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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361


Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.

Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Humans , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922191


BACKGROUND@#International Labour Organization (ILO) report indicates more than 2.4 million workers die from work-related diseases and accidents each year. Work-related respiratory ailments related to airborne particulate matter such as flour dust are responsible for about 386,000 deaths and 6.6 million illness-adjusted life years. Even though exposure to flour dust together with the extreme expansions of flour mill sectors is a priority health concern, extent of the problem is little investigated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and risk factors of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.@*METHODS@#This study employed a comparative cross-sectional survey of 560 samples (280 exposed group from flour mill workers and 280 unexposed group from office workers) with a stratified random sampling technique. The study was conducted from March to April 2019 in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. We used the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) questionnaire to assess work-related respiratory symptoms. The questionnaire was pretested and interview administered to collect data. Binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to evaluate significant factors of respiratory symptoms at a < 0.05 p value. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was calculated to determine a strength of association.@*RESULTS@#All the sampled participants had fully responded to the interview. The median age of exposed and unexposed groups was 28.5 interquartile range (IQR, 20) and 31 (IQR, 15) years, respectively. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers was substantially higher than that of among controls, 63.9% and 20.7%, respectively (Χ@*CONCLUSION@#Respiratory symptoms emanating from exposure to various flour dusts were significantly higher among flour mill workers than among the control group. Therefore, we recommend the need to effectively implement health and safety programs that account for the reduction of dust at a source, use of engineering controls (e.g., provision of adequate ventilation systems), use of administrative measures (e.g., training program and health surveillance) and provision of a suitable personal protective equipment (PPE). Furthermore, it is vital to integrate workplace health and safety programs to the wider public health policies and strategies to effectively mitigate the burden of work-related respiratory conditions. We also encourage future studies to evaluate concentration of flour dusts combined with physical examinations to establish plausible associations of respiratory symptoms with dusts of flour mill-related origin.

Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dust , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Flour , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Prevalence , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e55482, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356116


RESUMO Objetivo: verificar os desconfortos apresentados por trabalhadores que necessitam utilizar a máscara N95 durante as suas atividades laborais. Método: pesquisa descritiva com delineamento transversal, desenvolvida no Centro Cirúrgico de um hospital de ensino localizado na região Sul do Brasil, no período de junho a agosto de 2019, durante o turno de trabalho diurno. Realizou-se o estudo com os profissionais de enfermagem que estavam expostos à fumaça cirúrgica no período de trabalho. Para a coleta dos dados, utilizou-se um instrumento com detalhamento sociodemográfico e ocupacional dos participantes e entregou-se uma máscara N95 aos profissionais para ser utilizada durante a cirurgia, a fim de verificar o tempo de uso da N95 e os motivos pelos quais os trabalhadores retiraram a máscara durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico. Resultados: o maior número de trabalhadores (27,7%) utilizou a máscara até 3 horas durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico, sendo que esse tempo foi relacionado com algumas queixas (p=0,037), tais como incômoda (27,8%), apertada (44,4%) eenjoo (5,6%). A retirada da máscara N95 (p=0,022) por esses profissionais antes do término da cirurgia foi relacionada a essas queixas. Conclusão: os trabalhadores apresentam queixas, como desconforto, máscara apertada e enjoo, sendo que estas estão relacionadas com o tempo de uso, o que precisa ser avaliado por gestores para a utilização da N95.

RESUMEN Objetivo: verificar las molestias presentadas por trabajadores que necesitan usar la mascarilla N95 durante sus actividades laborales. Método: investigación descriptiva con delineamiento transversal, desarrollada en el Centro Quirúrgico de un hospital de enseñanza ubicado en la región Sur de Brasil, en el período de junio a agosto de 2019, durante el turno de trabajo diurno. Se realizó el estudio con los profesionales de enfermería que estaban expuestos al humo quirúrgico en el período de trabajo. Para la recolección de los datos, se utilizó un instrumento con detalle sociodemográfico y ocupacional de los participantes y se entregó una mascarilla N95 a los profesionales para ser utilizada durante la cirugía, con el fin de verificar el tiempo de uso de la N95 y las razones por las que los trabajadores la quitaron durante el acto anestésico-quirúrgico. Resultados: el mayor número de trabajadores (27,7%) la utilizó hasta 3 horas durante el acto anestésico-quirúrgico, siendo que ese tiempo fue relacionado con algunas quejas (p=0,037), tales como: incómoda (27,8%), apretada (44,4%) y mareos (5,6%). El hecho de quitarse la mascarilla N95 (p=0,022), por estos profesionales, antes de la finalización de la cirugía se relacionó con estas quejas. Conclusión: los trabajadores presentan quejas, como incomodidad, mascarilla apretada y mareos, siendo que estas están relacionadas con el tiempo de uso, lo que necesita ser evaluado por gestores para la utilización de la N95.

ABSTRACT Objective: to check the discomfort presented by workers who need to use the N95 mask during their work activities. Method: descriptive and cross-sectional research, developed in the Surgical Center of a teaching hospital located in Southern Brazil, from June to August 2019, during the daytime work shift. The study was conducted with nursing professionals who were exposed to surgical smoke during their work period. In order to collect data, an instrument was used with sociodemographic and occupational details of the participants and a N95 mask was given to professionals to be used during surgery, in order to check the time of use of the N95 and the reasons why the workers removed the mask during the anesthetic-surgical procedure. Results: the largest number of workers (27.7%) used the mask for up to 3 hours during the anesthetic-surgical procedure, and this time was related to some complaints (p=0.037), such as discomfort (27.8%), tightness (44.4%) and nausea (5.6%). The removal of the N95 mask (p=0.022) by these professionals before the end of the surgery was related to these complaints. Conclusion: workers have complaints such as discomfort, tight mask and nausea, and these are related to the time of use, which needs to be assessed by managers for the use of N95.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoke , N95 Respirators , Masks , Nurses, Male , Respiratory Protective Devices , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Work , Health Personnel , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Personal Protective Equipment , Nausea , Nurse Practitioners
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 337-343, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011621


Abstract Introduction: Burnt sugarcane harvesting requires intense physical exertion in an environment of high temperature and exposure to particulate matter. Objective: To evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on rhinitis symptoms and inflammatory markers in sugarcane workers. Methods: A total of 32 male sugarcane workers were evaluated with questionnaire for rhinitis symptoms, and for inflammatory markers on peripheral blood and nasal lavage, in the non-harvesting, and 3 and 6 months into the sugarcane harvesting period. Weather data and particulate matter fine concentrations were measured in the same day. Results: The particulate matter concentrations in sugarcane harvesting were 27 (23-33 µg/m3), 112 (96-122 µg/m3), and 63 (17-263 µg/m3); 24 h temperatures were 32.6 (25.4-37.4 ºC), 32.3 (26.7-36.7 ºC) and 29.7 (24.1-34.0 ºC) and relative humidities were 45.4 (35.0-59.7%), 47.9 (39.1-63.0%), and 59.9 (34.7-63.2%) in the non-harvesting period, three and 6 months of the harvesting period. The age was 37.4 ± 10.9 years. The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months of the harvesting period (53.4%), compared to non-harvesting period (26.7%; p = 0.039) and at 6 months into the harvesting period (20%; p = 0.006). Concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in nasal lavage increased after 3 months of the harvesting period compared to the non-harvesting period (p = 0.012). The presence of rhinitis symptoms, after 3 months of the harvesting period, was directly associated with blood eosinophils and inversely associated with neutrophils. Conclusions: After 3 months of work in burnt sugarcane harvesting the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms and IL-6 in nasal lavage increased. Furthermore, eosinophil counts were directly associated with the rhinitis symptoms in the period of higher concentration of particulate matter.

Resumo Introdução: A colheita de cana-de-açúcar queimada requer esforço físico intenso em um ambiente com altas temperaturas e exposição a material particulado. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da colheita de cana-de-açúcar queimada nos sintomas de rinite e marcadores inflamatórios de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Método: Foram avaliados 32 cortadores de cana-de-açúcar do sexo masculino por meio de um questionário para sintomas de rinite, e marcadores inflamatórios em sangue periférico e lavado nasal, no período de entressafra, e em 3 e 6 meses após o início da colheita da cana-de-açúcar. Os dados climáticos e as concentrações de material particulado fino foram medidos no mesmo dia. Resultados: O material particulado fino na entressafra e em 3 e 6 meses de safra foi 27 (23-33 µg/m3), 112 (96-122 µg/m3) e 63 (17-263 µg/m3), respectivamente; a temperatura de 24 horas foi 32,6 (25,4º-37,4ºC), 32,3 (26,7º-36,7ºC) e 29,7 (24,1º-340ºC) e a umidade relativa do ar foi 45,4 (35,0%-59,7%), 47,9 (39,1%-63,0%), e 59,9 (34,7%-63,2%), na entressafra, 3 e 6 meses após o início da colheita. A idade foi de 37,4 ± 10,9 anos. A prevalência de sintomas de rinite foi significativamente maior em 3 meses da S (53,4%), comparado com a entressafra (26,7%; p = 0,039) e 6 meses da safra (20%; p = 0,006). As concentrações de interleucina 6 (IL-6) no lavado nasal aumentaram após 3 meses do início da colheita comparado com a entressafra (p = 0,012). A presença de sintomas de rinite, após 3 meses do início da colheita, foi diretamente associada com eosinófilos e inversamente associada com neutrófilos. Conclusões: Após 3 meses do início da colheita da cana-de-açúcar queimada, houve aumento na prevalência de sintomas de rinite e IL-6 em LN. Além disso, as contagens de eosinófilos foram diretamente associadas aos sintomas de rinite no período de maior concentração de material particulado.

Humans , Male , Adult , Rhinitis/etiology , Saccharum , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Rhinitis/blood , Prevalence , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Agriculture , Occupational Diseases/blood
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 33-41, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897801


Abstract Background and objectives The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Content Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. Conclusions The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Os Resíduos de Gases Anestésicos (RGA) presentes no ar ambiente das Salas de Operação (SO) são associados a riscos ocupacionais diversos. O presente artigo propõe-se a discorrer sobre exposição ocupacional aos RGA e seu impacto em profissionais expostos, com ênfase em danos genéticos e estresse oxidativo. Conteúdo Apesar do surgimento de anestésicos inalatórios mais seguros, a exposição ocupacional aos RGA ainda é preocupação atual. Fatores relacionados às técnicas anestésicas e estação de anestesia, além da ausência de sistema de exaustão de gases em SO, contribuem para poluição anestésica. Para minimizar os riscos à saúde em profissionais expostos, recomendam-se limites máximos de exposição. Entretanto, em países em desenvolvimento, ainda carece a mensuração de RGA e de regulamentação frente à exposição ocupacional aos RGA. Os RGA são capazes de induzir danos no material genético, como danos no DNA avaliados pelo teste do cometa e aumento na frequência de micronúcleos em profissionais com exposição prolongada. O estresse oxidativo também é associado à exposição aos RGA por induzir lipoperoxidação, danos oxidativos no DNA e comprometimento do sistema antioxidante em profissionais expostos. Conclusões Por tratar-se de questão de saúde pública, é imprescindível reconhecer os riscos ocupacionais relacionados aos RGA, inclusive genotoxicidade, mutagenicidade e estresse oxidativo. Urge a necessidade de mensuração dos RGA para conhecimento desses valores nas SO, especialmente em países em desenvolvimento, de normatização das concentrações máximas seguras de RGA nas SO, além de se adotarem práticas de educação com conscientização dos profissionais expostos.

Humans , Operating Rooms , DNA Damage , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775175


BACKGROUND@#Plastic resins are complex chemicals that contain toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and/or trimellitic anhydride (TMA), which cause occupational allergies (OA), including respiratory allergies. Serum IgGs against TDI and TMA have been suggested as potential markers of the exposure status and as exploring cause of OA. Although TDI-specific IgG has been examined for suspected OA, TMA-specific IgG is not commonly evaluated in a urethane foam factory. This study therefore investigated both TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs in suspected OA patients and to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement of multiple chemical-specific IgG measurement for practical monitoring.@*METHODS@#Blood samples were collected from two male workers who developed respiratory allergies supposedly caused by occupational exposure to TDI and/or TMA for the presence of TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs. In addition, blood samples from 75 male workers from a urethane foam factory, along with 87 male control subjects, were collected in 2014 and tested for the same IgGs in 2014. The presence and levels of TDI- and TMA-specific serum IgGs were measured using dot blot assays.@*RESULTS@#We found that controls had mean concentrations of TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs of 0.98 and 2.10 μg/mL, respectively. In the two workers with respiratory allergies, the TDI-specific IgG concentrations were 15.6 and 9.51 μg/mL, and TMA-specific IgG concentrations were 4.56 and 14.4 μg/mL, which are clearly higher than those in controls. Mean concentrations of TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs in the factory workers were 1.89 and 2.41 μg/mL, respectively, and are significantly higher than those of the controls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.026 for TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#The workers suspected of OA showed an evidently high level of TDI- and TMA-specific IgG, and these levels in workers at the urethane foam factory were also significantly higher than those in controls. In conclusion, the measurement of TDI- and TMA-specific IgG among workers using plastic resins is helpful to monitor their exposure status.

Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Allergy and Immunology , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Japan , Male , Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , Blood , Occupational Exposure , Phthalic Anhydrides , Allergy and Immunology , Toxicity , Respiratory Hypersensitivity , Blood , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate , Allergy and Immunology , Toxicity , Workforce
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52: 80, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962262


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers' health. METHODS Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-açú car , and colheita de cana -de-açúcar . The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter's health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever os principais riscos do trabalho de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos na saúde dos trabalhadores. MÉTODOS Revisão critica de artigos, com pesquisa bibliográfica realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO Medline, e Lilacs. Foram empregadas as palavras-chave: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, s ugarcane harvesting , cortadores de cana-de-açúcar e colheita de cana-de-açúcar. Os critérios de inclusão foram artigos publicados entre janeiro de 1997 a junho de 2017, que avaliaram as condições de trabalho e os efeitos na saúde em trabalhadores cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Foram excluídos aqueles que não tratassem do impacto do trabalho no corte da cana-de-açúcar queimada e não queimada na saúde do cortador. O grupo final de manuscritos foi selecionado pelo autor principal deste estudo e revisado por um coautor. As discordâncias foram resolvidas por consenso usando os critérios de inclusão e exclusão predefinidos e, quando necessário, a decisão final foi realizada consultando um terceiro coautor. RESULTADOS De 89 artigos encontrados, 52 atenderam aos critérios de seleção e foram avaliados. Os estudos mostraram que os cortadores trabalham em condições de sobrecarga física e mental, sobrecarga térmica, exposição a poluentes e sujeitos a acidentes. Os principais efeitos observados foram respiratórios, cardiovasculares, renais, osteomusculares, estresse por calor, desidratação, genotóxicos e decorrente de acidentes. CONCLUSÕES O trabalho no corte manual da cana-de-açúcar, principalmente da cana-de-açúcar queimada, expõem os trabalhadores a diversos riscos, com variados impactos à saúde. A redução de riscos com exposição à poluição e sobrecarga térmica e física se impõe como medida para preservação da saúde do trabalhador.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Saccharum , Agricultural Workers' Diseases/epidemiology , Air Pollutants, Occupational/toxicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Farmers/statistics & numerical data
West Indian med. j ; 67(spe): 458-464, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045878


ABSTRACT Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease predominantly affecting the older population. Not well known, COPD is often confused with asthma. Tobacco smoking is widely acknowledged as the most important risk factor for COPD, but occupational exposures from irritant dust, fumes and, biomass exposures from burning wood and coal indoors, also contribute to COPD prevalence. This paper looks at COPD prevalence and occupational exposures in adults aged 70+ using data from the United Kingdom-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study in Jamaica ( Subject and Method: Jamaica followed a strict BOLD protocol of face to face standardized questionnaire administration and spirometry testing on participants aged ≥ 40 years. Questions included sociodemographic characteristics, smoking practices, respiratory symptoms and occupational exposures. The Occupational questionnaire enquired about time spent in thirteen different occupations including farming, construction, firefighting, domestic and industrial cleaning, welding, coal mining, flour, feed or grain milling to mention a few. Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards. An island-wide multi-stage random sample of non-institutionalized individuals was selected for recruitment with the assistance of the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN). All questionnaires and spirometry data from consenting participants were submitted electronically to the United Kingdom Coordinating Centre for data cleaning, quality checks and preliminary analysis. Final data were returned to the local research team for further analysis. Result: Total sample selected for recruitment (and response rate) was 883 (91.4%) for persons aged ≥ 40 years and 190 (87.2%) for persons aged 70+ years. Of the 164 responders in the 70+ group, 91 (55.5%) had usable spirometry. Prevalence of ever-smoking by age and gender in this 70+ cohort was 38.4%. Farming, construction and household cleaning were the most frequently reported occupations (58.8%). Years working in these three occupations ranged from 1-70 (farming and construction) and 1-78 (cleaning). Most were now retired (120 of 164 overall). Weighted estimated population prevalence of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage 1 (Post-BD FEV1/FVC < 70%; FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted) was 12.1% overall for persons aged 40+, but was highest at 37.8% in the 70+ age group. Estimated prevalence of GOLD Stage 2 (50 ≤ FEV1 < 80% predicted) was 9.6% in the 40+, again highest at 31.3% in the 70+ age group. Conclusion: Overall prevalence of COPD in the 40+ age group whether Stage 1 (mild COPD), or Stage 2 (moderate COPD), while it appears low, was still highest in the 70+ age group. The local data revealed that whilst the prevalence of current smoking had declined by age 70+, the estimated prevalence of GOLD Stage 1 and Stage 2 COPD was highest in this age group. The contribution of occupational exposures to the development of COPD, requires further analysis to look at the occupational exposures across all participants aged 40+ as well as the prevalence of COPD among non-smokers. Progression of Stage 1 to Stage 2 disease and its effect on morbidity and quality of life is likely without patient education regarding complications of tobacco smoke and workplace exposures to the development of COPD.

RESUMEN Antecedentes: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es una enfermedad respiratoria crónica que afecta predominantemente a la población de personas mayores. Como no se la conoce bien, la EPOC se confunde a menudo con el asma. El tabaquismo es ampliamente reconocido como el factor de riesgo más importante de la EPOC, pero las exposiciones profesionales a polvos irritantes, humos y gases, así como las exposiciones a la biomasa de leña y carbón en espacios cerrados, contribuyen a la prevalencia de la EPOC. El presente trabajo examina la prevalencia de la EPOC y las exposiciones ocupacionales en adultos de 70+ años, utilizando en Jamaica datos del estudio de la Carga de la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva (BOLD, en inglés) con base en el Reino Unido ( Sujetos y método: Jamaica siguió un estricto protocolo de BOLD consistente en administrar cara a cara cuestionarios estandarizados y pruebas de espirometría a participantes de ≥ 40 años de edad. Las preguntas incluyeron características sociodemográficas, prácticas de tabaquismo, síntomas respiratorios y exposiciones ocupacionales. El cuestionario ocupacional indagó sobre el tiempo transcurrido en trece ocupaciones diferentes, incluyendo trabajo en el campo (agricultura, cría de animales) construcción, extinción de incendios, limpieza doméstica e industrial, soldadura, minería de carbón, y molienda de harina, piensos o granos, por mencionar algunas. La espirometría se realizó de acuerdo con las normas de la Sociedad Torácica Americana (STA). Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria multietapa de todo el país -formada por individuos no institucionalizados— para el reclutamiento con la ayuda del Instituto Estadístico de Jamaica (STATIN, en inglés). Todos los cuestionarios y datos de espirometría de los participantes consintientes fueron enviados electrónicamente al Centro Coordinador del Reino Unido para la depuración de datos, chequeo de calidad y análisis preliminar. Los datos finales fueron devueltos al equipo de investigación local para su posterior análisis. Resultado: La muestra total seleccionada para el reclutamiento (y la tasa de respuesta) fue de 883 (91.4%) para las personas de ≥ 40 años y 190 (87.2%) para las personas de 70+ años. De los 164 encuestados en grupo de 70+ años, 91 (55.5%) tenían espirometría utilizable. La prevalencia de fumar ocasionalmente por edad y sexo en esta cohorte de 70+ fue de 38.4%. El trabajo en el campo (agricultura, cría de animales), la construcción y la limpieza doméstica fueron las ocupaciones más frecuentemente reportadas (58.8%). Los años de trabajo en estas tres ocupaciones oscilaron entre 1-70 (trabajo en el campo y construcción), y 1-78 (limpieza). La mayoría estaban ahora retirados (120 de 164 en total). La prevalencia ponderada estimada de la población de la Iniciativa Global para la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (GOLD, en inglés) Etapa 1 (post-BD FEV1/FVC < 70%; FEV1 ≥ 80% valor teórico) fue de 12.1% en total para las personas de 40+, pero las más alta fue 37.8% en el grupo de 70+ años. La prevalencia estimada de GOLD Etapa 2 (50 ≤ FEV1 < 80% valor teórico) fue de 9.6% en los de 40+, y de nuevo 31.3% la más alta en el grupo de 70+ años de edad. Conclusión: La prevalencia general de la EPOC en el grupo de 40+ años, ya fuera en la etapa 1 (EPOC leve), o la etapa 2 (EPOC moderada), aunque pareciera baja, seguía siendo más alta en el grupo de 70+ años. Los datos locales revelaron que si bien la prevalencia de fumar regularmente había disminuido a la edad de 70+, la prevalencia estimada de EPOC en GOLD Etapa 1 y Etapa 2 fue mayor en este grupo etario. La contribución de las exposiciones ocupacionales al desarrollo de la EPOC requiere un análisis adicional para examinar las exposiciones ocupacionales en todos los participantes de 40+ años. así como la prevalencia de la EPOC entre los no fumadores. La progresión de la enfermedad de la etapa 1 a la etapa 2 y su efecto sobre la morbilidad y la calidad de vida es probable que tenga lugar si no hay educación del paciente con respecto a las complicaciones que el humo del tabaco y las exposiciones en el centro de trabajo tienen para el desarrollo de la EPOC.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Jamaica/epidemiology
Cogit. Enferm. (Online) ; 22(3): 01-08, jul-set. 2017.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-875398


Objetivou-se identificar concentrações de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos provenientes da fumaça do eletrocautério nas salas operatórias, correlacionando estas concentrações com o tempo de uso do eletrocautério e cirúrgico. Trata-se de um estudo de campo, transversal e quantitativo, realizado em 50 atos cirúrgicos do aparelho digestivo, entre abril e julho de 2015, em hospital universitário no estado do Paraná. Foram coletados hidrocarbonetos por meio de uma bomba de sucção e determinados por cromatografia liquida. Estes compostos foram encontrados com média de 0,0058 mg.m-³ e mediana de 0,0049 mg.m-³. O tempo médio cirúrgico e de uso do eletrocautério foram de 136 minutos e 220,5 segundos, respectivamente. O teste de correlação de Spearman foi de -0,512 entre as variáveis concentrações e tempo cirúrgico e de -0,183 entre as concentrações e tempo de uso do eletrocautério. Conclui-se que existem hidrocarbonetos e há baixa correlação entre a produção destes compostos e tempo de uso do eletrocautério (AU).

The objective was to identify concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by electrocautery smoke in operating rooms, correlating these concentrations with time of electrocautery and surgical use. This is a cross-sectional and quantitative field study carried out in 50 gastrointestinal surgical procedures, between April and July 2015, in a university hospital in the state of Paraná. Hydrocarbons were collected using a suction pump and measurements were determined through liquid chromatography. These compounds were found to have an average of 0.0058 mg.m-3 and a mean of 0.0049 mg.m-3. The mean surgical time and electrocautery use were 136 minutes and 220.5 seconds, respectively. The Spearman correlation test was -0.512 between concentration variables and surgical time, and -0.183 between the concentrations and electrocautery use. The conclusion was the presence of hydrocarbons and a low correlation between the production of these compounds and the electrocautery usage time (AU).

Se objetivó identificar concentraciones de hidrocarburos policíclicos aromáticos derivados del humo del electrocauterio en quirófanos, correlacionando las concentraciones con el tiempo de uso del electrocauterio y quirúrgico. Estudio de campo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en 50 actos quirúrgicos del aparato digestivo, entre abril y julio de 2015, en hospital universitario del estado de Paraná. Fueron recolectados hidrocarburos mediante una bomba de succión, y determinados por cromatografía líquida. Los compuestos fueron encontrados con promedio de 0,0058 mg.m3 y mediana de 0,0049 mg.m3. El tiempo promedio quirúrgico y de uso del electrocauterio fue de 136 minutos y 220,5 segundos respectivamente. El test de correlación de Spearman fue de -0,512 entre variables concentraciones y tiempo quirúrgico, y de -0,183 entre las concentraciones y tiempo de uso del electrocauterio. Se concluye en que existen hidrocarburos y hay baja correlación entre la producción de tales compuestos y tiempo de uso del electrocauterio (AU).

Humans , Operating Rooms , Occupational Exposure , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Electrosurgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311348


Occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning related to diesel motor fumes in an air-raid shelter (ARS) was first identified in Jinan City, China, in June 2015. A total of 17 cases were identified, including 14 possible cases of firemen and 3 confirmed cases of water channel clean-up workers. The overall attack rate (AR) of firemen was 42% (14/33). The firemen had a significantly higher AR with a longer exposure and more protracted time of rescue in the ARS (P < 0.05). All the cases stated that they did not realize the potentially high level of exposure to CO in the ARS. CO poisoning posed a risk to both patients and service providers. Occupational safety and health education should be promoted and enforced in all workplaces where CO sources exist.

Accidents, Occupational , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Occupational Exposure , Vehicle Emissions , Workplace
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 38(4): e61339, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-960778


Resumo OBJETIVO Identificar alterações no sistema respiratório em trabalhadores portuários por meio de exames radiográficos e de função pulmonar; identificar o uso de equipamentos de proteção individual durante as atividades portuárias; e relacionar a idade, tempo de trabalho, exposição a substâncias como os fertilizantes e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual, durante as atividades portuárias, às alterações no sistema respiratório em trabalhadores portuários. MÉTODO Descritivo e exploratório em um porto marítimo sul brasileiro, de julho de 2014 a janeiro de 2015. Realizou-se análise retrospectiva, quantitativo do resultado da radiografia de tórax e espirometria de 695 prontuários de trabalhadores e análise prospectiva de 66 trabalhadores. RESULTADOS a maioria dos trabalhadores não apresentou alterações radiográficas 98,7% e 11,4% apresentaram alterações ventilatórias. Identificou-se correlação positiva para as variáveis, idade, tempo de trabalho e resultado da espirometria. CONCLUSÃO Houve alteração da função respiratória de trabalhadores portuários avulsos, que pode estar relacionada à exposição aos fertilizantes.

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Identificar alteraciones en el sistema respiratorio en trabajadores portuarios por medio de exámenes radiográficos y de función pulmonar; identificar el uso de equipos de protección individual durante las actividades portuarias; y relacionar la edad, el tiempo de trabajo, la exposición a sustancias como los fertilizantes y el uso de equipos de protección individual, durante las actividades portuarias, a las alteraciones en el sistema respiratorio en trabajadores portuarios. MÉTODO Descriptivo y exploratorio, realizado en un puerto maritmo sur brasileño, de julio de 2014 a enero de 2015. Realizó un análisis retrospectivo, cuantitativo de la radiografía de tórax y la espirometría 695 registros de los trabajadores del puerto y la realización de análisis prospectivo de 66 trabajadores. RESULTADOS la mayoría de los trabajadores no se muestran las radiografías 98,7% y el 11,4% mostraron cambios ventilatorios. Se identificó una correlación positiva para las variables, la edad, el tiempo de trabajo y espirometría. CONCLUSIÓN Hubo un cambio de la función respiratoria de los estibadores temporales, que se puede asociar con un tratamiento de fertilizantes.

Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify alterations in the respiratory system in port workers through radiographic and pulmonary function tests; to identify the use of personal protective equipment during port activities; and to relate age, working time, exposure to substances such as fertilizers and the use of personal protective equipment during port activities, to changes in the respiratory system in port workers. METHOD Descriptive and exploratory study, in south Brazilian maritime port, from July of 2014 to January of 2015. A retrospective quantitative analysis of the results of chest x-ray and spirometry of 695 port workers' chart and prospective analysis of 66 workers were performed. RESULTS Most of the workers did not present radiographs 98.7% and 11.4% presented ventilatory alterations. A positive correlation was identified for the variables age, working time and spirometry results. CONCLUSION There was a change in the respiratory function of single port workers, which may be related to the exposure to fertilizers.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Commerce , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Respiration Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Protective Devices , Spirometry , Brazil/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Edible Grain/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Occupational Exposure , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Dust , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Fertilizers/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Diseases/physiopathology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282990


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Dust sample mass gain is too smaller to satisfy the limit of detection (LOD) even in most cases during dust sampling at workplaces nowdays, especially for respirable fraction. Therefore, it is aimed to solve the problem by increasing sample load with high flow rate samplers.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In A and B two shipyards respirable welding fume was sampled by high flow rate cyclone samplers of FSP-10 (10 L/min) for 2-2.5 hours and normal flow rate FSP-2 (2 L/min) for 3-4 hours with a stratigy of parallele sampling at the same workpalce, in order to compare their mass gain, coincidence rate with LOD, and airborn dust concentration.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Sample mass gain of 0.97±0.40 mg and 1.61±0.86 mg respectively in the two factories by FSP-10 was significantly higher than that of 0.29±0.12 mg and 0.51±0.27 mg by FSP-2 (t-test, P<0.05 in both cases) , increasing herewith the coincidence rate with LOD from 26.8% (when sampling with FSP-2, calculated together with samples of the two factories) to 89.7%. However there was no significant difference in dust concentrations by the two different samplers, 0.53±1.88 vs 0.73±1.61 mg/m(3) by FSP-2 and FSP-10 in the shipyard A and 1.14±1.78 vs 1.01±1.63 mg/m(3) in the factory B (t-test, P>0.05 in every case) . In addtion, sample loading by FSP-2 was found to be correlated to sampling time (R(2)=0.7906, y=0.002 6x) , therefore, it has to sample for ≥192.3 min to meet the LOD (0.5 mg) in case of normal flow rate.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>By using of high flow rate cyclone FSP-10 the problem of LOD could be solved, along with increased sample mass and similar respirable dust concentration by the two samplers. Some techincal improvements of FSP-10 and increasing of LOD coincidence rate by other methods was also disscussed.</p>

Air Pollutants, Occupational , Construction Industry , Dust , Environmental Monitoring , Occupational Exposure , Ships , Workplace
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282986


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the influence of experimental conditions: Distribution of particulate and the filter condition on the pyrophosphoric acid method for quantitative analysis of free silica in dust.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to Method for determination of dust in the air of workplace Part 3: Distribution of particulate (GBZ/T 192.3-2007) , Part 4: Content of free silica in dust (GBZ/T 192.4-2007) , the distribution of particulate of 5kinds of dust samples were observed. Different filter conditions were used to determinate the Content of free silica in the 4kinds ofdust samples: 1 filter paper, 2 filter papers, 3 filter papers, 2 filter papers with paper pulp in them.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The distribution of particulate of 4 kinds of dust sampleswere different. The order from high to low is defined with "I, II, III, IV, V" successively. For dust sample I, II, III, the results with different conditions increase successively (P<0.05) . The result in 2 filter papers with paper pulp were not significantly different compared with the reference value (P>0.05) . For dust sample IV, the resultin 1 filter paper were significantlylower thanthe reference value (P<0.05) . For dust sampleV, The results with different kinds of filter type were not significantly different (P>0.05) .</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>different filter conditions should be considered according to thecontent of free silica and the distribution of particulate in dust sample. For the dust sample which has the higher content of free silica and the distribution of particulate, 2 filter papers with paper pulp in themis the better filter condition compared with the traditional way.</p>

Air Pollutants, Occupational , Diphosphates , Dust , Environmental Monitoring , Methods , Filtration , Particle Size , Silicon Dioxide
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258809


Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment.

Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational , Blood , Urine , Biomarkers , Blood , Urine , China , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Humans , Indium , Blood , Urine , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Metallurgy , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Young Adult
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(12): e00129415, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828405


Resumo: Estima-se o número de trabalhadores expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno no Brasil. Por causa da falta de mensurações locais disponíveis para a pesquisa, empregaram-se dados de uma matriz de exposição ocupacional, a Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contemplam proporções de expostos ao benzeno calculadas com medidas ambientais. No Brasil, o Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificou 86.353.839 trabalhadores ativos e ocupados. Aplicando-se os parâmetros da FINJEM, estimou-se que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenciam a grupos ocupacionais potencialmente expostos, enquanto 770.212 foram considerados expostos ao benzeno, correspondendo a uma prevalência ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, maior em homens (1,1%) que em mulheres (0,6%). Expostos se concentraram no grupo de Operadores e Mecânicos de Máquinas e Motores (62%). O número de expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno são elevados mesmo considerando parâmetros da Finlândia, sugerindo a necessidade de monitoramento e controle desse cancerígeno no Brasil.

Abstract: This study estimates the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of occupational benzene exposure in Brazil. Due to the lack of available local measurements for the study, data were used from an occupational exposure matrix, the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), which covers proportions of individuals exposed to benzene, calculated as environmental measures. In Brazil, the 2010 Demographic Census identified 86,353,839 workers in the workforce and employed. Applying the FINJEM parameters, an estimated 7,376,761 (8.5%) belonged to potentially exposed occupational groups, while 770,212 were considered exposed to benzene, corresponding to an occupational group-weighted prevalence of 0.9%, higher in men (1.1%) than in women (0.6%). Exposed individuals were concentrated in the category of Machine and Motor Operators and Mechanics (62%). The number of exposed and prevalence of occupational exposure to benzene are high, even when compared to Finnish parameters, suggesting the need for monitoring and control of this carcinogen in Brazil.

Resumen: En este trabajo se estima el número de trabajadores expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno en Brasil. Debido a la falta de mediciones locales disponibles para esta investigación, se emplearon datos de una matriz de exposición ocupacional: la Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contempla proporciones de expuestos al benceno, calculadas con medidas ambientales. En Brasil, el Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificó a 86.353.839 trabajadores activos y ocupados. Aplicándose los parámetros de la FINJEM, se estimó que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenecían a grupos ocupacionales potencialmente expuestos, mientras que 770.212 fueron considerados expuestos al benceno, correspondiendo a una prevalencia ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, mayor en hombres (1,1%) que en mujeres (0,6%). Los expuestos se concentraron en el grupo de Operadores y Mecánicos de Máquinas y Motores (62%). El número de expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno son elevados, incluso considerando parámetros de Finlandia, sugiriendo la necesidad de un monitoreo y control de ese cancerígeno en Brasil.

Humans , Male , Female , Benzene/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Occupations , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
Rev. cuba. med ; 54(4): 337-347, oct.-dic. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-771013


INTRODUCCIÓN: la inhalación sostenida de polvos inorgánicos en el ambiente laboral puede originar diversas enfermedades respiratorias, conocidas como enfermedades pulmonares de origen ocupacional. OBJETIVO: determinar la asociación entre la exposición prolongada al polvo de mineral laterítico y la ocurrencia de enfermedades respiratorias en los trabajadores expuestos. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de cohorte, prospectivo durante los años 2003 al 2012 en una empresa productora de níquel y cobalto, en el municipio Moa. RESULTADOS: predominó el sexo masculino con 91,73 % y el grupo etario más afectado fue el de 45-49 años. De los trabajadores expuestos, 44 presentaron alguna enfermedad respiratoria, con un riesgo relativo de 5,59 y fracción atribuible de 0,8333. La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, la neumoconiosis y la infección respiratoria por micobacterias atípicas, se presentaron en el 61,36 %, 22,72 % y 13,63 % de los pacientes, respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: se halló una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la exposición al polvo de mineral laterítico y la ocurrencia de enfermedades respiratorias en los trabajadores expuestos.

INTRODUCTION: sustained inhalation of inorganic dust at the workplace can cause various respiratory diseases, known as lung disease of occupational origin. OBJECTIVE: determine the association between prolonged exposure to dust from lateritic ore and the occurrence of respiratory disease in exposed workers. METHODS: an observational, analytical, cohort study was performed prospectively from 2003 to 2012 in a nickel and cobalt factory, in Moa municipality. RESULTS: male prevailed (91.73 %) and the most affected age group was 45-49 years. 44 out of the exposed workers had respiratory disease, with a relative risk of 5.59 and 0.8333 attributable fractions. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumoconiosis and respiratory atypical mycobacterial infection, occurred in 61.36 %, 22.72 % and 13.63 % of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: a statistically significant association between exposure to dust from lateritic ore and the occurrence of respiratory disease in exposed workers was found.

Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Inhalation Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(spe): 66-76, ago. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762719


Introducción. Los pintores de vehículos automotores están expuestos a solventes puros o mezclas, los cuales se han asociado con efectos neurológicos, mutagénicos y cancerígenos. Objetivo. Caracterizar las condiciones de salud y de trabajo de individuos expuestos a solventes orgánicos empleados en talleres de lámina y pintura de carros de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal descriptivo en el que se caracterizaron las condiciones de salud y de trabajo de individuos expuestos a solventes orgánicos en talleres de lámina y pintura en Bogotá. Se comparó un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a solventes orgánicos con un grupo no expuesto. Se determinaron las concentraciones de benceno, tolueno y xileno en el aire, se hizo una encuesta individual y se midieron los ácidos fenil-mercaptúrico, hipúrico, orto y para-metilhipúrico en orina. Los resultados de las mediciones y de la encuesta se correlacionaron para establecer el panorama de exposición. Resultados. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la población expuesta y la no expuesta a solventes (p<0,001) en cuanto a los tres metabolitos de benceno, tolueno y xileno. Se encontraron correlaciones positivas entre el tolueno en el aire y el ácido hipúrico en la orina de los individuos expuestos (ro=0,82), y entre el xileno en el aire y el ácido o-metilhipúrico (ro=0,76). Los valores del ácido hipúrico estuvieron por encima de los límites permisibles en 11 trabajadores y, los de ácido p-metilhipúrico, en ocho de ellos. No se registraron valores de ácido fenil-mercaptúrico por fuera del límite permitido. Conclusión. Los pintores de carros están expuestos a niveles altos de solventes orgánicos en sus sitios de trabajo, y no tienen condiciones adecuadas de higiene y seguridad industrial para realizar sus labores.

Introduction: Painters of automobiles are exposed to pure and mixed solvents that have been associated with neurological effects and carcinogenic mutations. Objective: To characterize the health and work conditions of individuals who are occupationally exposed to organic solvents used in sheet metal and auto body shops in Bogota. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study that characterizes the health and work conditions of individuals exposed to organic solvents in sheet metal and auto body shops in Bogota. A group exposed to the solvents was compared to an unexposed group. Air concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) were determined, individual questionnaires were administered and phenylmercapturic, hippuric and ortho- and para-methylhippuric acids were measured in urine. The results of the measurements and the questionnaires were correlated to determine the exposure panorama. Results: For the three BTX metabolites, statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found between the population exposed to the solvents and the unexposed population. For the exposed population, positive correlations were found between toluene in air and hippuric acid in urine (rho=0.82) and between xylene in air and o-methylhippuric acid in urine (rho=0.76). Hippuric acid values exceeded permissible levels in 11 workers and p-methylhippuric acid exceeded permissible levels in 8 workers. None of the phenylmercapturic values exceeded the limit. Conclusion: Auto painters are exposed to high levels of organic solvents at the workplace and do not have adequate industrial health and safety conditions to perform their jobs.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Solvents/adverse effects , Volatile Organic Compounds/adverse effects , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Industry , Motor Vehicles , Urban Health