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Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(1): 6-11, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153272


Objective: To investigate the course of panic disorder and its demographic and clinical correlates during the postpartum period. Methods: Data were collected from 38 consecutive postpartum women diagnosed with panic disorder. Psychiatric assessments were carried out on the first day after delivery and at 6-8 weeks postpartum. During the first assessment, the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were administered to the participants. PAS was also administered at the second assessment. Results: The mean PAS score reduced significantly from baseline to the second assessment. Logistic regression analysis indicated that a shorter duration of panic disorder independently predicted a ≥ 50-point decrease in the severity of panic symptoms during the postpartum period. Conclusion: These findings suggest that patients with a short duration of illness may experience significant alleviation in the severity of panic symptoms during the postpartum period.

Humans , Female , Panic Disorder/epidemiology , Temperament , Agoraphobia , Postpartum Period
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 40(4): 349-353, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959250


Objective: To evaluate the association between abuse of and dependence on different psychoactive substances and the presence of anxiety disorders in a sample of young adults from a city in southern Brazil. Methods: Between 2007 and 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional, population-based study of individuals aged 18-24 years who lived in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. We evaluated anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI), and use of psychoactive substances with the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST 2.0/0MS). We used Fisher's exact test for univariate analysis, and Poisson regression models with robust variance for multivariable analysis. Results: The sample consisted of 1,560 young adults. The overall prevalence of abuse/dependence was 26.9% for alcohol, 24.9% for tobacco, and 7.3% for illicit substances. Individuals with agoraphobia had a 32% higher prevalence of tobacco abuse/dependence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.32 [95%CI 1.01-1.74]). Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had a 2.41-fold (95%CI 1.22-4.77) and 1.76-fold (95%CI 1.00-3.11) higher prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence, respectively. Conclusion: In this population-based sample, we found associations between GAD, PTSD, and increased prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence. In addition, individuals with agoraphobia seem to have increased tobacco abuse/dependence.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alcohol-Related Disorders/complications , Agoraphobia/complications , Agoraphobia/etiology , Agoraphobia/epidemiology , Interview, Psychological , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/complications , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738896


OBJECTIVES: Depression is a common mental illness and a major cause of suicide. Although serum lipids have been associated with depression and suicide, there has been much debate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between depression, suicide, and serum lipids in patients admitted with depressed mood. METHODS: A total of 134 subjects were divided into 86 non-suicide patients and 48 suicide attempters. The serum lipid levels and sub-scores of the Korean Symptom Checklist-95 (KSCL95) were compared. We also investigated the relationship between serum lipids and sub-scores of KSCL95 and investigated whether serum lipids were risk factors for suicide attempts. RESULTS: There was no difference in serum lipids between the two groups. Among the sub-items of KSCL95, obsession was higher in non-suicide group. Triglyceride showed positive correlations with anxiety, phobic anxiety, agoraphobia, schizophrenia, and self-regulation problem. High triglyceride was a risk factor for suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Triglyceride is associated with depression, anxiety, and self - regulation, and high serum triglyceride levels may be a risk factor for suicide attempts.

Humans , Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Cholesterol , Depression , Obsessive Behavior , Risk Factors , Schizophrenia , Self-Control , Suicide , Triglycerides
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 445-451, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714480


OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing number of North Korean defectors, research on their mental health conditions and suicidal thoughts and behaviors has not been conducted systematically. We examined the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in North Korean defectors. METHODS: This study focused on 300 North Korean defectors recruited from regional resettlement centers in South Korea. In-person interviews based on the North Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were conducted to diagnose mental disorders and assess suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between suicidal thoughts and behaviors and socio-demographic variables, and DSM-IV mental disorders. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts were 28.3, 13.3, and 17.3%, respectively. Female sex (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.9), presence of health problems in the past year (2.6, 95% CI: 1.4–4.6), and absence of both South Korean acquaintances (1.9, 95% CI: 1.0–3.4) and North Korean family (1.7, 95% CI: 1.0–2.9) were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, after adjusting for participant age, sex, and education. Presence of a mental disorder was associated with a significantly increased odd of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt. Of all mental disorder categories, agoraphobia had the strongest association with suicidal ideation (6.5, 95% CI: 2.0–21.6), plans (7.7, 95% CI: 2.5–23.2) and attempts (12.0, 95% CI: 3.5–40.8). CONCLUSION: Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among North Korean defectors are higher than the general population in South Korea, especially show high rates in transit countries. Further study should focus on the changes in suicidal thoughts and behaviors according to the settlement process and early prevention.

Female , Humans , Agoraphobia , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Education , Friends , Korea , Logistic Models , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725225


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, temperaments, and quality of life between panic disorder (PD) patients with and without major depressive disorder (PD+MDD and PD−MDD patients, respectively). METHODS: We compared 411 PD−MDD and 219 PD+MDD patients. All patients who were drug-free for at least 1 month were assessed at initial outpatient visits before the administration of medication. The following instruments were used for assessment: the NEO Personality Inventory-Neuroticism (NEO-N) ; the Temperament and Character Inventory-Harm Avoidance (TCI-HA) ; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) ; the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Short (IUS); the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R); the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) ; the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) ; the Generalized Anxiety Disorder for 7 item (GAD-7) ; the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) ; the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) ; the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF) ; the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) ; the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF) ; the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) ; and the Short Form health survey (SF-36). RESULTS: Compared to the PD−MDD patients, the PD+MDD patients were younger and more likely to be unmarried. They showed higher rates of unemployment, lower levels of education and income, younger age of onset, more previous suicide attempts, a greater incidence of agoraphobia, and more previous treatments. The PD+MDD patients showed significantly higher scores on the NEO-N, the TCI-HA, the STAI, the IUS, the ASI-R, the BDI, the BAI, the PSWQ, the GAD-7, the APPQ, the PDSS, the ETISR-SF, and the SSI. In addition, the PD+MDD patients showed significantly lower quality of life than did the PD−MDD patients. In contrast with previous studies, we observed no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender, duration until treatment, and psychiatric comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the PD+MDD patients have more early trauma experiences, higher levels of anxiety-related temperaments, more severe panic and depressive symptoms, and lower quality of life than the PD−MDD patients.

Humans , Age of Onset , Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Comorbidity , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Education , Health Surveys , Incidence , Outpatients , Panic Disorder , Panic , Phobic Disorders , Quality of Life , Single Person , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Temperament , Uncertainty , Unemployment , World Health Organization
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 50(supl. 1): 56-63, jan.-fev. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-836670


O objetivo é caracterizar o Transtorno do Pânico (TP) com ênfase em seu diagnóstico e tratamento. O TP é um dos transtornos de ansiedade, caracterizado por ataques de pânico recorrentes acompanhados por uma persistente preocupação com ataques adicionais e alterações mal adaptativas do comportamento (Associação Americana de Psiquiatria - DSM-V). Sua etiologia ainda não é conhecida, mas deve envolver uma interação de fatores genéticos, de desenvolvimento e ambientais que resultam em altera- ções no funcionamento de algumas áreas cerebrais. O tratamento farmacológico de primeira escolha é com o uso de antidepressivos inibidores seletivos da recaptação de serotonina, os quais apresentam uma latência de 20 a 30 dias para o início do efeito. (AU)

The aim of this paper is to characterize the Panic Disorder (PD) with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. PD is one of the anxiety disorders, characterized by recurrent panic attacks accompanied by a persistent preoccupation with additional attacks and maladaptive behavioral changes (American Psychiatric Association ­ DSM-V). Its etiology is not known, but should involve an interaction of genetic, developmental and environmental factors that result in changes in the functioning of some brain areas. The pharmacological treatment of choice is with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which has a latency of 20 for 30 days for the beginning of the therapeutic effect. (AU)

Humans , Panic Disorder/diagnosis , Panic Disorder/therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Agoraphobia/diagnosis
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 491-498, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46662


OBJECTIVE: Tamoxifen is an estrogen receptor antagonist used to prevent recurrence of breast cancer, which may provoke depression and anxiety and increase follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to patients. We compared anxiety and depression symptoms and FSH levels who received conventional tamoxifen alone and combination treatment of goserelin, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue, with tamoxifen. METHODS: Sixty-four premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer were included and were assigned randomly to receive either tamoxifen and goserelin combination or tamoxifen alone for 12 months. The participants were evaluated blindly using the Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Rating Scale, and the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ). Blood FSH levels were assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: A significant time×group difference was detected in the agoraphobia trends subscale of the APPQ and in FSH levels. The combination group showed significantly less increases in agoraphobia subscale of APPQ and greater decreases in FSH level than those in the tamoxifen-alone group from baseline to 12 months of treatment. No significant differences for age, tumor grade, body mass index, or family history were found at baseline between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the combination treatment of tamoxifen and goserelin resulted in less agoraphobia than tamoxifen alone in premenopausal women with breast cancer, which may associated with FSH suppression of goserelin.

Female , Humans , Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Depression , Estrogens , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Goserelin , Panic , Phobic Disorders , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Tamoxifen
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71425


OBJECTIVE: Family and twin studies have suggested genetic liability for panic disorder (PD) and therefore we sought to determine the role of noradrenergic and serotonergic candidate genes for susceptibility for PD in a Japanese population. METHODS: In this age- and gender-matched case-control study involving 119 PD patients and 119 healthy controls, we examined the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphism (rs4680) and their association with PD. RESULTS: No significant differences were evident in the allele frequencies or genotype distributions of the COMT (rs4680), 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms or the −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of 5-HT1A between PD patients and controls. Although there were no significant associations of these polymorphisms with in subgroups of PD patients differentiated by gender or in subgroup comorbid with agoraphobia (AP), significant difference was observed in genotype distributions of the −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of 5-HT1A between PD patients without AP and controls (p=0.047). CONCLUSION: In this association study, the 1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the 5-HT1A receptor G/G genotype was associated with PD without AP in a Japanese population.

Humans , Agoraphobia , Asian People , Case-Control Studies , Catechol O-Methyltransferase , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Panic Disorder , Panic , Polymorphism, Genetic , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Serotonin
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725025


OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serotonin related gene polymorphisms may be associated with agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder in Korea. METHODS: The COMT gene (rs4680), 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) gene (rs25531), serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A) gene (rs6295) genotypes were analyzed in 406 patients with panic disorder and age-sex matched 206 healthy controls. Patients with panic disorder were dichotomized by the presence of agoraphobia. The following instruments were applied : the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the distribution of 5-HTTLPR genotype between panic patients with agoraphobia and without agoraphobia (p = 0.024). That is, the panic patients with agoraphobia had a significant excess of the less active 5-HTTLPR allele (S allele). (p = 0.039) Also, we replicated previous western reports which indicated a significant difference in the distribution of COMT genotype between the patients with panic disorder and the healthy controls (p = 0.040). However, no significant associations of agoraphobia or panic disorder with HTR1A gene polymorphisms were found. CONCLUSIONS: This result supports that the COMT polymorphisms may be associated with panic disorder and suggests that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of agoraphobia in the Korean patients with panic disorder.

Humans , Agoraphobia , Alleles , Anxiety , Catechol O-Methyltransferase , Depression , Genotype , Korea , Panic Disorder , Panic , Serotonin
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 42(1): 44-48, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-746374


El vértigo fóbico se constituye como una patología dentro de las alteraciones somatomorfas que cursan con trastornos del balance, relacionadas a un proceso de desajuste sensorial aferente, con repercusiones eferentes especiales que no son evidentes al observador, identificadas, por ejemplo, por un aumento en los patrones de propiocepción detectados por electroposturografía. Las características clínicas de estos pacientes están descritas como eventos vertiginosos no asociados a claros desencadenantes, sino más bien una respuesta muy personal a ambientes particulares normales para otras personas, quienes adicionalmente ofrecen personalidades obsesivas-compulsivas, perfeccionistas autodemandantes, incluso depresivas dentro de un contexto que culmina en inestabilidad. No se identifican alteraciones auditivas concomitantes, ni tampoco neurológicas centrales, por lo que su diagnóstico diferencial podría hacerse evidente denotando los diagnósticos más relevantes, tanto psicogénicos como orgánicos, aportados por Brandt y colaboradores...

Phobic vertigo is constituted as a pathology within the somatoform disorders that causes balance disease related to a mismatch process between afferent signals and efferent sensorial perceptions with special effects that are not apparent to the observer, identified by cause an increase in proprioception patterns detected by electroposturography. The clinical characteristics of these patients are described as dizzying events not associated with clear triggers, but rather a very personal response to particular environments for them and normal for others; those obsessive compulsive personalities additionally can offer, auto-perfectionists, depressives feelings, within a context that culminates in instability. Are not identified concomitant hearing impairment, nor central neurological disease, differential diagnosis could be make evident, thanks to the most relevant both psychogenic and organic issues provided by Brandt et ál...

Humans , Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Dizziness , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Vertigo
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 412-418, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91118


OBJECTIVE: Panic disorder has been suggested to be divided into the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes in terms of its clinical presentations. The present study aimed to investigate whether there are any differences in treatment response and clinical characteristics between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes of panic disorder patients. METHODS: Among the 48 patients those who completed the study, 25 panic disorder patients were classified as the respiratory subtype, whereas 23 panic disorder patients were classified as the non-respiratory subtype. All patients were treated with escitalopram or paroxetine for 12 weeks. We measured clinical and psychological characteristics before and after pharmacotherapy using the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), Albany Panic and Phobic Questionnaire (APPQ), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T, STAI-S), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). RESULTS: The prevalence of the agoraphobia was significantly higher in the respiratory group than the non-respiratory group although there were no differences in gender and medication between the two groups. The respiratory group showed higher scores on the fear of respiratory symptoms of the ASI-R. In addition, after pharmacotherapy, the respiratory group showed more improvement in panic symptoms than the non-respiratory group. CONCLUSION: Panic disorder patients with the respiratory subtype showed more severe clinical presentations, but a greater treatment response to SSRIs than those with non-respiratory subtype. Thus, classification of panic disorder patients as respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes may be useful to predict clinical course and treatment response to SSRIs.

Humans , Agoraphobia , Anxiety , Citalopram , Classification , Depression , Drug Therapy , Panic , Panic Disorder , Paroxetine , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(6): 554-561, dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-701272


FUNDAMENTOS: A ansiedade cardíaca (AC) é o medo de sensações cardíacas, caracterizado por sintomas recorrentes de ansiedade em pacientes com ou sem doença cardiovascular. O Questionário de Ansiedade Cardíaca (QAC) é uma ferramenta para avaliar a AC, já adaptado, mas não validado em português. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho apresenta as três fases dos estudos de validação do QAC brasileiro. MÉTODOS: Foram recrutados 98 pacientes com doença arterial coronária, a fim de extrair a estrutura fatorial e avaliar a confiabilidade do QAC (fase 1). O objetivo da fase 2 foi explorar a validade convergente e divergente. Cinquenta e seis pacientes completaram o QAC, juntamente com o Escala de sensações corporais (ESC) e o Versão brasileira do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). Para determinar a validade discriminante (fase 3), comparamos os escores do QAC de dois subgrupos formados por pacientes da fase 1 (n = 98), de acordo com os diagnósticos de transtorno do pânico e agorafobia obtidos com o MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Mini Entrevista Neuropsiquiátrica Internacional). RESULTADOS: A solução de dois fatores foi a mais interpretável (46,4% da variância). As subescalas foram denominadas de "Medo e Hipervigilância" (n = 9; alfa = 0,88) e "Evitação" (n = 5; alfa = 0,82). Foi encontrada correlação significativa do fator 1 com o escore total do ESC (p < 0,01), mas não com o fator 2. Os fatores do SPIN apresentaram correlações significativas com as subescalas do QAC (p < 0,01). Na fase 3, os escores dos pacientes "Cardíacos com pânico" foram significativamente maiores no fator 1 do QAC (t = -3,42; p < 0,01, IC = -1,02 a -0,27), e maiores, mas não significativamente diferentes, no fator 2 (t = -1,98; p = 0,51, IC = -0.87 a 0,00). CONCLUSÕES: Os presentes resultados fornecem uma versão final brasileira validada do QAC adequada aos contextos clínicos e de pesquisa.

BACKGROUND: Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. METHODS: To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. RESULTS: A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n=9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p<0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Agoraphobia/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Brazil , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Educational Status , Psychometrics , Test Anxiety Scale , Validation Studies as Topic
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 20(4): 1491-1514, oct-dez/2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699079


Examina as expressões de demofobia da classe política da Primeira República, em faces das manifestações do povo carioca, relacionando-as à necessidade de mudar para o interior a sede do governo federal. A literatura demófoba produzida pelos liberais europeus contrários à democratização em seus países impregnou a orientação da classe política brasileira do período. Empenhados em construir uma federação oligárquica, viam a população do Rio de Janeiro como uma ameaça. Contra um subversivo povo-multidão de uma capital cosmopolita, artificial e estrangeirada, o federalismo oligárquico valorizava um ‘autêntico' povo brasileiro que remetia ao imaginário de uma população interiorana e ordeira.

This study examines the expressions of demophobia of the political class of the First Republic, faced with demonstrations against the government in Rio de Janeiro, and relates them to the need to move to the seat of the federal government inland. The demophobic literature produced by liberal Europeans against democratization in their countries pervaded the orientation of the Brazilian political class during the period. Committed to building an oligarchic federation, they saw the population of Rio de Janeiro as a threat. Compared to a subversive crowd of people in a huge, artificial capital suffering from foreign influence, oligarchic federalism valued the ‘authentic' Brazilian people, referred to the image of a provincial, orderly population.

Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Politics , Population , Hazards , Agoraphobia/history , Brazil , Federal Government , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 35(4): 347-352, Oct-Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697334


Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities. .

Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Age Factors , Agoraphobia/diagnosis , Agoraphobia/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/diagnosis , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Urban Population
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 40(4): 135-138, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686097


BACKGROUND: Studies have documented high use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs in patients with panic disorder (PD). The comorbid substance use disorders worsen the prognosis of mood and anxiety disorders. The respiratory subtype (RS) of PD seems to represent a more severe and distinct form of this disorder associated with higher familial history of PD and more comorbidity with other anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVES: Describe the patterns of tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use in PD patients, and also to ascertain if patients with the RS use these substances more than those of the non-respiratory subtype. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 71 PD patients. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Fagerstrom Tobacco Questionnaire were used in the evaluation. Patients with four or five respiratory symptoms were classified in the RS, the remaining patients were classified as non-respiratory subtype. RESULTS: In our sample 31.0% were smokers, 11.3% were hazardous alcohol users and none of them was using illicit drugs. There were no differences between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes regarding the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and hallucinogens. DISCUSSION: The RS was not correlated to the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Additional epidemiological and clinical studies focusing the relationship between PD and substance use are warranted.

CONTEXTO: Estudos anteriores têm mostrado associações entre o transtorno de pânico (TP) e o uso de tabaco, álcool e substâncias ilícitas. É conhecido que transtornos de uso de substâncias interferem negativamente no prognóstico de transtornos de ansiedade e depressão. No subtipo respiratório (SR) do TP há mais história familiar de TP e maior risco de comorbidades com transtornos de ansiedade. OBJETIVOS: Descrever os padrões de uso de tabaco, álcool e outras substâncias em pacientes com TP. Além disso, analisar se pacientes do SR usam mais essas substâncias do que os pacientes do subtipo não respiratório. MÉTODOS: Esse foi um estudo transversal com 71 pacientes com TP. As escalas Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test e Fagerstrom Tobacco Questionnaire foram aplicadas. Pacientes com quatro ou cinco sintomas respiratórios foram considerados no SR, e os demais pacientes foram considerados como do subtipo não respiratório. RESULTADOS: Na amostra estudada, 31,0% dos pacientes eram fumantes, 11,3% faziam uso perigoso de álcool e nenhum fazia uso de substâncias ilícitas. Não houve diferença entre os subtipos respiratório e não respiratório em relação a tabagismo, uso de álcool, cannabis, cocaína, estimulantes e alucinógenos. CONCLUSÃO: O SR não foi correlacionado com o uso de tabaco, álcool ou drogas ilícitas. Mais estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos focando a relação entre o TP e uso de substâncias são necessários.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Panic Disorder , Substance-Related Disorders , Smoking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Agoraphobia
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 317-325, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126150


We aimed to investigate whether agoraphobia (A) in panic disorder (PD) has any effects on oxidative and anti-oxidative parameters. We measured total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase (ARE) antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA) oxidant levels using blood samples from a total of 31 PD patients with A, 22 PD patients without A and 53 control group subjects. There was a significant difference between the TAC, PON, ARE and MDA levels of the three groups consisting of PD with A, PD without A and the control group. The two-way comparison to clarify the group creating the difference showed that the TAC, PON, and ARE antioxidants were significantly lower in the PD with A group compared to the control group while the MDA oxidant was significantly higher. There was no significant difference between the PD without A and control groups for TAC, PON, ARE and MDA levels. We clearly demonstrated that the oxidative stress and damage to the anti-oxidative mechanism are significantly higher in the PD group with A. These findings suggest that oxidative/anti-oxidative mechanisms may play a more important role on the pathogenesis of PB with A.

Humans , Agoraphobia , Antioxidants , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Panic Disorder , Panic
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 399-406, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126139


OBJECTIVE: Serotonin-1A receptors (5-HTR1A) is suggested to be involved in the etiology of several psychiatric disorders including panic disorder (PD). A few imaging studies have suggested the alterations of the cingulum bundle in PD. The objective of this study is to examine the structural changes of cingulum related to the 5-HTR1A polymorphism rs6295 in the patients with PD. METHODS: Thirty-two right-handed patients with PD [11 men, 21 women; 40.34+/-13.17 (mean+/-SD) age] who met the diagnostic criteria in Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were examined by means of MRI at 3 Tesla. We divided the patients with PD into CC genotype group and non CC genotype group (GG/CG genotype group) of the 5-HTR1A rs6295 polymorphism to compare the cingulum white matter connectivity. RESULTS: Tract-based spatial statistics showed significantly increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in cingulate gyrus process of left cingulum in 5-HTR1A CC genotype compared to GG/CG genotype in PD. Significant positive correlations were shown between the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ) interoceptive fear subscale scores, the Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised fear of publicly observable anxiety reaction subscale scores and FA values of cingulate gyrus process of left cingulum in 5-HTR1A rs6295 GG/CG genotype group. In CC genotype group, APPQ total, APPQ agoraphobia subscale and APPQ social phobia subscale scores also showed significant positive correlations with FA values of hippocampal process of right cingulum. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study suggests that 5-HTR1A polymorphism may be associated with the cingulum white matter connectivity in PD.

Female , Humans , Male , Agoraphobia , Anisotropy , Anxiety , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Genotype , Gyrus Cinguli , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Panic Disorder , Panic , Phobic Disorders , Surveys and Questionnaires
Clinics ; 67(11): 1291-1297, Nov. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656720


OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining) improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Asthma/prevention & control , Breathing Exercises , Analysis of Variance , Agoraphobia/rehabilitation , Anxiety Disorders/rehabilitation , Asthma/psychology , Asthma/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , Spirometry , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome