (19%), the frequency of VPI increased significantly with increasing age (p=0.05). The oronasal fistula was found in 5 (23.8%) patients, this fistula was more frequent when the patient benefited from the operation at an early age.Conclusions:Age is the most important factor in the management of cleftpalates

11.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 35(1): 16-22, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148304

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A palatoplastia com elevação de retalhos mucoperiostais bipediculados pela técnica de Von Langenbeck associada a veloplastia intravelar é técnica mais utilizadas na atualidade apresentando na literatura baixa taxa de fístula oronasal e de insuficiência velofaríngea. O objetivo é apresentar a experiência acumulada do autor e avaliar a incidência de fístula oronasal após 278 casos de palatoplastia primária, pela técnica de Von Langenbeck associada a veloplastia intravelar. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 278 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à palatoplastia primária no Centro de Tratamento de Malformações Craniofaciais Mário Covas - Hospital Guilherme Álvaro - Santos/SP, entre de maio de 2010 a maio de 2018. Resultados: 278 procedimentos de palatoplastia primária pela técnica relatada, 225 (80,9%) em duas etapas cirúrgicas e 53 (19,1%) em única etapa. Masculino 182 (65,5%) e feminino 96 (34,5%). Fissuras labiopalatais esquerda e bilaterais (26,3% e 27%, respetivamente). As fissuras palatais completas corresponderam a 37,4% e a fissura labiopalatal direita com 7,6%. 61 pacientes apresentaram fístula oronasal (21,94%) observando-se uma diminuição progressiva da incidência em cada período. Conclusão: A palatoplastia primária pela técnica de Von Langenbeck associada à veloplastia intravelar é uma técnica reprodutível em uma ou duas etapas cirúrgicas e pode ser considerada segura quando alcançada uma adequada curva de aprendizado apresentando um índice de complicações acorde com a literatura mundial.


Introduction: Palatoplasty with elevated bilateral mucoperiosteal flaps using the von Langenbeck technique associated with intravelar veloplasty is a common procedure with low rates of oronasal fistula (ONF) and velopharyngeal insufficiency. The objective is to present the author's surgical experience and the incidence of ONF among 278 patients who underwent primary palatoplasty using the von Langenbeck technique associated with intravelar veloplasty. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed the medical records of 278 patients who underwent primary palatoplasty at the Mário Covas Treatment Center for Craniofacial Malformations of the Guilherme Álvaro Hospital located in the municipality of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2010 and May 2018. Results: A total of 278 primary palatoplasty procedures were performed; of them, 225 (80.9%) were performed in two surgical stages and 53 (19.1%) in one surgical stage. The study population included 182 men (65.5%) and 96 women (34.5%). The prevalence of left and bilateral cleft lip and palate was 26.3% and 27%, respectively, and the prevalence of bilateral cleft palate, and right cleft lip and palate was 37.4% and 7.6%, respectively. Sixty-one patients had ONF (21.94%), the incidence of which decreased progressively throughout the study period. Conclusion: Primary palatoplasty, using the von Langenbeck technique associated with intravelar veloplasty, is reproducible when performed in one or two surgical stages, and considered safe when the learning curve is reached with a complication rate similar to those in the literature.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze velopharyngeal closure patterns and speech characteristics of patients with congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency.@*METHODS@#Patients visiting the Department of Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University between 2009 and 2017 were reviewed. Outcomes of subjective speech evaluation, including resonance, consonant articulation, and correction rate, were analyzed. Furthermore, the mobility of soft palate and pharyngeal walls under nasopharyngeal fiberscope were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#A total of 47 cases were retrieved and subjected to nasopharyngeal fiberscopic examination. Among them, 29 (61.7%) demonstrated a circular closure pattern, 16 (34.0%) showed a coronal pattern, and 2 (4.3%) had a sagittal pattern. Furthermore, 25 (53.2%) presented medium soft-palate mobility, 22 (46.8%) had weak lateral pharyngeal wall mobility, and 41 (87.2%) had no posterior pharyngeal wall mobility. Among all of the patients, 23 (48.9%) presented medium hypernasality, accounting for the highest proportion. Consonant misarticulation occurred in 89.4% of the cases. The articulation manners with the highest correction rate were in the following order: nasal, lateral, fricatives, stops, and affricates. The articulation places with the highest correction rate were in the following order: bilabial, alveolar, velar, and linguadental.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Circular closure was the most prevalent velopharyngeal closure pattern among patients with congenital velopharyngeal insufficiency, and consonant omission was the most common articulation abnormality.


Subject(s)
China , Cleft Palate/surgery , Humans , Palate, Soft , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies , Speech , Treatment Outcome , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
13.
CoDAS ; 32(4): e20190152, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133516

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a influência do tipo de fissura sobre o aparecimento da hipernasalidade após o avanço cirúrgico da maxila (AM). Método A nasalidade foi determinada por meio da medida de nasalância (correlato acústico da nasalidade) utilizando-se a nasometria. Foi realizada a análise dos escores de nasalância de 17 indivíduos com fissura isolada de palato (FP), 118 com fissura de lábio e palato unilateral (FLPU) e 69 com fissura de lábio e palato bilateral (FLPB), de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 18 e 28 anos, submetidos ao AM. Apenas indivíduos com escores de nasalância indicativos de ressonância equilibrada previamente ao AM foram incluídos neste estudo. A nasometria foi realizada, em média, três dias antes e 15 meses após o AM. A proporção de pacientes que apresentaram escores de nasalância indicativos de hipernasalidade após o AM foi calculada por meio do teste ANOVA e a comparação entre os diferentes tipos de fissura foi realizada utilizando-se o teste Qui-quadrado (p < 0,05). Resultados Não foi observada diferença significante entre as proporções de indivíduos com hipernasalidade, de acordo com o tipo de fissura. Conclusão A nasometria mostrou que o aparecimento da hipernasalidade após o AM, em indivíduos com fissura de palato envolvendo ou não o lábio, ocorreu em proporções similares independentemente do tipo de fissura.


ABSTRACT Purpose This study investigated the influence of the cleft type on the appearance of hypernasality after surgical maxillary advancement (MA). Methods Nasality was determined by measurement of nasalance (acoustic correlate of nasality) by nasometry. The study involved analysis of the nasalance scores of 17 individuals with isolated cleft palate (CP), 118 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 69 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), of both sexes, aged 18 to 28 years, after MA. Only individuals with normal nasalance scores indicating balanced resonance before MA were included in this study. Nasometry was performed 3 days before and 15 months after MA, on average. The proportion of patients who presented nasalance scores indicating hypernasality after surgery was calculated by the ANOVA test, and comparison among the different cleft types was evaluated by the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results No significant difference was found in the proportions of individuals with hypernasality among the cleft types. Conclusion Nasometry showed that the appearance of hypernasality after MA in individuals with cleft palate with or without cleft lip occurred in similar proportions, regardless of the cleft type.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Speech/physiology , Speech Disorders/etiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Orthognathic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Speech Disorders/physiopathology , Speech Production Measurement , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Cleft Lip/physiopathology , Cleft Palate/physiopathology , Osteotomy, Le Fort/adverse effects , Maxilla/surgery
14.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 185-190, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014436

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La insuficiencia velofaríngea (IVF) corresponde a cualquier defecto estructural del paladar blando o de las paredes de la faringe, caracterizado por la ausencia de tejido suficiente para lograr un cierre adecuado del mecanismo velofaríngeo durante el habla, lo que genera resonancia hipernasal y emisión nasal. En los casos de fisura con compromiso de paladar, el tratamiento para corregir la IVF puede ser quirúrgico o protésico, acompañado de intervención fonoaudiológica, pues la corrección física no elimina las alteraciones funcionales. Se presentan los resultados de habla obtenidos en un adulto hablante chileno diagnosticado con IVF secundaria a fisura palatina, rehabilitado en Fundación Gantz con prótesis de paladar obturadora y tratamiento fonoaudiológico. La evaluación mediante análisis perceptivo auditivo y nasometría evidencia una mejora del mecanismo velofaríngeo durante el habla.


ABSTRACT The velopharyngeal insufficiency (IVF) corresponds to any structural defect of the soft palate or the walls of the pharynx, where there is not enough tissue to achieve an adequate closure of the velopharyngeal mechanism during speech, generating hypernasal resonance and nasal emission. In cases of cleft palate, the treatment to correct IVF may be surgical or prosthetic, accompanied by speech therapy. The speech results obtained in a native speaker of Chilean Spanish diagnosed with IVF secondary to cleft palate, rehabilitated in Fundación Gantz with a palatal obturator (speech bulb) and speech therapy are presented. The evaluation by auditory perceptual analysis and nasometry show an improvement of the velopharyngeal mechanism during speech.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Prostheses and Implants , Speech/physiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/rehabilitation , Palatal Obturators , Auditory Perception , Cleft Palate/complications , Treatment Outcome
15.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 191-198, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014437

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La voz hipernasal y la regurgitación nasal son síntomas de disfunción velofaríngea. Ésta puede tener múltiples causas: anatómicas, neurológicas o funcionales. Se describe el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino, de 13 años, que se presenta con voz hipernasal y regurgitación nasal aguda. Al examen físico se evidencia inmovilidad del velo del paladar derecho sin otros hallazgos neurológicos. El estudio con resonancia nuclear magnética de cerebro y punción lumbar fueron normales. Se diagnosticó una incompetencia velofaríngea aguda transitoria, de probable etiología viral. La paciente evolucionó de forma favorable con mejoría clínica progresiva. La incompetencia velofaríngea a causa de una paresia o parálisis del nervio vago y/o nervio glosofaríngeo es una causa poco frecuente de disfunción velofaríngea.


ABSTRACT Hypernasal speech and nasal regurgitation are symptoms of velopharyngeal dysfunction. This may have multiple causes, including velopharyngeal incompetence due to paresis or paralysis of the vagus nerve and/or glossopharyngeal nerve. We describe the case of a 13 year-old female patient, with hypernasal speech and acute nasal regurgitation, with a physical examination showing immobility of the right palate with no other neurological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and lumbar puncture was normal. Transient acute velopharyngeal incompetence was diagnosed, probably of viral etiology. The patient evolved favorably with progressive clinical improvement. Velopharyngeal incompetence due to paresis or paralysis of the vagus and/or glossopharyngeal nerves is a rare cause of velopharyngeal dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/complications , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Palate, Soft , Speech Disorders/etiology , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/therapy , Nose Diseases/etiology , Velopharyngeal Sphincter/pathology
16.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e1984, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038766

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar o efeito da cirurgia para secção completa do retalho faríngeo sobre a hipernasalidade de fala. Métodos Foram avaliados 26 indivíduos com fissura de palato±lábio reparada, submetidos à cirurgia de retalho faríngeo para tratamento da insuficiência velofaríngea e que, em função do aparecimento de queixas respiratórias, necessitaram nova cirurgia para secção do retalho. A hipernasalidade foi determinada por meio das avaliações perceptiva e nasométrica da fala 18 meses, em média, após a secção do retalho. Na avaliação perceptiva, a hipernasalidade foi classificada como: 1 = ausente ou 2 = presente e, na nasometria, foi determinada por meio da medida da nasalância durante a leitura de sentenças contendo, exclusivamente, sons orais, considerando-se, como limite de normalidade, o escore de 27% (p ≤ 0,05). Resultados A avaliação perceptiva mostrou que, antes da secção do retalho, oito (31%) indivíduos apresentavam ressonância equilibrada e 18 (69%) apresentavam hipernasalidade. Após a cirurgia, um (4%) paciente permaneceu com ressonância equilibrada e 25 (96%) apresentaram hipernasalidade. De acordo com a nasometria, antes da cirurgia, 13 (57%) indivíduos apresentaram valores de nasalância inferiores a 27%, indicando ausência de hipernasalidade (média = 15±8%) e dez (43%) pacientes apresentaram valores indicativos de hipernasalidade (média = 41±7%). Após a cirurgia, quatro (17%) pacientes permaneceram com valores indicativos de ausência de hipernasalidade (média = 19±10%) e 19 (83%) apresentaram valores de nasalância indicativos de hipernasalidade (média = 45±7%). Diferença entre as avaliações perceptiva e nasométrica da fala não foi observada. Conclusão A cirurgia para secção completa do retalho faríngeo causou deterioração da ressonância de fala, levando ao reaparecimento da hipernasalidade, na maioria dos pacientes estudados.


ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the effect of complete section of pharyngeal flap on speech hypernasality. Methods The study analyzed twenty-six individuals with repaired cleft palate±lip underwent pharyngeal flap surgery to treat velopharyngeal insufficiency and posteriorly underwent complete section of the flap due to the occurrence of respiratory symptoms. Hypernasality was determined by auditory-perceptual speech assessments and nasometry at 18 months after surgery, on average. Hypernasality was perceptually classified as: 1 = absent or 2 = present and determined by nasalance measurement during reading of sentences containing exclusively oral sounds, considering a cutoff of 27% (p ≤ 0.05). Results Perceptual assessment before section of the flap revealed that eight (31%) individuals showed normal resonance, while 18 (69%) presented hypernasality. After surgery, one (4%) subject remained with normal resonance and 25 (96%) presented hypernasality. According to nasometry, before surgery, 13 (57%) individuals presented nasalance scores lower than 27%, indicative of absence of hypernasality (mean = 15±8%) and ten (43%) presented nasalance scores indicative of hypernasality (mean = 41±7%). After surgery, four (17%) patients remained with scores indicative of absence of hypernasality (mean = 19±10%) and for 19 (83%) the nasalance scores were indicative of hypernasality (mean = 45±7%). There was no difference between perceptual and nasometric speech evaluations. Conclusion Surgery for complete section of pharyngeal flap caused deterioration of speech resonance, leading to the reappearance of hypernasality in most patients in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Speech Disorders , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/therapy , Cleft Palate/surgery , Snoring , Speech Intelligibility , Speech Perception , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the prognostic factors affecting the primary surgical management of aged patients with cleft palate.@*METHODS@#This study reviewed aged patients with cleft palate who received Furlow palatoplasty (surgical age≥5 years) at the cleft center at West China Hospital of Stomatology from 2009 to 2014. The study retrieved intraoperative mea-surements, including velar length, pharyngeal depth, cleft width, maxillary width, cleft palate index, and palatopharyngeal ratio. Speech evaluation results at follow-up at least a year after surgery were also obtained. Logistic regression and retrospec-tive analyses were performed to identify correlative prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#One hundred and thirty-one patients were included (70 males and 61 females). Dichotomy logistic regression analysis revealed that pharyngeal depth was the only mea-surement considerably associated with postoperative velopharyngeal function. Pharyngeal depth deeper than 16 mm indicated high risk of postoperative velopharyngeal insufficiency.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pharyn-geal depth is a significant prognostic factor for the primary surgical management of aged patients with cleft palate. Pharyn-goplasty might be considered when planning the primary management of aged patients.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , China , Cleft Palate , Female , Humans , Male , Palate, Soft , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804639

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a common postoperative sequela secondary tocleft palate. It could significantly impairpatients′living quality. Treatment of VPI includes surgery and speech therapy, but the reported success rates are inconsistent. A consensus in the literatures is needed, to guide procedure selection for patients with VPI.@*Methods@#This is a retrospective study on management options for patients with VPI.This study systematically introduces the assessment, management plan and treatment effect of VPI, in the Craniofacial center of Hospital Stomatology of Xi′an Jiaotong University.The challenges of VPI diagnosis and treatment with cleft palate are discussed in-depth.@*Results@#Most patients with VPI underwent evaluation and treatment (surgical or/and speech therapy) had speech improvement. The average value of hypernasality decreased from 3.67 before interventions to 1.57 after interventions.A multidisciplinary team using multi-modal to evaluate velopharyngeal function and speech. All patients had no bleeding, would dehiscence or fistula postoperatively. The difficulty of stimulability test was significantly reduced. Fourteen patients completed speech therapy, with the averaged treatments period of 3 months.@*Conclusions@#Speech pathologist is the manager of speech rehabilitation of cleft palate patients with VPI. The operation skill plays a key role in the treatment of VPI. Detailed diagnostic information is important for performing excellent surgical techniques. The cooperation of surgeon and speech pathologist, could be helpful to achieve the final speech rehabilitation.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-856555

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the application value of Furlow palatoplasty in reconstruction of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) after cleft palate surgery. Methods: Between August 2015 and January 2017, 48 patients with VPI after cleft palate surgery were treated with Furlow palatoplasty. There were 29 males and 19 females, aged from 4 to 17 years (mean, 6.1 years). There were 16 cases of incomplete cleft palate and 32 cases of complete cleft palate; and 16 cases of soft cleft palate and 32 cases of soft and hard cleft palate. The interval between first cleft palate surgery and Furlow palatoplasty was 3 to 13 years (mean, 5.9 years). The patients were accompanied by significant open rhinolalia and nasal leakage. The degree of velopharyngeal closure assessed by electronic nasopharyngeal fiberoptic endoscopy was grade Ⅲ. The operation time and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. The total length of palate, the length of soft palate, the depth of pharyngeal cavity, and the width of pharynx and palate arch were measured before operation and at immediate after operation, and the change of the above indexes before and after operation was calculated. According to the results of clinical assessment, the patients were allocated into three groups: velopharyngeal competence (VPC) group, marginal velopharyngeal inadequacy (MVPI) group, and VPI group. The relationship between the soft palate and the posterior pharyngeal wall was evaluated by lateral cephalometric radiographs at 3 months after operation, and the patients were allocated into complete contact group, point contact group, and non-contact group. The velopharyngeal closure was evaluated by electronic nasopharyngeal fiberoptic endoscopy (grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ). Spearman analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the changes of the total length of palate, the length of soft palate, the depth of pharyngeal cavity, and the width of pharynx and palate arch before and after operation. The contact degree of soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall and the closure degree of pharynx and palate were grouped separately, and the above indexes were analyzed statistically. Results: The operation time was 35-64 minutes (mean, 41 minutes); the intraoperative blood loss was 3-10 mL (mean, 6 mL). All patients were followed up 3 months. After 3 months of operation, the clinical evaluation results were 34 cases of VPC, 7 cases of MVPI, and 7 cases of VPI. Lateral cephalometric radiographs showed that 30 cases had complete contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall, 11 cases had point contact, and 7 cases had no contact. Electronic nasopharyngeal fiberoptic endoscopy showed that the pharyngeal closure function was improved to varying degrees, 29 cases of grade Ⅰ, 12 cases of grade Ⅱ, and 7 cases of grade Ⅲ. There were significant differences in the total length of palate, the length of soft palate, the depth of pharyngeal cavity, and the width of pharynx and palate arch between pre- and post-operation ( P0.05). There were significant differences in the changes of total length of palate and the length soft palate before and after operation between complete contact, point contact, and non-contact groups ( P0.05). Conclusion: Furlow palatoplasty can restore the VPI after cleft palate surgery, which can effectively prolong the soft palate and reduce the depth of the pharynx. It can cover the physiological and anatomical morphology of velopharyngeal closure significantly and improve the velopharyngeal function.

20.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 697-707, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974371

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The interpretation of the speech results obtained with the buccinator myomucosal flap in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with cleft palate has been limited by the restriction in the number of patients and the time of postoperative follow-up. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the buccinator myomucosal flap on speech hypernasality in the treatment of patients with cleft palate and velopharyngeal insufficiency. Methods: Patients with repaired cleft palate (± lip) who were submitted to surgical correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency using the bilateral buccinator myomucosal flap were assessed. Hypernasality (scores 0 [absent], 1 [mild], 2 [moderate], or 3 [severe]) was analyzed by three evaluators by measuring the audiovisual records collected in early and late preoperative and postoperative periods (3 and 12 months, respectively). The values were considered significant for a 95% Confidence Interval (p < 0.05). Results: Thirty-seven patients with cleft palate (± lip) showing moderate (16.2%) or severe (83.8%) hypernasality in the preoperative period were included. Analyses of the late postoperative period showed that hypernasality (0.5 ± 0.7) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the hypernasality of the preoperative and recent postoperative periods (2.8 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.9, respectively). Conclusion: The buccinator myomucosal flap is effective in reducing/eliminating hypernasality in patients with cleft palate (± lip) and velopharyngeal insufficiency.


Resumo: Introdução: A interpretação dos resultados de fala obtidos com o retalho miomucoso do músculo bucinador no tratamento da insuficiência velofaríngea em pacientes fissurados tem sido limitada pela restrição do número de pacientes e do tempo de seguimento pós-operatório. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do retalho miomucoso do músculo bucinador sobre a hipernasalidade da fala no tratamento de pacientes fissurados com insuficiência velofaríngea. Método: Foram avaliados pacientes com fissura palatina (± lábio) reparada, com retalho miomucoso do músculo bucinador bilateral para a correção cirúrgica da insuficiência velofaríngea. A hipernasalidade (escores 0 [ausente], 1 [leve], 2 [moderada] ou 3 [severa]) foi analisada por três avaliadores por meio da mensuração dos registros audiovisuais coletados nos períodos pré-operatório e pós-operatórios recente e tardio (3 e 12 meses, respectivamente). Os valores foram considerados significativos para um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p < 0,05). Resultado: Foram incluídos 37 pacientes fissurados com hipernasalidade moderada (16,2%) ou severa (83,8%) no período pré-operatório. As análises do período pós-operatório tardio revelaram que a hipernasalidade (0,5 ± 0,7) foi significativamente (p < 0,05) menor do que a hipernasalidade dos períodos pré-operatório e pós-operatório recente (2,8 ± 0,4 e 1,7 ± 0,9; respectivamente). Conclusão: O retalho miomucoso do músculo bucinador é eficaz na redução/eliminação da hipernasalidade nos pacientes fissurados com insuficiência velofaríngea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Facial Muscles/surgery , Postoperative Period , Speech Disorders/classification , Speech Disorders/rehabilitation , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/classification , Preoperative Period
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