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1.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 167-176, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751381

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is characterized by anterior knee pain, which may limit the performance of functional activities. The influence of hip joint motion on the development of this syndrome has already been documented in the literature. In this regard, studies have investigated the effectiveness of hip muscle strengthening in patients with PFPS. Objectives: The aims of this systematic review were (1) to summarize the literature related to the effects of hip muscle strengthening on pain intensity, muscle strength, and function in individuals with PFPS and (2) to evaluate the methodological quality of the selected studies. Method: A search for randomized controlled clinical trials was conducted using the following databases: Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PEDro, LILACS, and SciELO. The selected studies had to distinguish the effects of hip muscle strengthening in a group of patients with PFPS, as compared to non-intervention or other kinds of intervention, and had to investigate the following outcomes: pain, muscle strength, and function. The methodological quality of the selected studies was analyzed by means of the PEDro scale. Results: Seven studies were selected. These studies demonstrated that hip muscle strengthening was effective in reducing pain. However, the studies disagreed regarding the treatments' ability to improve muscle strength. Improvement in functional capabilities after hip muscle strengthening was found in five studies. Conclusion: Hip muscle strengthening is effective in reducing the intensity of pain and improving functional capabilities in patients with PFPS, despite the lack of evidence for its ability to increase muscle strength. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Neuronal Plasticity/physiology , Nociception/physiology , Reflex/physiology , Skin/innervation , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory/drug effects , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects , Nociception/drug effects , Physical Stimulation/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Reflex/drug effects , Somatostatin/metabolism , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/metabolism
2.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-10, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine and gabapentin are effective in treating neuropathic pain and trigeminal neuralgia. In the present study, to analyze the effects of carbamazepine and gabapentin on neuronal excitation in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Sp5c) in the medulla oblongata, we recorded temporal changes in nociceptive afferent activity in the Sp5c of trigeminal nerve-attached brainstem slices of neonatal rats using a voltage-sensitive dye imaging technique. RESULTS: Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve rootlet evoked changes in the fluorescence intensity of dye in the Sp5c. The optical signals were composed of two phases, a fast component with a sharp peak followed by a long-lasting component with a period of more than 500 ms. This evoked excitation was not influenced by administration of carbamazepine (10, 100 and 1,000 µM) or gabapentin (1 and 10 µM), but was increased by administration of 100 µM gabapentin. This evoked excitation was increased further in low Mg²+ (0.8 mM) conditions, and this effect of low Mg²+ concentration was antagonized by 30 µM DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), a N-methyl-D-as-partate (NMDA) receptor blocker. The increased excitation in low Mg²+ conditions was also antagonized by carbamazepine (1,000 µM) and gabapentin (100 µM). CONCLUSION: Carbamazepine and gabapentin did not decrease electrically evoked excitation in the Sp5c in control conditions. Further excitation in low Mg²+ conditions was antagonized by the NMDA receptor blocker AP5. Carbamazepine and gabapentin had similar effects to AP5 on evoked excitation in the Sp5c in low Mg²+ conditions. Thus, we concluded that carbamazepine and gabapentin may act by blocking NMDA receptors in the Sp5c, which contributes to its anti-hypersensitivity in neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Trigeminal Neuralgia/drug therapy , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal/drug effects , Carbamazepine/pharmacology , Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids/pharmacology , Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology , Amines/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Trigeminal Neuralgia/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal/physiopathology , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Afferent Pathways/drug effects , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Gabapentin , Animals, Newborn
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24555

ABSTRACT

Natural toxic substances have a bitter taste and their ingestion sends signals to the brain leading to aversive oral sensations. In the present study, we investigated chronological changes in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to study the bitter taste reaction time of neurons in the NTS. Equal volumes (0.5 mL) of denatonium benzoate (DB), a bitter tastant, or its vehicle (distilled water) were administered to rats intragastrically. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h after treatment. In the vehicle-treated group, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei started to increase 0.5 h after treatment and peaked 2 h after gavage. In contrast, the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the DB-treated group significantly increased 1 h after gavage. Thereafter, the number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei decreased over time. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in the NTS was also increased in a dose-dependent manner 1 h after gavage. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy significantly decreased DB-induced neuronal activation in the NTS. These results suggest that intragastric DB increases neuronal c-Fos expression in the NTS 1 h after gavage and this effect is mediated by vagal afferent fibers.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Injections/veterinary , Ligands , Male , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Solitary Nucleus/physiology , Vagus Nerve/drug effects
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(9): 877-882, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-599671

ABSTRACT

Water deprivation and hypernatremia are major challenges for water and sodium homeostasis. Cellular integrity requires maintenance of water and sodium concentration within narrow limits. This regulation is obtained through engagement of multiple mechanisms and neural pathways that regulate the volume and composition of the extracellular fluid. The purpose of this short review is to summarize the literature on central neural mechanisms underlying cardiovascular, hormonal and autonomic responses to circulating volume changes, and some of the findings obtained in the last 12 years by our laboratory. We review data on neural pathways that start with afferents in the carotid body that project to medullary relays in the nucleus tractus solitarii and caudal ventrolateral medulla, which in turn project to the median preoptic nucleus in the forebrain. We also review data suggesting that noradrenergic A1 cells in the caudal ventrolateral medulla represent an essential link in neural pathways controlling extracellular fluid volume and renal sodium excretion. Finally, recent data from our laboratory suggest that these structures may also be involved in the beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline on recovery from hemorrhagic shock.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Volume/physiology , Catecholamines/physiology , Extracellular Fluid/physiology , Medulla Oblongata/physiology , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Aorta/innervation , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Carotid Arteries/innervation , Kidney/metabolism , Neural Pathways/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Sodium/metabolism
6.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2005 Jul-Sep; 49(3): 325-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108355

ABSTRACT

The medial preoptic area neurons related to male sexual behaviour in rats were identified by their responses to dorsal penile nerve stimulation. These neurons were further tested with norepinephrine applied iontophoretically. From the 21 medial preoptic area neurons recorded in urethane anaesthetized rats, 17 neurons responded to dorsal penile nerve stimulation. Excitatory and inhibitory responses were found in almost equal number of neurons. 14 neurons responded to norepinephrine application, out of which six neurons were excited and eight were inhibited. The direction of changes produced by dorsal penile nerve stimulation and norepinephrine application were similar in 10 neurons. The results suggest that the sensory inputs from the genitalia are possibly gated by norepinephrine at the level of the medial preoptic area. Afferent information from the genitalia carried by dorsal penile nerve and the availability of norepinephrine at the level of the medial preoptic area probably help in maintaining adequate level of sexual arousal.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Electric Stimulation , Iontophoresis , Male , Neural Inhibition/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Penis/innervation , Preoptic Area/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122785

ABSTRACT

The spicoreticulocerebellar (SRC) tract is an indirect spinocerebellar tract formed by the reticular formation (RF), which is connected to the cerebellum and spinal cord. The RF receives ascending fibers to both the spinal enlargement and sends descending fibers to the cerebellum. This study demonstrated that the connectivity of the neurons in the RF is concerned to the cerebellum and spinal cord using the anterograde projection with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and retrograde labeling with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Until now, a preliminary study in mammals has dealt with the afferent and efferent pathways in separating groups of neurons in the RF. There are only few reports on chickens. This study examined the SRC tract in chickens. Following bilateral injections we injected BDA into chicken spinal cord (lumbosacral enlargement) and WGA-HRP into the cerebellum. Both of single- and double-labeled cells were found within the RF. The spinoreticular axons were mainly distributed from the potomedullary junction to the rostral medulla in the rostro-caudally RF levels, for example, nucleus of reticularis (n. r.) pontis oralis, locus coeruleus, n. r. pontis caudalis, n. r. pars gigantocellularis, n. r. gigantocellularis and n. r. parvocellualris. Reticulocerebellar labeling by the WGA- HRP was found in the same place as well as that of the BDA-projection. We observed that the proportion and location of double labeling cells in the chicken were almost similar in each level, comparing to the rodents. These results suggest that the reticular formation is strongly related to the spicoreticulocerebellar tract in chickens.


Subject(s)
Afferent Pathways/physiology , Animals , Biotin , Cerebellum , Chickens , Dextrans , Efferent Pathways/physiology , Microinjections , Reticular Formation , Spinal Cord , Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 7(3): 109-11, jul.-set. 1992. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-127454

ABSTRACT

Utilizou-se a noradrenalina na dose padräo de 2 ug/Kg, medindo-se o fluxo na artéria femoral antes e após o estímulo. A injeçäo foi feita em diversos níveis da aorta, intracardíaca e na veia axilar. Para estudar a dependência do fenômeno com as vias nervosas, estimularam-se cäes com os nervos femoral e ciático seccionados, com desnervaçäo dos seios carotídeos e aórtico e com os vagos seccionados bilateralmente. Foi possível observar que: 1 - O aumento da atividade cardíaca que se acompanha de aumento da contratilidade é estímulo eficaz para desencadear o aumento do fluxo na artéria femoral. O aumento da contratilidade cardíaca e a diminuiçäo da resistência periférica säo proporcionais à dose de noradrenalina injetada (dentro dos limites de 1 a 3 ug). 2- No cäo com uma pata posterior submetida à secçäo dos nervos femoral ciático, a injeçäo de noradrenalina causa diminuiçäo da resistência vascular na pata normal, simultaneamente com o aumento da resistência na pata desnervada. Essa observaçäo demonstra ser esse fenômeno um reflexo. 3- A secçäo dos seios carotídeos e aórticos quase näo influencia essa resposta reflexa. 4- A injeçäo de noradrenalina na artéria femoral e em diversas posiçöes da aorta näo causa diminuiçäo da resistência periférica. A injeçäo endovenosa no bulbo aórtico e intracardíaca (ventrículo esquerdo) sempre leva à vasodilataçäo na regiäo estudada. 5- A secçäo vagal deprime acentuadamente a resposta, demonstrando ser essa a principal via nervosa responsável pelo reflexo


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Myocardial Contraction , Mechanoreceptors/drug effects , Afferent Pathways/drug effects , Afferent Pathways/physiology , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Denervation , Hemodynamics , Hemodynamics/physiology , Mechanoreceptors/physiology , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Reflex/drug effects , Reflex/physiology
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