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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e042, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132668

ABSTRACT

Abstract A few investigations of caries biofilms have identified Scardovia spp.; however, little is known about its involvement in caries pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the gene expression profile of Scardovia spp. in root caries, and compare it with other microorganisms. Clinical samples from active root caries lesions were collected. Microbial mRNA was isolated and cDNA sequenced. The function and composition of the Scardovia were investigated using two methods: a) de novo assembly of the read data and mapping to contigs, and b) reads mapping to reference genomes. Pearson correlation was performed (p < 0.05). Proportion of Scardovia inopinata and Scardovia wiggsiae sequences ranged from 0-6% in the root caries metatranscriptome. There was a positive correlation between the transcriptome of Lactobacillus spp. and Scardovia spp. (r = 0.70; p = 0.03), as well as with other Bifidobacteriaceae (r = 0.91; p = 0.0006). Genes that code for fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (the key enzyme for "Bifid shunt"), as well as ABC transporters and glycosyl-hydrolases were highly expressed. In conclusion, "Bifid shunt" and starch metabolism are involved in carbohydrate metabolism of S. inopinata and S. wiggsiae in root caries. There is a positive correlation between the metabolism abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacteriaceae members, and Scardovia in root caries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Gene Expression , Actinobacteria/genetics , Root Caries/microbiology , Reference Values , DNA, Bacterial , Chromosome Mapping , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Statistics, Nonparametric , Biofilms , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome , Middle Aged
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 447-452, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286541

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the main symptomatic primary immunodeficiency and is associated with complex immune disorders. Gut microbiota interacts closely with the immune system, and intestinal dysbiosis is related to multiple diseases. Objective: To describe for the first time the composition of gut microbiota in Mexican patients with CVID. Methods: Fecal samples from five patients with CVID were collected and massive sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was carried out using illumina technology. Results: Bacterial relative abundance was observed at all taxonomic levels. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the predominant phyla. The Clostridia class and the Clostridial order were the most common in their respective taxon; the Ruminococcaceae family predominated. A total of 166 genera were reported, with the most abundant being Faecalibacterium. Five species were identified, but only Bifidobacterium longum was present in all patients. Conclusions: Unlike healthy subjects' gut microbiota, where Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominate, the microbiota of the patients with CVID considered in this study was abundant in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The low presence of Bacteroidetes and high abundance of Firmicutes might indicate the existence of intestinal dysbiosis in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Bacteria/classification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Clostridium/isolation & purification , Bacteroidetes/isolation & purification , Ruminococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Verrucomicrobia/isolation & purification , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Clostridiales/isolation & purification , Faecalibacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium longum/isolation & purification , Mexico
3.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 110-118, jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013359

ABSTRACT

Although Cr(VI)-reducing and/or tolerant microorganisms have been investigated, there is no detailed information on the composition of the microbial community of the biocathode microbial fuel cell for Cr(VI) reduction. In this investigation, the bacterial diversity of a biocathode was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. It was found that most bacteria belonged to phylum Proteobacteria (78.8%), Firmicutes (7.9%), Actinobacteria (6.6%) and Bacteroidetes (5.5%), commonly present in environments contaminated with Cr(VI). The dominance of the genus Pseudomonas (34.87%), followed by the genera Stenotrophomonas (5.8%), Shinella (4%), Papillibacter (3.96%), Brevundimonas (3.91%), Pseu-dochrobactrum (3.54%), Ochrobactrum (3.49%), Hydrogenophaga (2.88%), Rhodococcus (2.88%), Fluviicola (2.35%), and Alcaligenes (2.3%), was found. It is emphasized that some genera have not previously been associated with Cr(VI) reduction. This biocathode from waters contaminated with tannery effluents was able to remove Cr(VI) (97.83%) in the cathodic chamber. Additionally, through use of anaerobic sludge in the anodic chamber, the removal of 76.6% of organic matter (glucose) from synthetic waste water was achieved. In this study, an efficient biocathode for the reduction of Cr(VI) with future use in bioremediation, was characterized.


Aunque se ha investigado sobre los microorganismos reductores y/o tolerantes de Cr(VI), no hay información detallada sobre la composición de la comunidad microbiana del cátodo de una Celda de Combustible Microbiana para la reducción de Cr(VI). En esta investigación se analizó la diversidad bacteriana de un biocátodo usando pirosecuenciación 454 del gen 16S rRNA. Se encontró que la mayoría de las bacterias pertenecieron a los filos Proteobac-teria (78,8%), Firmicutes (7,9%), Actinobacteria (6,6%) y Bacteroidetes (5,5%), comúnmente presentes en ambientes contaminados con Cr(VI). Se encontró como género dominante a Pseudomonas (34,87%), seguido por los géneros Stenotrophomonas (5,8%), Shinella (4%), Papil-libacter (3,96%), Brevundimonas (3,91%), Pseudochrobactrum (3,54%), Ochrobactrum (3,49%), Hydrogenophaga (2,88%), Rhodococcus (2,88%), Fluviicola (2,35%) y Alcaligenes (2,3%). Se destaca que algunos géneros no han sido previamente asociados con la reducción de Cr(VI). Este biocátodo procedente de aguas contaminadas con efluentes de curtiembres fue capaz de remover Cr(VI) (97,83%) en la cámara catódica. Adicionalmente, a través del uso de lodo anaeróbico en la cámara anódica, se logró la remoción del 76,6% de materia orgánica (glucosa) a partir de agua residual sintética. En este estudio se caracterizó un eficiente biocátodo para la reducción de Cr(VI) con futuro uso en biorremediación.


Subject(s)
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Waste Water/microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Environmental Monitoring , Reducing Agents/analysis
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190081, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013301

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eggerthella lenta is a gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that has been associated with life-threatening infections. Bacteremia is always clinically significant and is mostly but not always associated with gastrointestinal disease. We present a unique case of abrupt deterioration and rapid development of septic shock secondary to periurethral abscess caused by E. lenta infection. This case highlights the atypical clinical presentation, risk factors, uncommon source of infection, challenges in therapy, and outcome of this infrequent infection. There is still a gap in the understanding of E. lenta pathogenicity, and more literature is needed to establish clear management recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Urethral Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Bacteremia/microbiology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Urethral Diseases/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Risk Factors , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Actinobacteria/classification , Pelvic Infection/diagnosis , Pelvic Infection/microbiology , Abscess/microbiology , Abscess/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 258-268, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cellulosimicrobium cellulans CWS2, a novel strain capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as the sole carbon and energy source under nitrate-reducing conditions, was isolated from PAH-contaminated soil. Temperature and pH significantly affected BaP biodegradation, and the strain exhibited enhanced biodegradation ability at temperatures above 30 °C and between pH 7 and 10. The highest BaP removal rate (78.8%) was observed in 13 days when the initial BaP concentration was 10 mg/L, and the strain degraded BaP at constant rate even at a higher concentration (50 mg/L). Metal exposure experimental results illustrated that Cd(II) was the only metal ion that significantly inhibited biodegradation of BaP. The addition of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L glucose enhanced BaP biodegradation, while the addition of low-molecular-weight organic acids with stronger acidity reduced BaP removal rates during co-metabolic biodegradation. The addition of phenanthrene and pyrene, which were degraded to some extent by the strain, showed no distinct effect on BaP biodegradation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the five rings of BaP opened, producing compounds with one to four rings which were more bioavailable. Thus, the strain exhibited strong BaP degradation capability and has great potential in the remediation of BaP-/PAH-contaminated environments.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Temperature , Cadmium/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Carboxylic Acids/metabolism , Biotransformation , Actinobacteria/classification , Culture Media/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anaerobiosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 32-36, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Actinobacteria occur in many environments and have the capacity to produce secondary metabolites with antibiotic potential. Identification and taxonomy of actinobacteria that produce antimicrobial substances is essential for the screening of new compounds, and sequencing of the 16S region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which is conserved and present in all bacteria, is an important method of identification. Melanized fungi are free-living organisms, which can also be pathogens of clinical importance. This work aimed to evaluate growth inhibition of melanized fungi by actinobacteria and to identify the latter to the species level. In this study, antimicrobial activity of 13 actinobacterial isolates from the genus Streptomyces was evaluated against seven melanized fungi of the genera Exophiala, Cladosporium, and Rhinocladiella. In all tests, all actinobacterial isolates showed inhibitory activity against all isolates of melanized fungi, and only one actinobacterial isolate had less efficient inhibitory activity. The 16S rDNA region of five previously unidentified actinobacterial isolates from Ilha do Mel, Paraná, Brazil, was sequenced; four of the isolates were identified as Streptomyces globisporus subsp. globisporus, and one isolate was identified as Streptomyces aureus. This work highlights the potential of actinobacteria with antifungal activity and their role in the pursuit of novel antimicrobial substances.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Antibiosis , Phylogeny , Streptomyces/classification , Streptomyces/genetics , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/classification , Actinobacteria/genetics
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 21-27, ene. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008381

ABSTRACT

Background: Biomineralization is a significant process performed by living organisms in which minerals are produced through the hardening of biological tissues. Herein, we focus on calcium carbonate precipitation, as part of biomineralization, to be used in applications for environmental protection, material technology, and other fields. A strain GM-1, Microbacterium sp. GM-1, isolated from active sludge, was investigated for its ability to produce urease and induce calcium carbonate precipitation in a metabolic process. Results: It was discovered that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 resisted high concentrations of urea up to 60 g/L. In order to optimize the calcification process of Microbacterium sp. GM-1, the concentrations of Ni2+ and urea, pH value, and culture time were analyzed through orthogonal tests. The favored calcite precipitation culture conditions were as follows: the concentration of Ni2+ and urea were 50 µM and 60 g/L, respectively, pH of 10, and culture time of 96 h. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, the calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by Microbacterium sp. GM-1 were proven to be mainly calcite. Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/metabolism , Chemical Precipitation , Urea/metabolism , Calcification, Physiologic , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Nickel/metabolism
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 587-590, jul. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794767

ABSTRACT

The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect), and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.(AU)


A síndrome da veia cava caudal ou tromboembolismo pulmonar bovino está relacionada à acidose láctica causada por dietas ricas em grãos e altamente fermentáveis, associados ou não a quadros sépticos, usadas em confinamentos de bovinos de corte ou para vacas leiteiras de alta produção. O presente artigo reporta caso raro de trombose da veia cava caudal em uma vaca, secundária a infecção por Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, apresentando reduzida produção de leite, anorexia, palidez de mucosas, atonia ruminal, decúbito esternal e posição de autoauscultação. À necrópsia observou-se coração aumentado de tamanho, coágulos distribuídos por toda cavidade torácica, aderência entre os pulmões e pleura, abscessos, enfisema, petéquias, sufusões, equimoses nos pulmões, espessamento da parede da veia cava caudal com trombo, hepatomegalia com congestão passiva crônica (aspecto de "noz moscada"), e ruminite. Em laboratório isolou-se o actinomiceto Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes a partir de amostras de fígado e pulmão, provavelmente resultando da disseminação da bactéria proveniente do conteúdo ruminal, e reafirma o comportamento oportunista deste actinomiceto.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Arcanobacterium/pathogenicity , Pulmonary Embolism/veterinary , Venae Cavae/pathology , Abscess/veterinary , Acidosis, Lactic/veterinary
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1037-1044, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769646

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, three bacterial strains isolated from tropical hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and phylogenetically identified as Achromobacter sp. strain SL1, Pseudomonas sp. strain SL4 and Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL6 displayed angular dioxygenation and mineralization of carbazole in batch cultures. In this study, the ability of these isolates to survive and enhance carbazole degradation in soil were tested in field-moist microcosms. Strain SL4 had the highest survival rate (1.8 x 107 cfu/g) after 30 days of incubation in sterilized soil, while there was a decrease in population density in native (unsterilized) soil when compared with the initial population. Gas chromatographic analysis after 30 days of incubation showed that in sterilized soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 66.96, 82.15 and 68.54% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6, respectively, with rates of degradation of 0.093, 0.114 and 0.095 mg kg−1 h−1. The combination of the three isolates as inoculum in sterilized soil degraded 87.13% carbazole at a rate of 0.121 mg kg−1 h−1. In native soil amended with carbazole (100 mg/kg), 91.64, 87.29 and 89.13% were degraded by strains SL1, SL4 and SL6 after 30 days of incubation, with rates of degradation of 0.127, 0.121 and 0.124 mg kg−1 h−1, respectively. This study successfully established the survivability (> 106 cfu/g detected after 30 days) and carbazole-degrading ability of these bacterial strains in soil, and highlights the potential of these isolates as seed for the bioremediation of carbazole-impacted environments.


Subject(s)
Achromobacter/chemistry , Achromobacter/genetics , Achromobacter/isolation & purification , Achromobacter/metabolism , Actinobacteria/chemistry , Actinobacteria/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental/isolation & purification , Biodegradation, Environmental/metabolism , Carbazoles/chemistry , Carbazoles/genetics , Carbazoles/isolation & purification , Carbazoles/metabolism , Phylogeny/chemistry , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Pseudomonas/chemistry , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Soil Microbiology/chemistry , Soil Microbiology/genetics , Soil Microbiology/isolation & purification , Soil Microbiology/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/genetics , Soil Pollutants/isolation & purification , Soil Pollutants/metabolism
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 325-328, 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676913

ABSTRACT

Bacteria associated with the parthenogenetic troglobiont sand fly Deanemyia maruaga were characterized by sequencing cloned 16S rDNA PCR products. Eleven novel partial 16S rDNA sequences, with varying degrees of similarity to Actinobacteria, were identified. None of the sequences identified had homology to those known from parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Diptera/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , Industrial Microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chiroptera , Methods , Virulence
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1545-1552, Oct.-Dec. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665842

ABSTRACT

Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL): K2HPO4(0.1), (NH4)2SO4(0.1), NaCl (0.1), MgSO4(0.1) at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL) and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL) was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB) > corn cob (CC) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice bran (RB) > wheat bran (WB) > wheat straw (WS) > sugarcane bagasse (SB) > corn cob (CC), respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Amylases/analysis , Amylases/isolation & purification , Base Sequence , Enzyme Activation , Industrial Waste/analysis , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Xylans/analysis , Xylans/isolation & purification , Industrial Microbiology , Methods
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 909-916, July-Sept. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656652

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the periodontal pathogens that form the red complex (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in patients with chronic periodontitis. The sample consisted of 29 patients with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of chronic periodontitis based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (3). Samples for microbiological analysis were collected from the four sites of greatest probing depth in each patient, totaling 116 samples. These samples were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction, which achieved the following positive results: 46.6% for P. gingivalis, 41.4% for T. forsythia, 33.6% for T. denticola and 27.6% for A. actinomycetemcomitans. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were more prevalent (p < 0.05) in periodontal pockets ≥ 8 mm. The combinations T. forsythia + P. gingivalis (23.2%) and T. forsythia + P. gingivalis + T. denticola (20.0%) were more frequent in sites with a probing depth ≥ 8 mm. Associations with the simultaneous presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans + P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans + T. forsythia, P. gingivalis + T. forsythia and T. forsythia + T. denticola were statistically significant (p < 0.05). It was concluded that the red complex pathogens are related to chronic periodontitis, presenting a higher occurrence in deep periodontal pockets. Moreover, the simultaneous presence of these bacteria in deep sites suggests a symbiotic relationship between these virulent species, favoring, in this way, a further progression of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Actinobacteria/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections , In Vitro Techniques , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Treponema denticola/pathogenicity , Methods , Patients , Virulence
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 205-214, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622834

ABSTRACT

Actinomycetes from earthworm castings were isolated and screened for their antimicrobial activity and industrial enzymes. A total of 48 isolates were obtained from 12 samples of earthworm castings. Highest numbers of isolates were recovered from forest site (58.33 %) as compared to grassland (25%) and agricultural land (16.66%). The growth patterns, mycelial coloration of abundance actinomycetes were documented. The dominant genera Identified by cultural, morphological and physiological characteristics were Streptomyces (60.41%) followed by Streptosporangium (10.41%), Saccharopolyspora (6.25%) and Nocardia (6.25%). Besides these, other genera like Micromonospora, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Planobispora and Nocardiopsis were also recovered but in low frequency. Among the 48 isolates, 52.08% were found active against one or more test organisms. Out of 25 active isolates 16% showed activity against bacterial, human fungal as well as phytopathogens. Among 48 isolates 38, 32, 21, 20, 16 and 14 produced enzyme amylase, caseinase, cellulase, gelatinase, xylanase and lipase respectively while 10 isolates produced all the enzymes. More interestingly 2, 3, and 1 isolates produced amylase, xylanase and lipase at 45°C respectively. In the view of its antimicrobial activity as well as enzyme production capability the genus Streptomyces was dominant. The isolate EWC 7(2) was most promising on the basis of its interesting antimicrobial activity and was identified as Streptomyces rochei. The results of these findings have increased the scope of finding industrially important actinomycetes from earthworm castings and these organisms could be promising sources for industrially important molecules or enzymes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Enzymes/analysis , Soil/analysis , Mycelium/growth & development , Enzyme Activation , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Methods , Trees
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(4): 1384-1389, Oct.-Dec. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614599

ABSTRACT

Brewer's spent grain and corn steep liquor or yeast extract were used as the sole organic forms for proteinase production by Streptomyces malaysiensis in submerged fermentation. The influence of the C and N concentrations, as well as the incubation periods, were assessed. Eight proteolytic bands were detected through gelatin-gel-electrophoresis in the various extracts obtained from the different media and after different incubation periods, with apparent molecular masses of 20, 35, 43, 50, 70, 100, 116 and 212 kDa. The results obtained suggest an opportunity for exploring this alternative strategy for proteinases production by actinomycetes, using BSG and CSL as economically feasible substrates.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/enzymology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology , Streptomyces/enzymology , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Beer , Electrophoresis, Starch Gel , Food Samples , Industrial Microbiology , Methods , Methods , Zea mays
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(3): 835-845, July-Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607512

ABSTRACT

A moderately halophilic actinomycete strain designated AH97 was isolated from a saline Saharan soil, and selected for its antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. The AH97 strain was identified by morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses to the genus Actinoalloteichus. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence of strain AH97 showed a similarity level ranging between 95.8 percent and 98.4 percent within Actinoalloteichus species, with A. hymeniacidonis the most closely related. The comparison of the physiological characteristics of AH97 with those of known species of Actinoalloteichus showed significant differences. Strain AH97 showed an antibacterial and antifungal activity against broad spectrum of microorganisms known to be human and plant pathogens. The bioactive compounds were extracted from the filtrate culture with n-butanol and purified using thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography procedures. Two active products were isolated, one hydrophilic fraction (F1) and another hydrophobic (F2). Ultraviolet-visible, infrared, mass and ÕH and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggested that these molecules were the dioctyl phthalate (F2) and an aminoglycosidic compound (F1).


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/genetics , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Biological Factors , Biomass , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/analysis , Diethylhexyl Phthalate/isolation & purification , Environmental Microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Methods
16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 28(2): 237-246, jun. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-596561

ABSTRACT

Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA) y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE). Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62 por ciento) con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85 por ciento para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77) mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99 por ciento de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.


Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). Materials and methods. Strains of actinomycetes (29) isolated from marine sediment were evaluated by their characteristics in two culture media and by testing their inhibitory capacity by in vitro antagonism against multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria for MRSA and VRE. Organic extracts of 3 selected actinomicetes were processed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound. Results. Most isolated actinomycetes belong to a homogeneous group of write-gray actinomycetes with a good growth in Marine Agar. The inhibitory rates of the isolates were above 85 percent for both pathogens with inhibition zones greater than 69 and 78 mm in diameter for MRSA and VRE respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of 3 isolates (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77) showed strong inhibitory activity of both pathogens, M10-77 being the highest actinomycete strain with antibiotic activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis ATCC 51299 with a minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7.9 and 31.7 μg/ml respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of M10-77 strain showed 99 percent similarity with the marine species Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusions. Marine sediments of the central coast of Peru, are a source of actinomycetes strains showing high capacity to produce bioactive compounds able to inhibit pathogens classified as multi-drugresistant such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/physiology , Antibiosis , Enterococcus faecalis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Peru , Seawater/microbiology , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Water Microbiology
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(4): 1119-1139, dic. 2009. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637749

ABSTRACT

Communities of Actynomicetes fungy in three vegetation types of the Colombian Amazon: abundance, morphotypes and the 16s rDNA gene. Among soil microorganisms, Actinomycetes play an important role in the sustainability of natural and agricultural systems: decomposition of organic matter; degradation of recalcitrant compounds like lignin; nitrogen fixation; degradation of agricultural chemicals and biological control in plants and animals. We evaluated their diversity in soils under three different vegetation covers (pasture, tropical primary forest and stubble) at two depths in the Southern Colombian Amazon border. We collected five replicates per vegetation type (in each, three samples at 0-20cm and three at 20-30cm; for a total of 30 samples). Abundance and phenotypic diversity were determined by plate counting. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates: the 16s rDNA gene was amplified with specific primers, and its genetic diversity was estimated by means of an amplified restriction analysis (ARDRA). Actynomicetes abundance varied with vegetation and depth, possibly reflecting presence of earthworms, macro-fauna and physico-chemical characteristics associated to fertility, as well as organic matter, total bases, and optimal capacity to cationic interchange. Primary forests had the highest diversity. Sixteen morpho-types (six genera) were identified; Streptomyces was the most abundant everywhere. The heterogeneity of ARDRA patterns prevented species identification because of the intra-species variability in sequences of 16s rDNA operons. This community is a biological indicator of landscape alteration and could include new bio-active compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1119-1139. Epub 2009 December 01.


Los actinomicetos son importantes en la sostenibilidad de sistemas naturales. Su diversidad fue evaluada en suelos de bosque, pastizal y rastrojo, y dos profundidades en el Sur del Trapecio Amazónico Colombiano. Se analizaron suelos de cinco repeticiones por cobertura para un total de 15 unidades. Se tomaron seis muestras en cada unidad y dos profundidades, para un total de 30. Los actinomicetos cultivables se determinaron por recuento en placa, se extrajo ADN, se amplificó el gen ADNr 16s y su diversidad genética se estimó por ARDRA. Hubo diferencias de abundancia entre coberturas y profundidades, relacionadas con la vegetación, presencia de lombrices, macrofauna, altos niveles de materia orgánica, y bases totales. Se obtuvieron valores de diversidad fenotípica similares para las tres coberturas, pero los bosques son más diversos. Se identificaron 16 morfotipos, agrupados en séis géneros, siendo Streptomyces el más abundante. La heterogeneidad de los patrones ARDRA no permitió la asignación de especies, reflejándose variaciones en las secuencias de diferentes operones ADNr 16s en un mismo organismo. Las perturbaciones en la cobertura influyen sobre los actinomicetos, generando cambios en su abundancia y diversidad. Su importancia ecológica permite proponerlos como indicadores biológicos de alteración del paisaje.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Poaceae/microbiology , /genetics , Soil Microbiology/standards , Trees/microbiology , Actinobacteria/classification , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Colombia , Genetic Variation , Phenotype
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 41(2): 112-116, abr.-jun. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634623

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to examine the alkalithermophilic actinomycete communities in the subtropical environment of Jujuy, Argentina, characterized by sugarcane crops. Laceyella putida, Laceyella sacchari, Thermoactinomyces intermedius, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris and Thermoflavimicrobium dichotomicum were isolated on the media with novobiocin, from sugar cane plants and renewal rhizospheres, and grass and wood soils. Soil pH was almost neutral or lightly alkaline, except for grass soil acidified by lactic liquor. A smaller number of actinomycetes was found on the living plants and bagasse (recently obtained or stored according to the Ritter method) with respect to decomposed leaves on the soil. Thermophilic species of Laceyella, Thermoactinomyces, Thermoflavimicrobium, Saccharomonospora, Streptomyces and Thermononospora were isolated on the media without novobiocin, from composted sugar cane residues. Air captured near composted bagasse piles, contained alkalithermophilic actinomycete spores.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue examinar los actinomicetos termoalcalófilos presentes en el área subtropical de Jujuy, Argentina, caracterizada por el cultivo de la caña de azúcar. Se aislaron en medio con novobiocina las especies Laceyella putida, Laceyella sacchari, Thermoactinomyces intermedius, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris y Thermoflavimicrobium dichotomicum a partir de la rizósfera de plantas y de renuevos de caña de azúcar, así como de suelos de pastura y de monte natural. El pH de los suelos era casi neutro a ligeramente alcalino, excepto en un solo caso en que el suelo estaba acidificado por licor láctico. El número de actinomicetos encontrados sobre los tejidos vivos y en el bagazo recién obtenido o almacenado según el método de Ritter fue pequeño en comparación con el observado sobre las hojas en descomposición. L. sacchari predominó respecto de T. vulgaris. Se aislaron especies termoalcalófilas de Laceyella, Thermoactinomyces, Thermoflavimicrobium, Saccharomonospora, Streptomyces y Thermononospora de los residuos compostados de caña de azúcar utilizando medio sin novobiocina. El aire capturado cerca de pilas de bagazo en compostaje contenía esporos de estos organismos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Plants/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Air Microbiology , Argentina , Actinobacteria/classification , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Actinobacteria/physiology , Cellulose , Climate , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Pneumoconiosis , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Saccharum/microbiology , Spores, Bacterial/isolation & purification
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(1): 54-60, Jan.-Mar. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-513115

ABSTRACT

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell walldegradingenzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showedthat the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of(NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC.


Cellulosimicrobium cellulans é um microrganismo que produz uma variedade de enzimas que hidrolisam a parede celular de leveduras: β-1,3-glucanase, protease e quitinase. Célulasdesidratadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram usadas como fonte de carbono e nitrogênio para o crescimento celular e produção de protease. Os componentes do meio de cultura: KH2PO4, KOH e células de levedura desidratadas mostraram efeitos significativos (p<0,05) no planejamento experimental fracionário. Um segundo planejamento foi preparado usandodois fatores: pH e porcentagem de células de levedura desidratadas. Os resultados mostraram que o meio de cultura para a produção máxima de protease foi 0,2 g/L de MgSO4.7H2O;2,0 g/L de (NH4)2SO4 e 8% de células de levedura desidratadas em tampão fosfato 0,15M e pH 8,0. A produção máxima de protease alcalina foi 7,0 ± 0,27 U/mL no ponto central. A proteasebruta apresentou atividade ótima a 50ºC e pH 7,0-8,0; e foi estável a 50ºC.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/enzymology , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Cell Enlargement , Cell Wall , Culture Media/analysis , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Methods , Methods
20.
Suez Canal University Medical Journal. 2009; 12 (1): 41-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100795

ABSTRACT

This study describes actinobacteria isolated from two Red Sea sponges collected from Ras Mohammed, Sinai, Egypt. Traditional aerobic plate culture and molecular identification of the 16S rDNA region were used for this purpose. A total of 35 actinobacteria were isolated using media selective for actinobacteria. 1 6S rRNA gene sequence analysis of aIkaloidproducing isolates revealed bacteria with phylogenetic affiliations to Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The phylogenetic analysis of actinobacterial isolates showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Nocardiopsis sp., Kocuria sp., Curtobacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., Salinispora sp., and Brevibacterium sp. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the culturable actinobacteria isolated from a marine sponge from the Red Sea. In addition, our work provides an excellent resource of several candidate bacteria for production of novel pharmaceutically important compounds


Subject(s)
Indian Ocean , Actinobacteria/isolation & purification , Molecular Conformation , Culture Media
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