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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986050

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of misoprostol in workplace air. Methods: From February to August 2021, the misoprostol in the workplace air was collected by glass fiber filter membrane, and theeluent was separated by C18 liquid chromatography column, determined by UV detector, and quantified by external standard method. Results: The quantitative lower limit of misoprostol determination method was 0.05 μg/ml, and the lowest quantitative concentration was 1.4 μg/m(3) (calculated by collecting 75 L air sample). The concentration of misoprostol has a good linear relationship between 0.05 to 10.00 μg/ml. The relative coefficient was 0.9998. The regression equation of the standard working curve was y=495759x-45257. The range of average recovery rates were from 95.5% to 102.8%. The intra-assay precision of the method was 1.2%-4.6%, and the inter-assay precision was 2.0%-5.9%. The samples could be stored stably for 7 days at 4 ℃. Conclusion: The high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of misoprostol has high sensitivity, good specificity and simple procedure of sample pretreatment. It is suitable for the detection of misoprostol in the workplace air.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Misoprostol/analysis , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Workplace , Chromatography, Liquid
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970715

ABSTRACT

Welding operations are widely present in the manufacturing production process, involving a large number of occupational groups, and are the key occupations where work injuries and occupational diseases occur in China. For different welding processes and welding materials, the content and focus of occupational health monitoring are different. At present, the item of occupational health examination in welding operation is in poor consistency with the on-site exposure of occupational hazard factors, and it is mainly concentrated in the stage of disease development, which can not reflect the early health damage caused by welding dust exposure in time. The emergence of biomarkers of welding dust can make up for this defect. Therefore, it is of great significance to describe the current situation of occupational health monitoring of welding dust and summarize the research progress of related biomarkers for the early prevention of diseases caused by welding dust and the practice of occupational health monitoring.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Welding , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Dust/analysis , Biomarkers , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935796

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for the determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace by gas chromatography. Methods: In March 2020, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace was collected by silica gel, eluted with methanol, separated and determined by gas chromatogram with flame ionization detector, the characteristics of determination of nitrile and isobutyronitrile by gas chromatography were analyzed. Results: The limit of detection for butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile was 0.33 μg/ml. The linear range of butyronitrile determined by this method was 1.60-1600.00 μg/ml, y=2.295x-3.480, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.43%-4.12%, the between-run precisions were 1.72%-3.70%, and the desorption rates were 93.26%-98.41%. The linear range of isobutyronitrile determined by this method was 1.52-1520.00 μg/ml, y=2.208x-0.102, and the coefficient correlation was 0.99998, and the minimum detection concentration was 0.22 mg/m(3) (collected sample volume was 1.50 L) . The within-run precisions were 2.52%-3.22%, the between-run precisions were 1.20%-3.82%, and the desorption rates were 96.85%-102.50%. The sealed samples could be stored at least 10 days at room temperature without significant loss. Conclusion: The method has the advantages of good precision, high sensitivity and simple operation. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile in the air of workplace.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Nitriles , Workplace
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935794

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the occupational hazards caused by three kinds of welding operations, and to provide data support for individual protection. Methods: In October 2020, the welding fumes, metal elements and welding arc generated by three welding operations of argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , manual welding (ZS60A welding rod) and carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux cored wire) were collected and measured in the welding laboratory. The samples were analyze and compare in the laboratory, and the differences of the occupational hazard factors of the three welding operations were judged. Results: The concentration of welding fume produced by carbon dioxide shielded welding, manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , and argon gas shielded welding (JS80 welding wires) were 6.80 mg/m(3), 6.17 mg/m(3), and 3.13 mg/m(3), respectively. The effective irradiance of the welding arc outside the welding mask from high to low is manual welding (ZS60A electrode) , carbon dioxide shielded welding (907A flux-cored welding wire) , and argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) , respectively 1 010.7, 740.9, 589.5 μW/cm(2). The long-wave ultraviolet UVA intensity generated by argon shielded welding (JS80 welding wire) is the largest, which is 1 500 μW/cm(2). The content of Mn in the three welding operations is the highest, and JS80 welding wire has the highest Mn content of 128493.2 mg/kg. 907A flux cored wire has the highest Ti content, which is 24355.5mg/kg. The electrode ZS60A has the highest Cu content, which is 24422.12 mg/kg. Conclusion: The intensity of occupational hazards is different in the three kinds of welding operations, so the methods of personal protective equipment, field exposure assessment and health monitoring should be more targeted.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Argon/analysis , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Gases/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Welding/methods
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935781

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a method for rapid detection of DB-WAX capillary column and determination of the workplace air in 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants. Methods: In August 2020, N-pentane, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, octane, Acetone, ethyl acetate, butanone, benzene, 3-pentanone, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, butyl acetate, 2-hexanone, Isoamyl acetate, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, amyl acetate, o-xylene, chlorobenzene, styrene, cyclohexanone, P-chlorotoluene, bromobenzene, M-dichlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, O-dichlorobenzene, o-Chlorotoluene, 1, 2 , 4-trichlorobenzene of 30 kinds of substances in air were collected by activated carbon tube. After analysis by carbon disulfide, the analytical solution was analyzed by DB-WAX column and determined by FID detector. Results: The above 30 kinds of volatile organic pollutants had good separation effect, the correlation coefficient of the standard curve was above 0.999, the relative standard deviation was 0.1%-3.2%, the desorption efficiency was 77.0%-117.1% , the lower limit of quantitation was 0.33-5.33 μg/ml, and the lowest quantitation concentration was 0.22-3.55 mg/m(3), the recoveries ranged was 95.4%-104.9%. Conclusion: The method can effectively separate and accurately determine 30 volatile organic compounds in these workplaces, and the method is simple and quick.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , Chromatography, Gas , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Workplace
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(12): e00129415, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828405

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Estima-se o número de trabalhadores expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno no Brasil. Por causa da falta de mensurações locais disponíveis para a pesquisa, empregaram-se dados de uma matriz de exposição ocupacional, a Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contemplam proporções de expostos ao benzeno calculadas com medidas ambientais. No Brasil, o Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificou 86.353.839 trabalhadores ativos e ocupados. Aplicando-se os parâmetros da FINJEM, estimou-se que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenciam a grupos ocupacionais potencialmente expostos, enquanto 770.212 foram considerados expostos ao benzeno, correspondendo a uma prevalência ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, maior em homens (1,1%) que em mulheres (0,6%). Expostos se concentraram no grupo de Operadores e Mecânicos de Máquinas e Motores (62%). O número de expostos e a prevalência da exposição ocupacional ao benzeno são elevados mesmo considerando parâmetros da Finlândia, sugerindo a necessidade de monitoramento e controle desse cancerígeno no Brasil.


Abstract: This study estimates the number of exposed workers and the prevalence of occupational benzene exposure in Brazil. Due to the lack of available local measurements for the study, data were used from an occupational exposure matrix, the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), which covers proportions of individuals exposed to benzene, calculated as environmental measures. In Brazil, the 2010 Demographic Census identified 86,353,839 workers in the workforce and employed. Applying the FINJEM parameters, an estimated 7,376,761 (8.5%) belonged to potentially exposed occupational groups, while 770,212 were considered exposed to benzene, corresponding to an occupational group-weighted prevalence of 0.9%, higher in men (1.1%) than in women (0.6%). Exposed individuals were concentrated in the category of Machine and Motor Operators and Mechanics (62%). The number of exposed and prevalence of occupational exposure to benzene are high, even when compared to Finnish parameters, suggesting the need for monitoring and control of this carcinogen in Brazil.


Resumen: En este trabajo se estima el número de trabajadores expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno en Brasil. Debido a la falta de mediciones locales disponibles para esta investigación, se emplearon datos de una matriz de exposición ocupacional: la Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), que contempla proporciones de expuestos al benceno, calculadas con medidas ambientales. En Brasil, el Censo Demográfico de 2010 identificó a 86.353.839 trabajadores activos y ocupados. Aplicándose los parámetros de la FINJEM, se estimó que 7.376.761 (8,5%) pertenecían a grupos ocupacionales potencialmente expuestos, mientras que 770.212 fueron considerados expuestos al benceno, correspondiendo a una prevalencia ponderada por grupo ocupacional de 0,9%, mayor en hombres (1,1%) que en mujeres (0,6%). Los expuestos se concentraron en el grupo de Operadores y Mecánicos de Máquinas y Motores (62%). El número de expuestos y la prevalencia de la exposición ocupacional al benceno son elevados, incluso considerando parámetros de Finlandia, sugiriendo la necesidad de un monitoreo y control de ese cancerígeno en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Benzene/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Occupations , Brazil/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupations/statistics & numerical data
8.
Journal of Research in Health Sciences [JRHS]. 2013; 13 (1): 69-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142695

ABSTRACT

Volatile organic compounds [VOCs] are human-made chemicals widely spread in the environment and produced by petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries. The aim of this research was to evaluate the distribution of VOCs in the ambient air of Mahshahr Petrochemical Complex, Iran. This study was a cross-sectional research performed in 2009. We used the method numbered 1501, 1500, 2000, 1003, 1005, 1010, 2555, 1300 and 1400 of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH] for the sampling and analysis of compounds in the air. A total of 204 samples were analyzed using Gas Chroma-tography-Mass Spectrometry [GC-MS] and a Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector [GC-FID]. The mean of concentrations of the pollutants in the winter is less than in summer and a strong variation occurred among the sampling site, attributed to the change in meteorology. The results indicated high concentrations of benzene in most factories. In addition, a significant difference occurred between the concentrations of the compounds in the ambient air inside and outside the factories in both seasons [P<0.050]. It seems that the atmospheric conditions of the workplace affect the spreading of the pollutants, causing the concentration of the pollutants in the summer to be higher than in the winter. In addition, the frequent prevailing wind speed in the region plays a major role in the distribution of the pollutants from Mahshahr Petrochemical factories


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Spectrum Analysis , Workplace , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(12): 1517-1523, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-583048

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an established cause of morbidity and mortality among non-smokers. The workplace is an important source of exposure, especially among workers of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Aim: To estimate the daily occupational exposure to SHS among non-smoking workers of bars and restaurants of Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods: Environmental vapor-phase nico-tine was measured for 95 non-smoking workers of bars and restaurants of Santiago, using passive personal samplers during a daily work shift and outside the workplace. Results: The median occupational exposure to air nicotine was 9.18 µg/m³ (P25-P75 3.15-25.67 µg/m³). Higher concentrations were found among workers of places with no smoking restrictions (22.72 µg/m³; P25-P75 5.73-34.85 µg/m³), bar workers (20.75 µg/m³, P25-P75 5.03-44.67 µg/m³), waiters (20.57 µg/m³, PP25-P75 5.66-42.73 µg/m3) and bartenders (10.37 µg/m³, P25-P75 9.75-25.67 µg/m³). The median concentration of nicotine outside the workplace was 1.79 µg/m³ (P25-P75 1.02-3.00 µg/m³). Occupational exposure was 4.77 times higher compared to the non-work exposure. Conclusions: Workers of bars and restaurants are exposed to high levels of SHS at the workplace. Moreover, occupational exposure among these non-smoking workers is, in most cases, the main source of daily exposure to this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Nicotine/analysis , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Restaurants , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/toxicity , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Workplace/classification , Workplace/statistics & numerical data
10.
West Indian med. j ; 59(6): 668-673, Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672697

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Asbestos is an established human carcinogen and has been identified at 16 of 26 Jamaican hospitals surveyed. We sought to determine if hospital employees are exposed and if current asbestos exposure in Jamaican hospitals differed by job category. METHOD: At two of the largest hospitals with more than 10 permanent maintenance workers and where over 67% of bulk samples analysed contained asbestos, three groups of employees selected by stratified random sampling participated in a personal air sampling study for asbestos. One hundred and thirty-two personal air samples and 32 area samples were collected and analysed for asbestos fibres utilizing phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Twenty-four (14.6%) air samples had fibre counts above the limit of detection (LOD) for the analytical method (PCM), ranging from 0.002f/cc to 0.013 f/cc. The fibres met the dimensional characteristics ofasbestos fibres. There was no difference in the median fibre concentration to which the groups of employees were exposed. Further testing of samples which had fibre counts above the LOD using TEM confirmed that the fibres were not asbestos. CONCLUSION: Despite not finding asbestos fibres in the air samples, most of the asbestos containing building material (ACBM) found in the hospitals was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fibre release. We recommend an ongoing monitoring programme for airborne asbestos fibres in hospitals until an abatement programme can be undertaken by the regulatory agencies in the country.


OBJETIVO: El asbesto, también llamado amianto, es un carcinógeno humano conocido, y ha sido identificado en 16 de 26 hospitales jamaicanos investigados. El presente trabajo tuvo por objeto determinar si los empleados del hospital están expuestos al asbesto, y si la exposición actual de asbesto en hospitales jamaicanos difiere según la categoría del trabajo. MÉTODO: En dos de los hospitales más grandes con más de 10 obreros de mantenimiento permanentes y dónde más del 67% de las muestras a granel analizadas contenían asbesto, tres grupos de empleados seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio estratificado participaron en una investigación de muestreo de aire personal en busca de asbesto. Ciento treinta y dos muestras de aire personal y 32 muestras de área fueron recogidas y analizadas en busca de fibras de asbesto, utilizando microscopía de contraste de fases (MCF) y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). RESULTADOS: Veinticuatro (14.6%) muestras de aire tuvieron un conteo de fibras por encima del límite de detección (LDD) para el método analítico (MCF), que fluctuaba de 0.002 f/cc a 0.013 f/cc. Las fibras correspondían a las características dimensionales de las fibras de asbesto. No hubo diferencias en la concentración mediana de las fibras a la que los grupos de empleados estaban expuestos. Pruebas posteriores con las muestras que arrojaron conteos de fibras por encima del LDD usando la MET, confirmaron que las fibras no eran de asbesto. CONCLUSIÓN: A pesar de que no se encontraron fibras de asbesto en las muestras de aire, la mayor parte de los materiales de construcción que contienen asbesto (ACBM) hallados en los hospitales eran friables y estaban en mal estado, dando ya señales de desprendimiento de fibras. Se recomienda un programa de monitoreo de fibras de asbesto suspendidas en el aire en los hospitales hasta que pueda emprenderse un programa de eliminación de las mismas por parte de las agencias reguladoras del país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Asbestos , Hospitals , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Inhalation Exposure , Jamaica , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Risk Assessment
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114059

ABSTRACT

The increase of industrial activities in the Angul-Talcher area, Orissa resulted in indiscriminate disposal of waste into the environment leading to the deterioration of the quality of the environment, which affects the health of the workers as well as the community people. Considering the magnitude of the problem, the pulmonary function study had been carried out in one of the largest aluminium producing plant of the country as well as surrounding community people. Aluminium is produced from oxides of alumina by Hall-Heroult smelting process. The electrolysis called as aluminium smelting is carried out in an electrolytic cell (pot) having anode, cathode and electrolyte. The aluminium is deposited in the cathode and the oxygen moves towards anode is released. The workers working at the captive power plant (CPP), which is necessary to meet the power demand of the smelter plant were also investigated. 180 smelter plants workers (non-smoker 129, smoker-51) of different sections and 37 captive power plant workers (non-smoker 29, smoker-8) had undergone pulmonary function tests. Besides these, 85 persons from the surrounding community (non-smoker-66, smoker-19) were also investigated. The workers were all male. Spirometric assessments of Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done by Spirovit-sp-10 (Schiller Health Care Ltd, Switzerland) and Wrights Peak flow meter (Clement and Clarke, UK). Different lung volumes like FEV1, FEV1%, and flow rates like FEF200-1200ml, FEF25-75% and FEF75-85% were calculated from the same tracings pulmonary function test (PFT) results of the workers according to different age groups, duration of exposures and smoking habits. The mean values of SVC, FVC and FEV1 of smelter plant workers were found higher compared to the community people but the values of captive power plant workers were very much close to the values of the community people. A gradual decrement of the PFT values was found as duration of exposure increased. Lung volumes and the flow rates were decreased as age increases but in some age groups that trend was not followed. It has been found that in each category of subjects, smokers have the higher mean pulmonary function values compared to the non-smokers. Except the community people in all other cases the different flow rates were found higher in nonsmokers compared to smokers. The restrictive, obstructive and combined restrictive and obstructive types of impairments among the subjects were noticed. The respiratory impairment among the workers as a whole was found higher in smelter plant workers (9.44%) followed by the captive power plant workers (5.40%) and the community people (2.35%). In smelter plant workers both the restrictive and obstructive impairments were found higher compared to captive power plant and the community people.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Aluminum/analysis , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Industrial Waste , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure , Smoking , Spirometry/methods , Vital Capacity
12.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2 Suppl): 405-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113831

ABSTRACT

176 chromium-exposed and 30 control subjects were selected for this study. Blood samples (3 ml) were collected for the estimation of chromium. The data on chromium concentration indicated a significant higher level of chromium in the blood of the exposed workers as compared to the control. There was no significant correlation between the mean blood and environmental chromium level. This study suggests that exposure to chromium may have some effect on the health of workers, even though the dose response relationship could not be established between blood chromium and environmental chromium levels. This study suggests that exposure to chromium may have some effect on the health of workers, even though the dose response relationship could not be established between blood chromium and environmental chromium levels. Study also indicates that the environmental levels to Cr are well below the permissible levels at all the sites of the industry at the time of survey even though the blood Cr levels were observed high in 14.8% of workers and some of them were having Cr related morbidity. Therefore, preventive and engineering control measures are suggested to minimize the chromium exposure in the chromium based industry located in Gorwa industrial estate at Baroda, Gujarat. About three months period was taken to complete this study.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Chemical Industry , Chromium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Threshold Limit Values
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114050

ABSTRACT

The gasoline components dispersed in the workplace environment have direct impact on human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. The volatile portion of these compounds generally consists of a mixture of monoaromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and substituted benzene compounds. Investigation of levels of these chemicals at the petroleum liquid storage, and distribution facilities is of growing importance for assessing the occupational exposure of workers at these locations. A continuous monitoring was conducted at the Gantry Terminal of a refinery with portable samplers for determining 8-hr TWA at various locations involving petroleum liquid loading and distribution in road tank trucks, rail cars, and drums. After thermal desorption, the concentrations were determined in the laboratory with advanced Varian Model 2200GC/MS system. TVOCs level ranged between 0.10 to 1.97 mg/m3.The 8-hr TWA for benzene, toluene, and xylenes were low and within the limits for occupational exposure of gasoline components.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Gasoline , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/analysis , India , Occupational Exposure/analysis
14.
J Biosci ; 2003 Feb; 28(1): 61-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111301

ABSTRACT

This study describes the quantitative relationships between early pulmonary responses and the estimated lung-burden or cumulative exposure of respirable-quartz or coal mine dust. Data from a previous bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) study in coal miners (n = 20) and nonminers (n = 16) were used including cell counts of alveolar macrophages (AMs) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Miners' individual working lifetime particulate exposures were estimated from work histories and mine air sampling data, and quartz lung-burdens were estimated using a lung dosimetry model. Results show that quartz, as either cumulative exposure or estimated lung-burden, was a highly statistically significant predictor of PMN response (P < 0.0001); however cumulative coal dust exposure did not significantly add to the prediction of PMNs (P = 0.2) above that predicted by cumulative quartz exposure (P < 0.0001). Despite the small study size, radiographic category was also significantly related to increasing levels of both PMNs and quartz lung burden (P-values < 0.04). SOD in BAL fluid rose linearly with quartz lung burden (P < 0.01), but AM count in BAL fluid did not (P > 0.4). This study demonstrates dose-response relationships between respirable crystalline silica in coal mine dust and pulmonary inflammation, antioxidant production, and radiographic small opacities.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Antioxidants/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cell Count , Coal Mining , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dust/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Linear Models , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumoconiosis/pathology , Quartz/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis
15.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2003; 9 (3): 390-398
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-158176

ABSTRACT

The study compared lung function among 322 workers in pottery, ceramic, stone-cutter and stone-grinder factories in the west of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Concentrations of silica particles <2 microm were measured in the ambient air of factories. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC] were significantly lower in stone-grinders compared with pottery, ceramic or stone-cutter workers and a control group. No difference in lung function was found in pottery and stone-cutter workers with less than 20 years occupation compared with controls. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in stone-grinders was higher than other workers. The concentration of silica particles of stone-grinder factories was 40-110 times higher than in ceramic and potteries factories. More attention is needed to ventilation systems and health care of stone-grinders


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Case-Control Studies , Ceramics , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Cough/etiology , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Sounds/etiology
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 49(3): 190-5, maio-jun. 1999. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-277487

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: a contaminaçäo ambiental por anestésicos inalatórios, CO2 e éter etílico podem ocasionar alguns sintomas de desconforto ocupacional. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a concentraçäo destes compostos, frente à diferentes condiçöes de ventilaçäo no Centro Cirúrgico do Centro de Atençäo Integral à Saúde da Mulher (CAISM), Hospital da UNICAMP. Método: foram colhidas amostras de ar, em diversos locais do Centro Cirúrgico e em diferentes horários do dia. O CO2 foi determinado através de um sistema de Análise por Injeçäo em Fluxo de detecçäo condutométrica, enquanto os compostos orgânicos foram determinados por cromatografia gasosa. A qualidade do ar foi monitorada na primavera, sob duas condiçöes distintas de ventilaçäo: Baixa Taxa de Ventilaçäo (BTV) e Altas Taxas de Ventilaçäo (ATV). Resultados: sob BTV, o CO2 variou entre 703-1973 ppmv e o éter etílico variou entre 5-20 ppmv, enquanto que sob ATV, o CO2 variou entre 428-1596 ppmv e o éter etílico entre 4-13 ppmv. Entre os anestésicos, o isoflurano foi o único detectado, apenas sob BTV, em concentraçöes que variam de 4 a 15 ppmv. Conclusöes: sob ATV, as concentraçöes atmosféricas dos compostos estudados estäo todas abaixo dos níveis máximos. O CO2 pode ser um bom indicativo da qualidade de ar interno de um hospital e útil para se inferir a velocidade de ventilaçäo ambiental


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Carbon Dioxide , Environmental Monitoring , Ether , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Isoflurane , Operating Rooms , Surgery Department, Hospital
19.
Säo Paulo; FUNDACENTRO; abr. 1994. 44 p. ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-135857

ABSTRACT

Este relatório sintetiza os resultados das avaliaçöes ambientais, as conclusöes sobre as condiçöes de exposiçäo e recomendaçöes necessárias para a melhoria das condiçöes de trabalho, neutralizando ou eliminando os riscos de exposiçäo ocupacional a fumos e poeiras metálicas nos setores de fundiçäo, lixamento/polimento e soldagem. Os dados foram obtidos nos dias 01/10 e 01/12/93, com a empresa operando em condiçöes normais de produçäo


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Air Pollution , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Facility Regulation and Control/standards , Security Measures , Toxicology
20.
Salvador; FUNDACENTRO; 1993. 25 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-135871

ABSTRACT

Este relatório tem um caráter preliminar. Objetiva levantar algumas das principais situaçöes e atividades que provocam a exposiçäo ocupacional dos trabalhadores a poeiras em indústrias de cimento, para subsidiar a adoçäo de medidas de controle e incentivar a implantaçäo de um Programa Amplo de Proteçäo da Saúde de todos os trabalhadores da CISAFRA


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Air Pollution , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Facility Regulation and Control/standards , Industry , Occupational Health , Security Measures
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