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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008082

ABSTRACT

Eggplant is an important horticultural crop and one of the most widely grown vegetables in the Solanaceae family. Eggplant fruit-related agronomic traits are complex quantitative traits with low efficiency and long cycle time for traditional breeding selection. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools, genome-wide association study (GWAS) has shown great application potential in analyzing the genetic rules of complex agronomic traits related to eggplant fruits. This paper first reviews the progress of genome-wide association analysis in eggplant fruit shape, fruit color and other fruit-related agronomic traits. Subsequently, aiming at the problem of missing heritability, which is common in the genetic studies of eggplant quantitative traits, this paper puts forward the development strategies of eggplant GWAS in the future based on the hot spots of application of four GWAS strategies in the research of agronomics traits related to eggplant fruits. Lastly, the application of GWAS strategy in the field of eggplant molecular breeding is expected to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the future use of GWAS to analyze the genetic basis of various eggplant fruit-related traits and to select fruit materials that meet consumer needs.


Subject(s)
Solanum melongena/genetics , Fruit/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Plant Breeding , Agriculture , Vegetables
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253469, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364522

ABSTRACT

Agriculture sector of Saudi Arabia is growing swiftly and tomato is an important crop cultivated mostly under green houses. Unfortunately, it is facing severe infestation due to divers mite species. Present study, relates to evaluation of toxicity of oxamyl against two phytophagous mites; Aculops lycopersici and Tetranychus urticae, isolated from tomato plants suffering from infestation. Simultaneous effect of oxamyl on two predatory mites; Neosiulus cucumeris and Euseius scutalis, was also evaluated. Three concentrations of oxamyl; half of the recommended dose (HRD), recommended dose (RD) and double recommended dose (DRD), were used against each mite specie to observe mortality within seven days as compared to the control. Significant mortality of 97.91% and 93.92% was observed in A. lycopersici and T. urticae, respectively at RD. In case of predatory mites; N. cucumeris and E. scutalis, mortality was 60.61% and 64.48%, respectively, under same conditions. Mortality of mites observed at HRD was insignificant and there was negligible increase in mortality at DRD. Oxamyl being less toxic to predatory mites and significantly mortal to phytophagous mites is recommended as a tool to as a tool to achieve biological control parallel to pesticidal effect.


O setor agrícola da Arábia Saudita está crescendo rapidamente e o tomate é uma cultura importante cultivada principalmente em estufas. Infelizmente, está enfrentando uma infestação severa devido a diversas espécies de ácaros. O presente estudo refere-se à avaliação da toxicidade do oxamil contra dois ácaros fitófagos; Aculops lycopersici e Tetranychus urticae, isolados de tomateiros infestados. Efeito simultâneo de oxamil em dois ácaros predadores; Neosiulus cucumeris e Euseius scutalis, também foi avaliado. Três concentrações de oxamil; metade da dose recomendada (HRD), dose recomendada (RD) e dose dupla recomendada (DRD), foram usados ​​contra cada espécie de ácaro para observar a mortalidade em sete dias em comparação com o controle. Mortalidade significativa de 97,91% e 93,92% foi observada em A. lycopersici e T. urticae, respectivamente no RD. No caso de ácaros predadores; N. cucumeris e E. scutalis, a mortalidade foi de 60,61% e 64,48%, respectivamente, nas mesmas condições. A mortalidade de ácaros observada no HRD foi insignificante e houve um aumento insignificante na mortalidade no DRD. Oxamil sendo menos tóxico para ácaros predadores e significativamente mortal para ácaros fitófagos é recomendado como ferramenta para alcançar o controle biológico paralelo ao efeito pesticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological , Solanum lycopersicum , Agriculture , Mites , Saudi Arabia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249230, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345556

ABSTRACT

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A presença de plantas daninhas em áreas de atividades agrícolas é um entrave ao desenvolvimento dessas atividades. É importante aproveitar os vastos espaços abertos adequados para a agricultura e dar segurança alimentar para o homem. Também é um indicador importante para determinar a viabilidade de cultivo de lavouras, beneficiando-se da produtividade e determinando o percentual de perda, desmatando campos agrícolas, práticas que protegem as lavouras do ataque de ervas daninhas, e métodos de práticas agrícolas devem ser seguidos para reduzir a presença de ervas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado durante os anos de 2018 a 2020 para avaliar Portulacaceae de flora na área de Taif, no Reino da Arábia Saudita, em diferentes altitudes (Área 1 = 1.700 m, Área 2 = 1.500 m, Área 3 = 1.500 m, Área 4 = 500 m, Área 5 = 2.200 m, e Área 6 = 2.200 m). Os resultados mostram que houve 2.816 indivíduos de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea, com a maior densidade encontrada em A 1, seguida de A 2, enquanto em A 5 e A 6, nas plantas daninhas foram registrados. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas estava nos campos de romã, seguido pelos campos de uva. A densidade mais baixa foi encontrada no campo A man. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão a tomar as medidas necessárias para combater as ervas daninhas e seu manejo em áreas de atividade agrícola, enquanto mais estudos são necessários para levantar a ecologia das ervas daninhas de Taif na Arábia Saudita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Portulacaceae , Saudi Arabia , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Plant Weeds
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253780, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360200

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane crops Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produces different derivatives to the world: sugar, ethanol and bioenergy. Despite the application of pesticides, insect pests still cause economic losses, among these the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causing direct and indirect damage to the plant. This study assess the virulence of three entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species and their symbiont bacteria against the pink sugarcane mealybug, under laboratory conditions. Fourteen treatments represented by control (distilled water), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect, and the standard chemical product, thiamethoxam, were assayed. In a second experiment, the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar and Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) at 3.0 x 109 cells/ml were assessed for each treatment. Ten replications were stablished, each one counting ten females/mealybugs inside a 10 cm Petri dish, amounting 100 individuals/treatment. All treatments were kept under stable conditions (25±1 ºC, H 70±10%, in the dark). All nematodes species infected S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) provided the highest mortality against the pink sugarcane mealybug (79.25%), followed by H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58.25%) and S. carpocapsae (All) (42.50%) (P<0.001). The mortality rate caused by X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens and X. nematophila were 40, 45 and 20%, respectively. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) has conditions to be a potential agent to be incorporate into the integrated pest management in sugarcane.


A cultura da cana-de-açúcar Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produz diferentes derivados para o mundo: açúcar, etanol e bioenergia. Apesar da aplicação de pesticidas, os insetos-praga ainda causam prejuízos econômicos, dentre eles a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causando danos diretos e indiretos à planta. Este estudo avaliou a virulência de três espécies de nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) e suas bactérias simbiontes contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar, em condições de laboratório. Quatorze tratamentos representados pelo controle (água destilada), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) e Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) nas concentrações de 25, 50, 75 e 100 juvenis infectantes (JIs)/inseto, e o produto químico padrão, tiametoxam, foram testados. Em um segundo experimento, a bactéria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas e Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 e Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar e Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) em 3,0 x 109 células/ml foram avaliadas para cada tratamento. Dez repetições foram estabelecidas, cada uma contendo dez fêmeas/cochonilhas dentro de uma placa de Petri de 10 cm, totalizando 100 indivíduos/tratamento. Todos os tratamentos foram mantidos em condições estáveis (25±1 ºC, U 70±10%, no escuro). Todas as espécies de nematoides infectaram S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) proporcionou a maior mortalidade contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar (79,25%), seguida por H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58,25%) e S. carpocapsae (All) (42,50%) (P<0,001). As taxas de mortalidade causada por X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens e X. nematophila foram de 40, 45 e 20%, respectivamente. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) tem condições de ser um agente potencial a ser incorporado ao manejo integrado de pragas da cana-de-açúcar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pest Control, Biological , Saccharum , Agriculture , Hemiptera , Nematoda
6.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 313-323, jan.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1517897

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e desenvolver uma nova tecnologia para agricultura familiar, que integre a olericultura com a criação de pintados em tanques elevados de geomembrana com recirculação de água. Para tanto, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente 240 peixes com peso médio de 10,67g em um tanque de geomembrana com capacidade de 30 m3 de água. A qualidade da água foi monitorada analisando as variáveis temperatura da água por meio de um termômetro, oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade, nitrito e amônia por meio de kits colorimétricos. O arraçoamento foi realizado duas vezes ao dia às 07h00min e 19h00min com ração extrusada contendo 32% de proteína bruta, durante um período de 204 dias. Mensalmente foram realizadas biometrias para corrigir o arraçoamento, analisar o peso total médio, comprimento total médio, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. A qualidade da água durante o período experimental não apresentou níveis críticos para a produção dos peixes e no final dos 204 dias de criação os peixes apresentaram peso final médio de 719,4g, comprimento final médio de 48,5cm, ganho de peso final médio de 708,5g e conversão alimentar média de 1,59. Quanto à produtividade das olerícolas, constatou-se que a água do efluente do sistema de criação forneceu quantidades adequadas de nutrientes necessários ao desenvolvimento das plantas. Os resultados indicam que o pintado tem potencial para ser criado em tanques elevados de geomembrana com sistema de recirculação de água e o efluente do sistema pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa para a produção integrada de peixes e olerícolas.(AU)


The present study aimed to evaluate and develop a new technology for family farming, which integrates vegetable farming with the creation of guinea fowl in elevated geomembrane tanks with water recirculation. To this end, 240 fish with an average weight of 10.67g were randomly distributed in a geomembrane tank with a capacity of 30 m3 of water. Water quality was monitored by analyzing the variables water temperature using a thermometer, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia using colorimetric kits. Feeding was carried out twice a day at 7:00 am and 7:00 pm with extruded feed containing 32% crude protein, over a period of 204 days. Biometrics were carried out monthly to correct the diet, analyze the average total weight, average total length, weight gain and feed conversion. The water quality during the experimental period did not present critical levels for fish production and at the end of the 204 days of creation the fish had an average final weight of 719.4g, average final length of 48.5cm, average final weight gain of 708.5g and average feed conversion of 1.59. Regarding the productivity of the olerícolas, it was found that the effluent water of the rearing system provided adequate amounts of nutrients necessary for the development of the plants. The results indicate that the pintado has the potential to be created in elevated geomembrane tanks with water recirculation system and the effluent of the system can be used as an alternative for the integrated production of fish and olerícolas.(AU)


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar y desarrollar una nueva tecnología para la agricultura familiar, que integra la olericultura con la creación de pintados en tanques elevados de geomembrana con recirculación de agua. Con este fin, 240 peces con un peso promedio de 10.67g se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en un tanque de geomembrana con una capacidad de 30 m3 de agua. La calidad del agua fue monitoreada mediante el análisis de las variables temperatura del agua por medio de un termómetro, oxígeno disuelto, pH, alcalinidad, nitrito y amoníaco por medio de kits colorimétricos. La alimentación se realizó dos veces al día a las 07:00 y 19:00 con alimento extruido que contenía 32% de proteína cruda, durante un período de 204 días. La biometría se realizó mensualmente para corregir la alimentación, analizar el peso total promedio, la longitud total media, el aumento de peso y la conversión alimenticia. La calidad del agua durante el período experimental no presentó niveles críticos para la producción de peces y al final de los 204 días de cría los peces presentaron un peso final promedio de 719.4g, una longitud final promedio de 48.5cm, una ganancia de peso final promedio de 708.5g y una conversión alimenticia promedio de 1.59. En cuanto a la productividad de las olerícolas, se encontró que el agua efluente del sistema de cría proporcionó cantidades adecuadas de nutrientes necesarios para el desarrollo de las plantas. Los resultados indican que el pintado tiene el potencial de ser creado en tanques elevados de geomembrana con sistema de recirculación de agua y el efluente del sistema puede ser utilizado como una alternativa para la producción integrada de peces y olerícolas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/physiology , Agriculture/trends , Fishes/growth & development , Technology/trends , Fisheries , Fabaceae/growth & development
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 657-661, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985542

ABSTRACT

Four organizations, including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Environment Programme, WHO, and the World Organization for Animal Health, recently launched a new One Health Joint Plan of Action (2022-2026) which was the first time that the Quadripartite had issued a joint action plan on One Health. The action plan aimed to address the health challenges in the human, animal, plant, and environment, focusing on improving capabilities in six action tracks including One Health capacities, emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, neglected tropical and vector-borne diseases, food safety, antimicrobial resistance and environment. This introduction will give an overview and brief translation of the background, content, and the plan's value, to help readers understand the joint action plan quickly.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Agriculture , Global Health , One Health , United Nations , Zoonoses/prevention & control
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981504

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to compare the difference of growth and quality between wild and cultivated Artemisia stolonifera, thereby providing references for further development and utilization of A. stolonifera. The wild and cultivated A. stolonifera from different altitudes were collected, and the agronomic characters, moxa yield, volatile components, flavonoids, and phenolic acids were determined. The results showed that the cultivated species were taller and stronger, with more leaves and branches, than the wild species. The moxa yield and combustion quality of wild products were higher than those of cultivated products. The content of main volatile components in cultivated products was higher than that in wild products. The content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in wild products was higher than that in cultivated products. At high altitude, the ignition performance, combustion persistence, comprehensive combustion performance, and heat release during combustion of the wild and cultivated A. stolonifera. were optimal. At middle altitude, the content of main characteristic volatile components and flavone phenolic acids in the leaves of the cultivated and wild A. stolonifera were the highest. At low altitude, the combustion quality and the content of the above components of the cultivated A. stolonifera decrease significantly. Considering the combustion quality and the content of the internal components of the leaf lint, the middle and high altitude areas are suitable for the artificial cultivation of A. stolonifera.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Agriculture , Flavonoids , Plant Leaves , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981443

ABSTRACT

A rich diversity of wild medicinal plant resources is distributed in China, but the breeding of new plant varieties of Chinese medicinal plants started late and the breeding level is relatively weak. Chinese medicinal plant resources are the foundation for new varieties breeding, and the plant variety rights(PVP) are of great significance for the protection and development of germplasm resources. However, most Chinese medicinal plants do not have a distinctness, uniformity, and stability(DUS) testing guideline. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has put 191 plant species(genera) on protection lists, of which only 30 are medicinal species(genera). At the same time, only 29 of 293 species(genera) plants in the Protection List of New Plant Varieties of the People's Republic of China(Forest and Grass) belong to Chinese medicinal plants. The number of PVP applications and authorization of Chinese medicinal plants is rare, and the composition of variety is unreasonable. Up to now, 29 species(genera) of DUS test guidelines for Chinese medicinal plants have been developed. Some basic problems in the breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants have appeared, such as the small number of new varieties and insufficient utilization of Chinese medicinal plant resources. This paper reviewed the current situation of breeding of new varieties of Chinese medicinal plants and the research progress of DUS test guidelines in China and discussed the application of biotechnology in the field of Chinese medicinal plant breeding and the existing problems in DUS testing. This paper guides the further application of DUS to protect and utilize the germplasm resources of Chinese medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biotechnology , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008663

ABSTRACT

Root rot is a microbial disease that is difficult to control and can result in serious losses in the planting of most Chinese medicinal materials. As high as 87.6% of roots or rhizomes of Chinese medicinal materials are susceptible to root rot, which seriously affects the cultivation development of Chinese medicinal materials. Trichoderma fungi, possessing biological control functions, can induce plants to improve their resistance to microbial diseases, promote plant growth, and effectively reduce the losses caused by various microbial diseases on cultivation. At present, Trichoderma is rarely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials, so it has great application potential for the prevention and control of root rot diseases in farmed Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the above situation, after comparison and discussion, it is believed that compared with chemical control and physical control, biological control of root rot diseases of Chinese medicinal materials is more efficient and meets the development needs of Chinese medicinal materials ecological planting in China. This paper reviewed the progress in the research and application of Trichoderma in the control of root rot diseases in the root and rhizome of farmed Chinese medicinal materials in the past 10 years and found that most of the current research on the biological control of root rot diseases in Chinese medicinal materials was mostly limited to the verification of the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma strains on the growth of the pathogenic microbes. Studies on the induction effect of Trichoderma on Chinese medicinal materials are not in depth. Studies on the responding mechanisms of most Chinese medicinal materials to Trichoderma are highly absent. Moreover, there are few reports on field experiments, which indicates that there is a long way to go before Trichoderma is widely applied in the farming practice of Chinese medicinal materials. To sum up, this paper aimed to link the present and the future and advocated further relevant research and more experiments on the application of Trichoderma in the farming of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Farms , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Rhizome , Trichoderma
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008631

ABSTRACT

To explore the suitable fertilizing pattern for Saposhnikovia divaricata in the genuine producing area, a field trial was carried out to investigate the changes in the yield and quality of medicinal materials and soil in different fertilization patterns, such as organic fertilizer substitution(organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer) and chemical fertilizer reduction(organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer decrement and organic fertilizer+NPK fertilizer decrement+soil conditioner). The comprehensive analysis of all treatments was based on the medicine quality evaluation data set and soil quality evaluation data set, respectively, by CRITIC weight method. The results showed that(1) the yield of S. divaricate increased by 4.93%-12.67% under the organic fertilizer substitution mode, and the yield increased by 44.43% under the treatment of chemical fertilizer reduction YHT15, which was higher than that of the organic fertilizer substitution mode.(2) The quality of S. divaricate under the two fertilization modes was superior to the standard in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the application of biochar was helpful to improve the quality of S. divaricate quality, with an increase of 82.83%-181.54%. CRITIC method analysis showed that fertilization treatments with high comprehensive scores were YHT15, YH30, and YH15.(3) Soil quality under the two fertilization modes was higher than that under the control. The fertilization treatments with higher comprehensive scores of soil quality were YHT15, YHT30, and YHT. The fertilization mode of adding biochar as soil conditioner, applying an appropriate amount of organic fertilizer, and reducing part of chemical fertilizer is the appropriate way to develop ecological plantation of S. divaricata in the Baicheng area in the western Jilin province. The specific fertilization mode is as follows. The basic fertilizer was 361 kg·hm~(-2) superphosphate+110 kg·hm~(-2) potassium sulfate+82 kg·hm~(-2) organic fertilizer+10 000 kg·hm~(-2) rice husk biochar, and urea was applied as top fertilizer three times, 29, 29, and 20 kg·hm~(-2), respectively.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fertilizers/analysis , Soil , Apiaceae , Nitrogen/analysis
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4335-4357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008029

ABSTRACT

Biomanufacturing uses biological systems, including cells, microorganisms, and enzymes, to produce natural or synthetic molecules with biological activities for use in various industries, such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agriculture. These bioactive compounds are expected to play important roles in improving the quality of life and prolonging its length. Fortunately, recent advances in synthetic biology and automation technologies have accelerated the development of biomanufacturing, enabling us to create new products and replace conventional methods in a more sustainable manner. As of now, the role of biomanufacturing in the growth and innovation of bioeconomy is steadily increasing, and this techbology becomes a prevalent technology in global markets. To gain a comprehensive understanding of this field, this article presents a retrospective review of Bloomage Biotechnology's Research and Development and briefly reviews the developments of biomanufacturing and offers insights into the futre prospects. In conclusion, biomanufacturing will continue to be an important, environmentally friendly, and sustainable production mode in the ongoing development of bioeconomy.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Biotechnology , Agriculture , Synthetic Biology , Industry
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982372

ABSTRACT

Recently, returning straw to the fields has been proved as a direct and effective method to tackle soil nutrient loss and agricultural pollution. Meanwhile, the slow decomposition of straw may harm the growth of the next crop. This study aimed to determine the effects of rumen microorganisms (RMs) on straw decomposition, bacterial microbial community structure, soil properties, and soil enzyme activity. The results showed that RMs significantly enhanced the degradation rate of straw in the soil, reaching 39.52%, which was 41.37% higher than that of the control on the 30th day after straw return. After 30 d, straw degradation showed a significant slower trend in both the control and the experimental groups. According to the soil physicochemical parameters, the application of rumen fluid expedited soil matter transformation and nutrient buildup, and increased the urease, sucrase, and cellulase activity by 10%‒20%. The qualitative analysis of straw showed that the hydroxyl functional group structure of cellulose in straw was greatly damaged after the application of rumen fluid. The analysis of soil microbial community structure revealed that the addition of rumen fluid led to the proliferation of Actinobacteria with strong cellulose degradation ability, which was the main reason for the accelerated straw decomposition. Our study highlights that returning rice straw to the fields with rumen fluid inoculation can be used as an effective measure to enhance the biological value of recycled rice straw, proposing a viable solution to the problem of sluggish straw decomposition.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rumen/metabolism , Agriculture/methods , Soil/chemistry , Microbiota , Bacteria/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Cellulose
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970529

ABSTRACT

This paper introduced the overview of the "eight trends" of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry in 2021, analyzed the problems of CMM production, and put forward development suggestions. Specifically, "eight trends" could be summarized as follows.(1) The growing area of CMM tended to be stable, and some provinces began to release the local catalog of Dao-di herbs.(2) The protection process of new varieties accelerated, and a number of excellent varieties were bred.(3) The theory of ecological cultivation was further enriched, and the demonstration effect of ecological cultivation technology was prominent.(4) Some CMM realized complete mechanization and formed typical model cases.(5) The number of cultivation bases using the traceability platform increased, and provincial internet trading platforms were set up.(6) The construction of CMM industrial clusters accelerated, and the number of provincial-level regional brands increased rapidly.(7) Many new agricultural business entities were founded nationwide, and a variety of methods were used to drive the intensified development of CMM.(8) A number of local TCM laws were promulgated, and the management regulation of food and medicine homology substances catalogs was issued. On this basis, four suggestions for CMM production were proposed.(1) It is suggested to speed up the formulation of the national catalog of Dao-di herbs and carry out the certification of Dao-di herbs production bases.(2) Ecological planting of forest and grassland medicine should be further strengthened in terms of technical research and promotion based on the principle of ecological priority.(3) The basic work of disaster prevention should be paid more attention and technical measures for disaster mitigation should be developed.(4) The planted area of commonly used CMM should be incorporated into the national regular statistical system.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Certification , Commerce , Industry , China
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Pakistan , Snails
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Porcupines , Pakistan , Crops, Agricultural , Agriculture , Animals, Wild
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2023. 107 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437843

ABSTRACT

Atualmente a agricultura ocupa um papel de extrema importância na conjuntura global e nacional e está inserida em um contexto de enormes desafios devido ao aumento da população mundial e maior demanda por alimentos. Ao mesmo tempo, é o setor mais afetado pelos impactos negativos das mudanças climáticas, que têm espalhado suas consequências de maneira cada vez mais frequente e intensa. Um dos principais efeitos é a alteração do regime de chuvas ao redor do globo, ocasionando estiagens intensas e duradouras, capazes de reduzir a produtividade de safras e comprometer a produção alimentícia. As abordagens atualmente existentes no mercado para mitigar as consequências negativas da escassez hídrica demandam alto investimento de implementação e manutenção, ou possuem um perfil ecotoxicológico insatisfatório. Polímeros de origem natural modificados quimicamente foram avaliados em termos de desempenho e capacidade de prover às plantas uma maior disponibilidade de água através de retenção hídrica. Os resultados alcançados demonstraram que os polímeros modificados com grupos iônicos foram capazes de promover um melhor gerenciamento hídrico no microambiente ao redor de sementes e entregar ganhos de produtividade a lavouras de soja. O mecanismo de ação da tecnologia estudada foi elucidado através de ensaios de determinação de capacidade de campo, análise de elipsometria, microscopia de força atômica, ensaios de germinação de soja sob estresse hídrico e implementação de áreas de soja a céu aberto a partir da aplicação em tratamento de sementes e sulco de plantio. As interações intra e intermoleculares entre as partículas de solo, moléculas de polímero e de água se mostraram ponto chave para a mudança de patamar de desempenho de polímeros naturais modificados utilizados na agricultura, quando comparados com os grupos controle. A tecnologia aqui estudada é, portanto, recomendada para utilização na agricultura, com capacidade de potencializar o efeito de tecnologias dependentes de água, resultando em maior produtividade na colheita


Nowadays agriculture occupies an extremely important role both in the global and national scenarios. Its included in a very challenging context due to the forecast of increased world population and consequent higher demand for food. At the same time, it is the most affected economic sector by the climate change effects, which have been causing frequent and harsh impacts. One of the main effects is the change in the rainfall pattern worldwide, which causes severe and long-lasting droughts, responsible for causing crops to fail and therefore putting food production at risk. The current available mitigation measures to address hydric scarcity require a huge investment for implementation and maintenance or do not present a satisfactory and safe ecotoxicological profile. Chemically modified natural polymers have been evaluated in terms of performance and ability to provide the plants with higher water availability through hydric retention. The results obtained show that such ionic group modified polymers are able to promote better water management in a given microenvironment surrounding the seeds and ultimately delivery a higher yield to soy crops. The technology's mode of action has been elucidated through field capacity determination trials, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, soy germination trials under hydric stress and, finally, implementation of soy areas under actual field conditions by applying the polymers via seed treatment and in-furrow methods. Both intra- and intermolecular interaction between soil particles, polymer and water molecules have been proven as key to understanding the agricultural performance improvement of the modified polymers when compared to the control. The technology is recommended for agricultural applications due to its ability to boost the effect of water-dependent technologies, promoting higher yields


Subject(s)
Polymers/analysis , Dehydration/complications , Agriculture/classification , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Soil , Glycine max/growth & development , Water , Efficiency/classification , Food/classification
19.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e257126, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529221

ABSTRACT

O texto é um relato de experiência da participação no Grupo de Estudos psicoQuilombologia ocorrida nos meses de setembro de 2020 a março de 2021, período atravessado pela segunda onda da pandemia de COVID-19 no Brasil. O objetivo do relato é apresentar o conceito-movimento de psicoQuilombologia como uma proposta epistemológica quilombola de agenciamento de cuidado e saúde, com base em uma escuta que se faça descolonial e inspirada no fecundo e ancestral acervo de cuidado dos povos africanos, quilombolas e pretos, preservado e atualizado em nossos quilombos contemporâneos. A metodologia utilizada é a escrevivência, método desenvolvido por Conceição Evaristo que propõe uma escrita em que as vivência e memórias estão totalmente entrelaçadas, imersas e imbricadas com a pesquisa. O resultado das escrevivências dessa pesquisa descortinam que os povos pretos desenvolveram práticas de cuidado e acolhimento às vulnerabilidades do outro, enraizadas no fortalecimento de laços e conexões coletivas de afetos e cuidado mútuos. Práticas de cuidado que articulam memória, ancestralidade, tradição, comunidade, transformação, luta, resistência e emancipação, engendrando modos coletivos de ser e viver. Nas quais cuidar do outro implica tratar suas relações e situar o cuidado como extensão de uma cura que se agencia no coletivo. O trabalho conclui apontando que o cenário pandêmico vigente acentua a pungência de se desenvolver estratégias de cuidado baseadas em epistemologias pretas e quilombolas, valorizando os sentidos de ancestralidade, comunidade, pertencimento e emancipação.(AU)


The text is an experience report of the participation in the psicoQuilombology Study Group that carried out from September 2020 to March 2021, during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. The purpose of the report is to introduce the concept-movement of psicoQuilombology as a quilombola epistemological proposal for the development of care and health, based on a decolonial listening and inspired by the rich care collection of African peoples, quilombolas and Blacks, preserved and updated in our contemporary quilombos. The methodology used is writexperience [escrevivências], a method developed by Conceição Evaristo who proposes a writing in that the experiences and memories are totally involved with the research. The result of the writability of this research show that Black people have developed practices of care and acceptance of the other's vulnerabilities, based on the strengthening of ties and collective connections of mutual affection and care. Care practices that mix memory, ancestry, tradition, community, transformation, struggle, resistance and emancipation, outlining collective ways of being and living. The core idea is that taking care of the other means treating your relationships and maintaining care as an extension of a cure that takes place in the collective. The paper concludes by pointing out that the current pandemic scenario demonstrates the urgent need to develop care strategies based on black and quilombola epistemologies, valuing the senses of ancestry, community, belonging and emancipation.(AU)


Este es un reporte de experiencia de la participación en el Grupo de Estudio psicoQuilombología que ocurrió en los meses de septiembre de 2020 a marzo de 2021, periodo en que Brasil afrontaba la segunda ola de la pandemia de la COVID-19. Su propósito es presentar el concepto-movimiento de psicoQuilombología como una propuesta epistemológica quilombola para el desarrollo del cuidado y la salud, basada en una escucha decolonial e inspirada en el rico acervo asistencial de los pueblos africanos, quilombolas y negros, conservado y actualizado en nuestros quilombos contemporáneos. La metodología utilizada es la escrivivencia, un método desarrollado por Conceição Evaristo quien propone una escrita en que las vivencias y los recuerdos están totalmente involucrados con la investigación. El resultado de la escrivivencia muestra que las personas negras han desarrollado prácticas de cuidado y aceptación de las vulnerabilidades del otro, basadas en el fortalecimiento de lazos y conexiones colectivas de afecto y cuidado mutuos. Prácticas de cuidado que mezclan memoria, ascendencia, tradición, comunidad, transformación, lucha, resistencia y emancipación, perfilando formas colectivas de ser y vivir. El cuidar al otro significa tratar sus relaciones y mantener el cuidado como una extensión de una cura que tiene lugar en lo colectivo. El trabajo concluye que el actual escenario pandémico demuestra la urgente necesidad de desarrollar estrategias de atención basadas en epistemologías negras y quilombolas, y que valoren los sentidos de ascendencia, comunidad, pertenencia y emancipación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Black or African American , Health Strategies , Problem-Based Learning , Knowledge , Empathy , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Quilombola Communities , Poverty , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Religion , Audiovisual Aids , Social Behavior , Social Conditions , Social Desirability , Social Dominance , Social Identification , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Violence , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Mainstreaming, Education , Attitude , Ethnicity , Family , Mental Health , Colonialism , Congresses as Topic , Basic Sanitation , Community Participation , Life , Cooperative Behavior , Internet , Culture , Spiritual Therapies , Personal Autonomy , Spirituality , Vulnerable Populations , Black People , Agriculture , Education , Ego , User Embracement , Existentialism , Racism , Social Marginalization , Human Migration , Ethnic Violence , Enslavement , Moral Status , Frailty , Survivorship , Political Activism , Social Construction of Ethnic Identity , Nation-State , Freedom , Social Vulnerability Index , Solidarity , Empowerment , Social Evolution , Sociodemographic Factors , Systemic Racism , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Cognitive Restructuring , Social Vulnerability , Citizenship , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , African People , Traditional Medicine Practitioners , Hierarchy, Social , History , Homing Behavior , Household Work , Housing , Human Rights , Individuality , Life Change Events , Mass Behavior
20.
Saúde Soc ; 32(4): e220603pt, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530414

ABSTRACT

Resumo A expansão do uso de máquinas no campo tem promovido alterações no mundo do trabalho canavieiro. Frente a este cenário, lança-se a questão: Como se comportam os acidentes de trabalho e as mortes na realidade mecanizada dos canaviais brasileiros? Predominantemente quantitativa, a investigação que subsidia este texto se vale de dados secundários levantados junto à Plataforma Smartlab e a bases oficiais do governo ligadas ao mercado de trabalho formal (RAIS). Os resultados indicam que o conjunto de atividades agrícolas (manuais e mecanizadas) experimentou queda na incidência de acidentes de trabalho, mas não apresentou redução da taxa de mortes relacionadas ao trabalho. Como resultado, a letalidade foi ampliada no período demonstrando a preservação da superexploração dos trabalhadores. Espera-se que este texto possa lançar luz sobre os desdobramentos gerados pelo processo de mecanização agrícola, no que diz respeito a saúde e segurança dos canavieiros.


Abstract The expansion of the use of machines in the field has promoted changes in the world of sugarcane work. Faced with this scenario, the question arises: How do work accidents and deaths behave in the mechanized reality of Brazilian sugarcane plantations? Predominantly quantitative, the research that supports this text uses secondary data collected from the Smartlab Platform and official government databases, linked to the formal labor market (RAIS). The results indicate that the set of agricultural activities (manual and mechanized) experienced a decrease in the incidence of work accidents, but did not show a reduction in the rate of work-related deaths. As a result, lethality increased in the period, demonstrating the preservation of the overexploitation of workers. This text is expected to shed light on the consequences generated by the agricultural mechanization process regarding the health and safety of sugarcane workers.


Subject(s)
Automation , Rural Health , Agriculture , Foods Equipment
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